My Notes

Table of Contents

My Notes

1 Book Notes

1.1 5 Love Languages

Communicate love/respect/friendship to a person in the 'language' they understand - there are 5.

For context, here is an example of when you invite someone over to your place.

  1. Physical touch - Greet them with a handshake, hug, kiss.. whatever is appropriate to your culture and relationship.
  2. Acts of Service - "Can I carry that for you? Can I take your coat?" Offer to help in some way.
  3. Receiving Gifts - Offer them a beverage, food, token, or other thoughtful item.
  4. Quality Time - Give them attention, listen; put away the distractions and focus on their story.
  5. Words of Affirmation - Pay him or her a genuine compliment.

1.2 7 Habits of Highly Effective People

7 Habits of Highly Effective People: Powerful Lessons in Personal Change, by Stephen R. Covey

This book was first published in 1989, and has sold over 25 million copies worldwide in over 40 languages. The 7 habits touted by the book are:

  1. Be Proactive
  2. Begin with the End in Mind
  3. Put First Things First
  4. Think Win-Win
  5. Seek First to Understand, Then to be Understood
  6. Synergize
  7. Sharpen the Saw

1.3 Better Than Before by Gretchen Rubin

Building Foundational Habits

Gretchen Rubin’s newest book is Better Than Before.

In the book, she identifies the habits that she sees as “foundational” for everyone. They are:

  • Sleeping
  • Physical activity
  • Eating and drinking right
  • Uncluttering

These foundational habits can even reinforce one another. According to Gretchen, “Exercise helps people sleep, and sleep helps people do everything better—so they’re a good place to start for any kind of habit change.” But above all else, “somewhat mysteriously, foundation habits make profound change possible” and for this reason they “deserve special priority.”

1.4 Digital minimalism by Cal Newport

## Digital minimalism centers on 3 principles:

  1. Clutter is costly
  2. Optimization is important
  3. Intentionality is satisfying

## Digital Declutter Steps

  1. Put aside a 30 day period where you take a break from optional technologies in your life
    • "Optional" technology is any device, app, or service that you can stop using for 30 days without harming or significantly disrupting the daily flow of your personal or professional life.
    • Establish your own rules regarding how you will deal with technology beforehand
  2. During this time, explore and rediscover activities and behaviors you find satisfying and meaningful
  3. Reintroduce optional technologies into your life starting with a blank slate. For each, determine what value it serves on your life, and how specifically you will use it so as to maximize this value - use this 3 step screen:
    1. it must serve something you deeply value
    2. be the best way for technology to serve this value
    3. have a roller in your life that is constrained by a standard operating procedures specifying when and how you use it

## Solitude

Spend time alone with your thoughts. Some things to consider doing:

  • leave your phone at home
  • take long walks
  • write letters to yourself

## Don't click like

> The philosophy of conversation-centric communication argues that conversation is the only form of interaction that in some sense counts toward maintaining a relationship. This conversation can take the form of a face-to-face meeting, or it can be a video chat or a phone call—so long as it matches Sherry Turkle’s criteria of involving nuanced analog cues, such as the tone of your voice or facial expressions. Anything textual or non-interactive - basically, all social media, email, text, and instant messaging - doesn’t count as conversation and should instead be categorized as mere connection.

To develop relationships, we need conversation not connection - a connection is like text or email - whatever we try to communicate but we're unable to read facial or other contextual cues

  • Don't click like and don't comment on social media - these are not equivalent to a conversation and that is what counts.
  • Consolidated texting - use do not disturb and check texts only intermittently - help value conversation and contact. If urgent, call; important for social but take away from conversation value
  • Hold conversation office hours - always available at 5:30 on weekdays - put aside time to always answer phone from people you want to talk to and promote that time. Also coffee shop hours (sat morning s) or daily walks like Steve jobs

## Reclaim high quality leisure

The Bennett Principle of 3 leisure lessons:

  1. Prioritize demanding activity over passive consumption - craft USA good activity;
  2. Use skills to produce valuable things in the physical world
  3. Seek activities that require real world structure and social interactions

### Work on Your Leisure

  • Fix or build something every week - use YouTube to learn
  • Schedule your low quality leisure - work out when you will check social media, web surfing, and entertainment streaming
  • Join something - like Ben Franklin - join first, then work out details
  • Follow a leisure plan:
    • Create seasonal leisure plans - establish strategic goals and write habits to meet goals
    • Weekly leisure plan - review weekly the seasonal plan progress, review habits for plans

## Join the Attention Resistance

Replace passive interactions with screens with better posture use as a support role

  • Delete social media from your phone - avoid mobile versions as they are designed with slot machine psychology - use only on web browser on your laptop/desktop
  • Turn your devices into single-purpose computers - use tools to block distractions (freedom, etc)
  • Use social media like a professional - Ex:
    • Keep Facebook only for close friends (<150 - Dunbar number)
    • Don't use for entertainment
    • Limit days per week of use
  • Embrace slow media - be purposeful with your news sources and schedule your time for consumption
    • This includes books, newspapers, and podcasts.
  • Dumb down your smartphone
    • Delete unnecessary apps
    • Talk >> Text

1.5 Factfulness (Book Key Takeaways)

The 10 Instincts That Distort Our Perspective:

  1. The Gap Instinct.
    • Our tendency to divide things into two distinct and often conflicting groups with an imagined gap between them (e.g. us and them).
    • Usually there is no gap - usually the majority is there in the middle
    • Beware comparisons of averages.
    • Beware comparisons of extremes.
    • Watch out for the "The view from up here."
  2. The Negativity Instinct.
    • Our tendency to notice the bad more than the good (e.g. believing that things are getting worse when things are actually getting better).
    • To control the negativity instinct, expect bad news.
    • Information about bad events is much more likely to reach us
    • Better and bad. Practice distinguishing between a level (e.g., bad) and a direction of change (e.g., better). Convince yourself that things can be both better and bad.
    • Good news is not news. When you see bad news, ask whether equally, positive news would have reached you.
    • Gradual improvement is not news. When a trend is gradually improving, with periodic dips, you are more likely to notice the dips than the overall improvement.
    • More news does not equal more suffering.
    • Beware of rosy pasts.
  3. The Straight Line Instinct.
    • Our tendency to assume that a line will just continue straight and ignoring that such lines are rare in reality.
    • To control the straight line instinct, remember that curves come in different shapes.
    • Don't assume straight lines. Many trends do not follow straight lines but are S-bends, slides, humps, or doubling lines.
  4. The Fear Instinct.
    • Our hardwired tendency to pay more attention to frightening things.
    • To control the fear instinct, calculate the risks.
    • The world seems scarier than it is because what you hear about it has been selected precisely because it is scary.
    • Risk = danger × exposure. The risk something poses to you depends not on how scared it makes you feel, but on a combination of two things.
    • Get calm before you carry on. When you are afraid, you see the world differently. Make as few decisions as possible until the panic has subsided.
  5. The Size Instinct.
    • Our tendency to get things out of proportion, or misjudge the size of things (e.g. we systematically overestimate the proportions of immigrants in our countries.)
    • To control the size instinct, get things in proportion.
    • Compare. Big numbers always look big. Single numbers on their own are misleading and should make you suspicious. Always look for comparisons. Ideally, divide by something.
    • 80/20. Have you been given a long list? Look for the few largest items and deal with those first. They are likely more important.
    • Divide. Amounts and rates can tell very different stories. Rates are more meaningful, especially when comparing between different-sized groups. In particular, look for rates per person when comparing between countries or regions.
  6. The Generalization Instinct.
    • Our tendency to mistakenly group together things or people, or countries that are actually very different.
    • To control the generalization instinct, question your categories.
    • Look for differences within groups.
    • Look for similarities across groups.
    • Look for differences across groups.
    • Beware of “the majority.” The majority just means more than half. Ask whether it means 51 percent, 99 percent, or something in between.
    • Beware of vivid examples. Vivid images are easier to recall but they might be the exception rather than the rule.
    • Assume people are not idiots. When something looks strange, be curious and humble, and think, In what way is this a smart solution?
  7. The Destiny Instinct.
    • The idea that innate characteristics determine the destinies of people, countries, religions, or cultures; that things are as they are because of inescapable reasons.
    • To control the destiny instinct, remember slow change is still change.
    • Keep track of gradual improvements. A small change every year can translate to a huge change over time.
    • Update your knowledge. Some knowledge goes out of date quickly. Technology, countries, societies, cultures, and religions are constantly changing.
    • Talk to Grandpa. If you want to be reminded of how values have changed, think about your grandparents’ values and how they differ from yours.
    • Collect examples of cultural change. Challenge the idea that today’s culture must also have been yesterday’s, and will also be tomorrow’s.
  8. The Single Perspective.
    • Our tendency to focus on a single cause or perspective when it comes to understanding the world (e.g. forming your worldview by relying on the media, alone).
    • To control the single perspective instinct, get a toolbox, not a hammer.
    • Test your ideas. Don’t only collect examples that show how excellent your favorite ideas are. Have people who disagree with you test your ideas and find their weaknesses.
    • Limited expertise. Don’t claim expertise beyond your field: be humble about what you don’t know. Be aware too of the limits of the expertise of others.
    • Hammers and nails. If you are good with a tool, you may want to use it too often. If you have analyzed a problem in depth, you can end up exaggerating the importance of that problem or of your solution. Remember that no one tool is good for everything. If your favorite idea is a hammer, look for colleagues with screwdrivers, wrenches, and tape measures. Be open to ideas from other fields.
    • Numbers, but not only numbers. The world cannot be understood without numbers, and it cannot be understood with numbers alone. Love numbers for what they tell you about real lives.
    • Beware of simple ideas and simple solutions. History is full of visionaries who used simple utopian visions to justify terrible actions. Welcome complexity. Combine ideas. Compromise. Solve problems on a case-by-case basis.
  9. The Blame Instinct.
    • Our tendency to find a clear, simple reason for why something bad has happened.
    • To control the blame instinct, resist finding a scapegoat.
    • Look for causes, not villains. When something goes wrong don’t look for an individual or a group to blame. Accept that bad things can happen without anyone intending them to. Instead spend your energy on understanding the multiple interacting causes, or system, that created the situation.
    • Look for systems, not heroes. When someone claims to have caused something good, ask whether the outcome might have happened anyway, even if that individual had done nothing. Give the system some credit.
  10. The Urgency Instinct.
    • Our tendency to take immediate action in the face of perceived imminent danger, and in doing so, amplifying our other instincts.
    • To control the urgency instinct, take small steps.
    • Take a breath. When your urgency instinct is triggered, your other instincts kick in and your analysis shuts down. Ask for more time and more information. It’s rarely now or never and it’s rarely either/or.
    • Insist on the data. If something is urgent and important, it should be measured. Beware of data that is relevant but inaccurate, or accurate but irrelevant. Only relevant and accurate data is useful.
    • Beware of fortune-tellers. Any prediction about the future is uncertain. Be wary of predictions that fail to acknowledge that. Insist on a full range of scenarios, never just the best or worst case. Ask how often such predictions have been right before.
    • Be wary of drastic action. Ask what the side effects will be. Ask how the idea has been tested. Step-by-step practical improvements and evaluation of their impact are less dramatic but usually more effective.

Key Takeaways:

  • Don't fall into the misconception that the world is worse off than it is
    • Many people think that there are far more third-world countries than there actually are.
    • Example: In 1965, there were 125 developing countries, while today only 13 countries are considered to be still developing.
  • Our negativity instinct can drive other huge misconceptions
    • The media often focuses on the negative to attract readers’ attention, so many people think the world is much worse off than it used to be, when in fact, the human race has made substantial progress.
    • Example: Many people think much of the world still lives in poverty, while in actuality, only 9% live in poverty compared to 85% in 1800.
  • Be wary of your "straight-line" instinct and your overactive fear instinct
    • The "straight line" instinct is the erroneous tendency to believe anything that is moving in a certain direction will keep moving that way in a linear fashion. Our fear instinct evolved during a time when there were substantially more immediate dangers.
    • Example: The world's population has steadily climbed, causing panic about the future. However, experts forecast the population will level off by the end of the 21st century.
  • Contextualize new information you acquire
    • People tend to overgeneralize data and don’t interpret it within the proper context, which results in much more drastic assumptions than necessary.
    • Example: The statistic that four million babies died last year could make some arrive at a very dark conclusion about the world. However, it's also important to look at this statistic in the context of progress, as 14.4 million babies died in 1950.
  • To see the world accurately, consider multiple perspectives and avoid placing blame
    • Most of the world’s problems are very complex and cannot be solved with a single solution. Progress requires looking at the issue from several angles.
    • Example: Many people blamed refugee drownings in the Mediterranean on traffickers. In reality, host nation laws required trafficker boats be confiscated upon entrance, influencing traffickers’ decision to use poor quality boats.
  • Stick to the facts and don’t exaggerate
    • Much information circulating is exaggerated to sway people’s opinion. But, exaggeration lessens your credibility as soon as your audience discovers you are inflating facts.
    • Example: Climate change is real. However, some doomsday activists have lost support because of their failure to discuss the issue from all angles.

1.6 Find Your Element by Ken Robinson

  • Expose yourself to as many new opportunities as possible to discover your unrealized aptitudes.
  • Strive to have a growth mindset. It will allow you to develop and improve your abilities.
  • Find your passions, things you do without noticing the passage of time.
  • Forge your own path, along with an understanding of your happiness, instead of blindly seeking wealth, immediate gratification, or other people’s definitions of happiness.
  • Don’t plan your life when you’re young because life is unpredictable.
  • Don’t assume you are bad at something because you performed poorly in that subject in school. Standardized tests only measure one kind of human intelligence and schools only cater to a few learning styles.
  • Every person is special and different because of their genetic makeup (every human who ever existed in history has their own genes) and their environment (everyone has their unique mix of family, friends, and location).
  • If you accept you can’t predict or control the future, you will discover many new opportunities.
  • Experiencing positive emotions from your passion reduces stress, chronic pain, and addictions. It also improves sleep and concentration.
  • Finding a group of people who share your passion can be very beneficial, or even necessary, for both you and other members of the group to realize personal goals.

1.7 Getting Things Done by David Allen

  • Focus. When other thoughts enter the mind, record them on an external nearby Thought Bucket.
  • Empty the Thought Bucket weekly and organize it.
  • Remove unimportant items, finish 2-minute tasks, and enter deadlines, or appointments in your calendar.
  • Practice outcome thinking by having a project list that tracks steps leading to desired goals. The most urgent step on the project list goes to the Next Action list.
  • The Next Action list should stay with you at all times so you can choose to act on them when time frees up.
  • The Waiting For list can help expedite things.
  • The Tickler File consists of 31 days and 12 months into the future, and is for time sensitive reminders.
  • The Someday/Maybe list is for ideas in the future that are not concrete projects yet.
  • Set up a functional workplace to create a cockpit of control that eases your mind.
  • Review and update all of your lists weekly.
  • Natural planning turns ambiguous ideas into brainstorming sessions that reduce the fog and provide clarity into actionable steps.
  • Don’t multi-task. Focus 100% of your mental capacity on the task at hand.
  • Our brain’s nature is to think. Thus, thoughts might enter our mind that distract us from the current tasks.
  • Daily to-do lists are inefficient because of their warped view of time.

1.8 How to get Rich - 5 basic rules most millionaires follow

  1. Think long term
    • To calculate weekly expense compounded over 10 years, multiply the price by 752
    • For a monthly expense, multiply by 173
      • ie: $100/mo phone plan - $1200/yr and $17,300 every 10yrs
      • Sacrifice high consumption today for financial independence tomorrow
  2. Live well below your means
    • Frugality is probably the number 1 things most wealthy people have in common. Especially before they become rich.
    • Many millionaires live on something around 10% of income.
    • ie: Student living on 50k: you should rent and only real expense (car) should be less than $5,000.
  3. Know that financial independence is more important than displaying status
    • Leasing a car means you cannot afford it.
    • Stop trying to appear wealthy - it is better to become wealthy
  4. Allocate your time, energy, and money towards building wealth
  5. Have more than 1 source of income
    • Average millionaire has 7 sources of income:
      1. Earned income (salary)
      2. Profit income (business profit)
      3. Rental income (own some real estate)
      4. Royalty/patents income (depends on business)
      5. Capital gain income
      6. Dividend (4% every year on average in index funds)
      7. Interest (lending money to someone else)

1.9 How to read a book

Mortimer J. Adler and Charles Van Doren, the authors of How to Read a Book, suggest you write an analytical book review that follows these four rules once you’ve finished reading:

  1. Classify the book according to subject matter.
  2. State what the whole book is about. Be as brief as possible.
  3. List the major parts in order and relation. Outline these parts as you have outlined the whole.
  4. Define the problem or problems the author is trying to solve.

1.10 How to Win Friends and Influence People by Dale Carnegie

How to Win Friends and Influence People by Dale Carnegie

Fundamental Techniques in Handling People

  • Don't criticize, condemn or complain.
  • Give honest and sincere appreciation.
  • Arouse in the other person an eager want.

Six ways to make people like you

  • Become genuinely interested in other people.
  • Smile.
  • Remember that a person's name is to that person the sweetest and most important sound in any language.
  • Be a good listener. Encourage others to talk about themselves.
  • Talk in terms of the other person's interests.
  • Make the other person feel important - and do it sincerely.

Win people to your way of thinking

  • The only way to get the best of an argument is to avoid it.
  • Show respect for the other person's opinions. Never say, "You're wrong."
  • If you are wrong, admit it quickly and emphatically.
  • Begin in a friendly way.
  • Get the other person saying "yes, yes" immediately.
  • Let the other person do a great deal of the talking.
  • Let the other person feel that the idea is his or hers.
  • Try honestly to see things from the other person's point of view.
  • Be sympathetic with the other person's ideas and desires.
  • Appeal to the nobler motives.
  • Dramatize your ideas.
  • Throw down a challenge.

Be a Leader: How to Change People Without Giving Offense or Arousing Resentment

  • A leader's job often includes changing your people's attitudes and behavior. Some suggestions to accomplish this:
  • Begin with praise and honest appreciation.
  • Call attention to people's mistakes indirectly.
  • Talk about your own mistakes before criticizing the other person.
  • Ask questions instead of giving direct orders.
  • Let the other person save face.
  • Praise the slightest improvement and praise every improvement. Be "hearty in your approbation and lavish in your praise."
  • Give the other person a fine reputation to live up to.
  • Use encouragement. Make the fault seem easy to correct.
  • Make the other person happy about doing the thing you suggest.

1.11 On the edge by Alison Levine

  • Backing up is not backing down
  • Fear is OK, complacency is what will kill you.
  • Build relationships. Networking can save your life
  • Everyone must be a leader
  • Take action based on the situation
  • A single person's poor judgement can bring down the entire team
  • Calm does not mean safe
  • You don't need much clarity to put one foot in front of another
  • A lack of failure tolerance forces people to avoid risks, etc
  • Be relentless


Plan Ahead to move an organization

  • P - Predetermine a course of action
  • L - Lay out your goals
  • A - Adjust your priorities
  • N - Notify key personnel
  • A - Allow time for acceptance
  • H - Head into action
  • E - Expect problems
  • A - Always point to successes
  • D - Daily review your plan

From 21 Irrefutable Laws of Leadership by John Maxwell

1.13 Principles by Ray Dalio

Use Expected Value to make decisions:

  • Probability of success x Reward > Probability of failure x Penalty
    • ie: Taking an umbrella with 40% chance of rain

1.13.1 Embrace reality and deal with it.

We need to face our weaknesses and the difficulties of our situation rather than turning a blind eye towards them. To embrace reality, we need to observe the rules of life and nature. For example, anything in excess becomes unfavorable. To deal with reality, we need to own our outcomes and focus on the things in our control rather than complaining about things outside our control. Principle 2: Use the 5-Step Process to get what you want out of life.

Here’s the 5-Step Process:

  1. Have clear goals.
  2. Identify the problems that stand in your way.
  3. Accurately diagnose the problems to get at their root causes.
  4. Design plans that will get you around them.
  5. Do what’s necessary to push these designs through to results.

1.13.2 Be radically open-minded.

Let go of your ego, which is controlled by the amygdala in your brain. This takes conscious effort, but it does get easier with practice. Being open-minded means instead of focusing on being right, you focus on finding the truth, even if it means you were wrong. It also means having thoughtful and productive disagreements with people rather than emotionally-charged unproductive ones. Principle 4: Understand that people are wired very differently.

Know the strengths and weaknesses of yourself and others. Just as we all have different physical attributes, we also all have different mental attributes. When you know yourself and others, you can better predicate their behavior and how well they will do certain things.

1.13.3 Learn how to make decisions effectively.

Use principles to systematize your decisions. When you have documented principles, you’ll see new situations as “just another one of those” to which you can apply a relevant principle. Logic is your best tool for understanding reality, while the biggest enemy is harmful emotions. For many decisions, we should also seek about other people who are credible on the topic of the decision.

When making decisions, we need to remember to connect the low-level details to the big picture. Never lose sight of why you’re doing something. In terms of getting information, there are typically 5–10 important factors to consider for any decision. Understand those factors really well and don’t waste time on more. The best choices are ones that have more pros than cons, not those that don’t have any cons at all.

1.13.4 Big ideas from this book

  • Pain + Reflection = Progress
  • Have a higher perspective of yourself and the world
  • Success = Meaningful Work + Meaningful Relationships
    • Ikigai dictates that we are fulfilled when we
      1. do what we love
      2. do what we’re good at
      3. help the world
      4. get paid for it
  • Overcome your two barriers to success: Ego and Blind spots
  • Be radically open-minded to be successful
    • Indicators of closed-minded versus open-minded people:
      1. When there’s disagreement, closed-minded people get angry; Open-minded people get curious.
      2. Closed-minded people make statements; Open-minded people ask questions out of curiosity.
      3. Close-minded people focus on being understood; Open-minded people focus on understanding the other person.
      4. Closed-minded people block others from speaking; Open-minded people prefer listening.
      5. Closed-minded people have trouble holding two opposing thoughts in their minds; Open-minded people can take in other people’s thoughts without losing the ability to think well.
      6. Close-minded people are confident that they’re right. Open-minded people fear that they may be wrong.
  • Follow the looping 5-step process to get to success
    1. Set clear goals
    2. Identify the problems that stand in your way
    3. Diagnose root causes to those problems
    4. Design plans to get around those problems
    5. Execute and push through to results
  • Know your objective strengths and weaknesses and those of others
    • Myers-Brigg test
      • Introversion VS Extroversion: Whether people prefer to work quietly alone or talking in groups.
      • Intuitive VS Observant: Intuitive people focus on the big picture; Observant people focuses on details.
      • Thinking VS Feeling: Thinking people focus on logic; Feeling people focus on social harmony.
      • Judging VS Perceiving: Judgers (planners) like to make a plan and stick with it; Perceivers like to focus on the present and adapt to it. They often have trouble appreciating each other.
      • Assertive VS Turbulent: Assertive people are more self-confident and resistant to stress. Turbulent people experience more emotional swings and are always striving to improve themselves.
  • Find people with complementary strengths to help you along the 5-step process
    • Set goals — Visionary, good at high-level thinking and prioritization
    • Look for problems — Detective, good at perceiving and synthesis
    • Find root causes — Logical Analyzer, good at logic
    • Design solutions — Creative Architect, good at practicality and visualization
    • Execute and track progress — Reliable Task Master, good at self-disciple and achieving results
  • Make believability-weighted decisions by considering the credibility of people
  • Use principles to systematize your decision making
  • Navigate levels of a decision effectively

1.14 Project Management

Leading people: People want to matter - they want to make a contribution that matters - demonstrate you value them

Leadership Behaviors to make a difference:

  1. Demonstate respect
  2. Listen first
  3. Clarify expectations
  4. Practice accountability

People + Process = Success

1.14.1 Process Phase 1: Initiate

Authorizing the project

Get a clear set of expectations:

  • Who will this project impact?
  • Who determines succss and what are their expectations?
  • What are the projects limitations?
  • How do you create a shared understanding of the project outcomes?


  1. Identify all stakeholders
  2. Indentify the key stakeholders
  3. Effectively interview the key stakeholders

To find the Key Stakeholoders - DANCE:

  • D - Decisions
    • Make the decisions that control or influence the project budget
  • A - Authority
    • Have the authority to grant permission to proceed with the project
  • N - Need
    • Directly benefit from or are impacted by the project and consequently need to know all about it
  • C - Connections
    • Are connected to the people, money, or resources required to remove readblocks or exert influence to ensure project success
  • E - Energy
    • Have positive or negative energy that could affect project success

Possible Constraints:

  • Scope - The sum of the products, services, and results to be provided
  • Budget - The approved estimate for the project
  • Quality - The degree to which project characteristics fulfill requirements
  • Risk - An uncertain event or condition taht, if it occurs, has an effect (usually negative) on project results
  • Resources - People (individuals or teams), equipment, servies, or supplies needd to fulfill requirements
  • Time - The deadlines by which products, services, and results are to be deliverd

1.14.2 Process Phase 2: Plan

Defining and refining objecties

Impact X Probability = Actual Risk

  • Score each on scale of 0-5
  • High: >=12
  • Medium: 6-10
  • Low: <=5

TAME the Risks:

  • T - Transfer the risk
    • Shift risk to a third party
  • A - Accept the risk
    • Acknowledge the risk and deal with it if it occurs
  • M - Mitigate the risk
    • Reduce the risk probability or impact
  • E - Eliminate the risk
    • Make the risk go away

Create a Project Schedule:

  1. Develop the Work Breakdown Structure (WBS)
    • WBS (decomposing the project): List of deliverables and components that go into each deliverable to complete the project
  2. Sequence activities
    • Activities are the how that gets the what (components) done
    • Decide what activites must be done before, simultaneous, or after other tasks (dependencies)
  3. Identify the project team
  4. Estimate duration of each task
  5. Identify the critical path
  6. Create a project budget

Brainstorm Deliverables:

  1. Mind Maps:
    • Project name in center and write deliverables around the outside
    • Then, make a center circle for each deliverable and write components of each deliverable around the outside
  2. Linear Lists
    • List all activities required to complete each component/deliverable

Types of Dependencies:

  1. Finish to Start - Activities that need to be finished before starting the next one
  2. Start to Start - Activities that overlap
  3. Finish to Finish - Activities that cannot be finished until another is finished

Work does not equal Duration

  • Work is the time needed to accomplish a task
  • Duration is the time needed to get the work done in real life
  • PERT (Program Evaluation and Review Technique) Formula:
    • Estimate Optimistic time
    • Estimate Most likely time
    • Estimate Pessimistic time
    • Expected time = (Optimistic + (4)*Most likely + Pessimistic)/6

1.14.3 Process Phase 3: Execute

Coordinating people and resources to carry out the plan

Team Accountability Sessions:

  1. Focus on the team scoreboard
    • Are we meeting the goal?
    • Are we on schedule?
  2. Report on commitments from last week in a "lightening round"
  3. Make new commitments
    • What can we do this week to move the score forward?

Conversation formula:

  1. Intent
  2. Facts
  3. Impact

1.14.4 Process Phase 4: Monitor and Control

Ensuring that objectives are met

Use a Project Status Report

Control Scope Creep - Scope change control is concerned with:

  • influencing the factors that create scope changes to ensure that changes are agreed upon
  • determining that a scope change has occured
  • managing the actual changes when and if they occur

Address Change Requests:

  • What is the intent of the change?
  • What is the impact?
  • What would be required to make the change happen?

1.14.5 Process Phase 5: Close

Formalizing acceptance of the project

Use a Closing Checklist to finish a project

1.14.6 Quotes   quotes

Manage things. Lead people. - Stephen Covey

Character is who you are under pressure, not when everything is fine - Ritu Ghatoury

1.15 Purple Cow by Seth Godin

  • Take risks at being remarkable, and don’t worry about criticism.
  • Target the people who are both willing to try new things and very vocal at spreading the word to others.
  • Invent the product with marketing.
  • Target and measure your marketing effectively.
  • Don’t emulate the leader, because you’ll never learn the process of turning risks into success.
  • The traditional form of advertising is no longer effective because in today’s overwhelmingly advertised world capturing the consumer’s attention is almost impossible.
  • In today’s crowded marketplace, there is no room for “ordinary.”
  • Being ridiculed can be a good thing, as it spreads word about you and your product.

1.16 Secrets to the millionaire mind

Money Blueprint

T –> F –> A –> = R

  • Thoughts lead to feelings, leads to actions, leads to results.
  • Therefore thoughts trickle to results. Change the roots of your thoughts and the fruits of your actions will soon follow.
  • Your financial blueprint (plan for how money will come and go in your life, what your future will look like, financially) is a combination of thoughts, feelings, and actions.
  • But really there is a pre-programming that occurs in your early life/ upbringing that come from three influences:
    1. verbal (what is said around you about money),
    2. modeling (what you saw while you were raised), and
    3. specific incidents (experiences).

P –> T –> F –> A –> = R

  • Programming influences thoughts which lead to feelings, leads to actions, leads to results.
  • [Note: "When the subconscious mind must choose between deeply rooted emotions and logic, emotions will almost always win."]
  • There is an actual dollar amount for which many of us are programmed (and this can cause limitation).

17 "Wealth Files"

Ways that Rich people (extreme stereotype) think/act differently from middle-class and poor/broke people (extreme stereotype). The thought it commit these to memory so that you have them to draw from when struggling or facing an unwanted, pre-programmed thought emerging. There are also exercises that put the material into practice, but I'll skip those for now; if someone wants them, PM me or get the book.

  • Rich people believe "I create my life." (vs poor: "Life happens to me." Play the role of the victim, justify their circumstances, complain). There is no such thing as a really rich victim.
  • Rich people play the money game to win (vs poor: just don't lose - have enough to pay the bills, or to be comfortable). Goal of rich is to have massive wealth and abundance.
  • Rich people are committed ("to devote oneself unreservedly") to being rich (vs. poor: want to be rich, but have negative thoughts of rich). "The number one reason most people don't get what they want is that they don't know what they want." Rich are fully committed; will do whatever legal, moral, ethical thing that it takes to have wealth.
  • Rich people think BIG (vs poor: small). The Law of Income: You will be paid in direct proportion to the value you deliver according to the marketplace. Your life is not only about you; it is also about contributing to others.
  • Rich people focus on opportunities (vs poor: obstacles). "Rich take responsibility for the results in their lives and act upon the mindset, 'It will work because I will make it work.' " Expect to succeed. Take educated risks; do research without stalling. Focus on what you want; focus on all opportunities.
  • Rich people admire other rich and successful people (vs poor: resent them). Your opinions make no difference about the wealth others have; they are dis-empowering you. Try on these characteristics: positive, reliable, focused, determined, persistent, hardworking, energetic, good with people, competent communicator, semi-intelligent, expert in at least one area. "Bless that which you want."
  • Rich people associate with positive, successful people (vs poor: negative & unsuccessful). The fastest and easiest way to create wealth is to learn from rich people. Energy is contagious: either affect or infect others & visa versa.
  • Rich people are willing to promote themselves and their value (vs poor: negatively view selling). Willing to promote oneself, products, services, and ideas - with passion and enthusiasm. Rich people are usually leaders and great leaders are great promoters. Leaders earn more than followers. You need to believe in your own value and what you have to offer people.
  • Rich people are bigger than their problems (vs poor: smaller & try to avoid problems). Secret to success is to grow yourself so that you are bigger than any problem. To move to the next level of success, become conscious of what is going on in your life; don't focus on the problem, focus on the size of you. The bigger problems you can handle, the bigger business, more employees, more responsibility, the more money & wealth you can handle. Focus on the goal. If you are unstoppable, anything and everything is available to you; choose it.
  • Rich people are excellent receivers (vs poor: poor receivers). Your feelings of unworthiness won't prevent you from getting rich; worthiness is just a "story." "If you say you're worthy, you are." Giving and receiving are two sides of the same coin (so "giving is better than receiving"–NO).; for every giver there must be a receiver. Not receiving can actually deny the giver of joy and pleasure. Rich people are more willing to receive. Rain doesn't care who gets it, neither does money. Rich believe in being well-rewarded for their efforts. "Money will make you more of what you already are."
  • Rich people choose to get paid based on results (vs poor: based on time). "There's nothing wrong with getting a steady paycheck, unless it interferes with your ability to earn what you're worth." Rich people believe in themselves and their ability to deliver. Never have a ceiling to your income.
  • Rich people think 'both' (vs poor: either/or). Rich people live in a world of abundance, the best of both worlds (even if it takes a little creativity). You can have your cake and eat it too. Money can be used over and over (passed on, maybe, but not depleted).
  • Rich people focus on their net worth (vs poor: working income). Millionaires ask & talk about net worth, financial value of everything you own, not "how much do you make?" Huge distinction - four net worth factors: 1. Income, working or passive; 2. Savings, keep some to actually create wealth; 3. Investments, the better you are, the faster your money will grow; 4. Simplification, consciously create a lifestyle with a lower cost of living so more is available for saving and investing. "Where attention goes, energy flows, and results show." Track your net worth.
  • Rich people manage their money well (vs poor: mismanage money). Wealthy people are not any smarter, have more supportive money habits. Money management promotes financial freedom. The habit of handling is more important the amount you are handling. Practice allocation: 10% into Financial Freedom account (only for investments and passive-income), 10% into "play" account, 10% into Long-Term Savings, 10% into Education (self improvement included), 50% into Necessities (cost of living), 10% into Give.
  • Rich people have their money work hard for them (vs poor: work hard for money). Money is energy; you can put in work energy or substitute investment energy to get money energy out of what you put in. "You become financially free when your passive income exceeds your expenses." Rich people think long-term, earning money for their investments to pay for their future. Generally buying for immediate gratification is an attempt to make up for dissatisfaction in life. "Rich people see every dollar as a 'seed' that can be planted to earn a hundred more dollars, which can be replanted to earn a thousand more dollars."
  • Rich people act in spite of fear (vs poor: let fear stop them). "Action is the 'bridge' between the inner world and the outer world." Don't wait for fear to subside. "The only time you are actually growing is when you are uncomfortable." Get out of your comfort zone, expand your opportunity zone, to move into a different wealth zone. "Training and managing your own mind if the most important skill you could ever own, in terms of both happiness and success."
  • Rich people constantly learn and grow (vs poor: think they already know). "Success is a learnable skill. Rich people understand the order to success is BE, DO, HAVE." Learn from those who have already been where you want to go.

1.17 Start With Why by Simon Sinek

  • Think inside out (starting with why), not outside in (starting with what). Communicate the why as it fosters a sense of belonging.
  • The goal is to do business with people who believe what you believe.
  • People don’t buy what you do, they buy why you do it. What you do simply proves what you believe.
  • Excited employees and customers who believe in your cause are the most powerful resources an organization can have.
  • Financial incentives or punishments do not motivate people on a deep and emotional level.
  • Customer manipulation may work in the short term, but it doesn’t foster trust and is ultimately counterproductive.
  • The Golden Circle consists of three concentric circles. The what is the outer layer, the how is middle layer, and the why is the core.
  • Making profit is a result of the what and the how, not the why.
  • The Law of Diffusion on innovation breaks down to 2.5% innovators, 13.5% early adapters, 34% early majority, 34% late majority and 16% laggards. If you want mass-market success, you have to achieve a 15–18% tipping point.
  • The early majority won’t accept something until early adapters have tried it and accepted it, and you won’t get early adapters until they believe in what you have.

1.18 The 4 Agreements

The Four Agreements: A Practical Guide To Personal Freedom, by Miguel Ruiz

According to author Miguel Ruiz, four agreements in life are fundamental steps on the path to freedom:

  1. Be impeccable with your word.
  2. Don’t take anything personally.
  3. Don’t make assumptions.
  4. Always do your best.

1.19 The 4-Hour Workweek by Tim Ferriss

  • Aim high so you can create your own reality and write your own rules.
  • Step outside of your comfort zone and take action now.
  • Try to gain the freedom of remote working within your current job.
  • Be effective on the job by working on things with the goal of gaining remote work.
  • The 80/20 rule applies with work: 20% of work will bring 80% of results. So, focus on being productive instead of busy.
  • Time is money. Remove things that reduce your effectiveness at the job.
  • Rate the importance of a task by asking yourself, “If this is the only thing I do today, would I be happy with today?”
  • Finish your high priority items before noon.
  • Address email and voicemail messages after completing the high priority tasks are done. Then bundle tasks to finish them.
  • Have others play by your communication rules.
  • Set up an automatic source of income by outsourcing everything. The key is to use as little of your time as possible.
  • Have open communication and do not let your input be a requirement in the business process.
  • Delegate as much responsibility as possible.
  • Validate and test your products before selling. Set up an online store with out-of-stock items and an A/B testing ad campaign.
  • Establish credibility in your product category.
  • Appear bigger; because people trust larger companies.
  • Be picky about your customers. The 20/80 rule applies. Top 20% of your customers will be responsible for 80% of revenue, so attend to them.
  • Go premium with your product because premium quality brings higher profit and customer quality.
  • Don’t lie to yourself and think that when staying within your comfort zone, things will magically be okay.
  • Don’t start your day by checking emails.
  • A fulfilling life can be achieved by being mobile and flexible. This means that you can do whatever you like, whenever you like.
  • Moderate, automatic income you can manage anywhere around the world allows for the mobility required for the lifestyle you truly want.
  • The worst-case scenario from making a decision is usually not as bad as you think.
  • Five steps to independence:
    1. start with a full time 9–5 job;
    2. move to a full time remote 9–5 job;
    3. gain efficiency to reduce 9–5 tasks to 9–1;
    4. use other time to automate alternative income;
    5. quit old job and live on alternative income.

1.20 The Four Tendencies (Book Key Takeaways)


  • Upholders respond well to both expectations from themselves and from others
    • Upholders are excellent at following orders reliably and at maximizing productiveness.
    • Example: Upholders will get 100% of their work done and follow doctor’s orders to a T, but the risk is that they may blindly follow bad rules rather than question them.
  • Upholders need clear instructions and patience from others
    • Upholders can get frustrated if they don’t understand what is expected of them and may have difficulty accepting change.
    • Example: If you work with upholders, check in to make sure expectations are clear and be patient in situations that require the upholder to change.


  • Questioners are excellent at meeting their own goals but may need convincing to work towards others’ goals
    • Questioners often ask why, which means they are excellent innovators, but they are at risk of “analysis paralysis.”
    • Example: A questioner will perform days of research to identify the best washing machine instead of purchasing one quickly based on a friend’s recommendation.
  • Questioners need clear justification before they will act, and hate being questioned
    • If you disagree with a questioner, you should be thorough and compelling.
    • Example: A questioner will be much more willing to discuss an issue if you phrase your question as “How did you come to this conclusion?” instead of “Why did you do that?”


  • Obligers have no trouble living up to external expectations but struggle to meet their own expectations
    • Obligers often make the best workers but they require outside accountability.
    • Example: An obliger with a messy home may purposefully invite people over to create external pressure to clean up because they won’t do it on their own.
  • Many obligers feel ashamed they have to resort to others
    • Obligers often repress their own needs, which can hurt self-esteem.
    • Example: Obliger rebellion such as outbursts or acts of sabotage often occur when they become frustrated from helping others too much and failing to meet their own needs.


  • Rebels reject expectations from others and struggle to help themselves
    • To motivate a rebel, don’t tell them what to do. They must feel they have a choice.
    • Example: When possible, try to offer the rebel different options and explain the consequences of each one.
  • Rebels can frustrate themselves
    • Rebels may struggle to consistently exercise because they feel they are conforming.
    • Example: Many rebels respond well to reverse psychology bets like “I bet you can’t eat well for a whole week.”


  • Knowing your own and others’ tendencies can help you succeed in all aspects of life
    • Understanding how you and others respond to expectations can help you be strategic.
    • Example: A great leader knows how each person on their team responds to expectations and formulates their approach accordingly.


1.21 The Hoarder in You

Tendencies common in those who struggle with hoarding

  1. Do you have a hard time parting with items, even if you never use them or they're broken?
  2. Do you have many items around your house that do not have a permanent home?
  3. Do you tend to make piles of things to be dealt with at a future time and these piles tend to linger more than a few days?
  4. Are there areas in your home that must be cleared off before use of their intended purpose (like dining room table)?
  5. Do you save things often because you are concerned about how you will feel if you need them in the future and no longer have them
  6. Do you often save things without a clear idea of how you will use them in the future?
  7. Do you still have items you once bought with the intention of giving them away as gifts?
  8. Do you have boxes of possessions that have moved with you from home to home but you hvae never gone through?
  9. Do you often buy multiples of the same item because you forgot you have it?
  10. Are you helpless when faced with a good deal even if it is a good deal on something you don't need?
  11. Do you take free things that you never wind up using?

Helpful things to say to a clutterer:

  1. I know this is hard for you
  2. Let me know how I can help
  3. You don't have to fix this problem overnight
  4. Let's find ways to simplify the process
  5. Don't look at the big picture, take baby steps
  6. When you get overwhelmed, take a break and remember the goal is to live a healthier life
  7. We are a team
  8. Help me understand where you have the most difficulty
  9. What things are important to you in your home
  10. Let me know how I can best support you - you are in charge of how this process of decluttering goes

Ways clutter can cause stress:

  1. It's hard to locate the things you need when you need them
  2. Being unable to locate important papers can result in major setbacks and financial penalties
  3. Arguments over mess can strain your relationships with family members
  4. You spend money on things you already own because you forgot you have them or cannot find them
  5. Looking at a pile of bills or any mess is a reminder of chores that need to be done
  6. A cluttered bedroom is difficult to relax in and can affect the quality of your sleep your intimate life
  7. Keeping too many reminders from your past can distract you from living in the present
  8. A cluttered room can overstimulate your senses and can cause you to feel anxious or unable to relax
  9. Having to move things around in order to use your space effectively, like clearing off the table, wastes time and creates extra work
  10. Reluctance to invite people into your home because it isn't neat can lead to social isolation

Remember: It's not a good deal, no matter how inexpensive it is, if you are not going to use it, if you already have something like it at home, or if it takes up space.

Ways to avoid bringing more clutter into your home

  1. Don't fall for freebie's
  2. Shop for your goal - remember your long-term goal to resist impulse shopping
  3. Shop the perimeter - The items you truly need are usually on the outer isles
  4. Stick with your brand - If you like your phone, there is no need to try out a competitor
  5. Give away gifts - You don't need to keep things just because they are a gift
    • Keep
    • Re-gift
    • Return
    • Donate

People do not respond to nagging or adversarial arguments.

Cleaning up clutter:

  • Need heavy duty black, not clear, garbage bags, and 3 boxes
    • Keep box
    • Recycle box
    • Donate box
  • If you can't decide or want to decide late, you probably do not need it

Steps to clean up clutter:

  1. Start with the easiest room first
  2. Determine how long you will work on the room - don't work beyond you tolerance level
  3. Pluck and Purge - scan the room for easy decision items to get started
  4. Break up the room
  5. Stay on task - Once you pick up an item, you must do something with it
    • Put it away where it belongs or in the keep box
    • If donating - into donation box
    • If recycling - into recycling box
    • Otherwise, it probably needs to be thrown out
    • Avoid leaving the room you are working in - make a pile by the door for things that go outside the room and when time is up, then put away those items by the door
  6. When done, either move on to next task or save to the next purging time
  7. Act on the 3 boxes
    • Seal the boxes
    • Put where they belong - car for donation, trash, etc
  8. Acknowledge the progress made and give yourself credit - This won't happen overnight
  9. Reward yourself - read a book, watch a movie, see a friend, etc
  10. The Ohio Rule: Only handle items once! If you pick up an item, it must go where it belongs, into one of the boxes, or in the trash.

1.22 The Innovator’s Dilemma by Clayton Christensen

  • Have two innovation incubation models for an established firm.
  • Observe how customers are actually using the product.
  • Have discovery-driven planning that is adaptable to various factors of change.
  • Be creative at finding the right customers who can directly benefit from your innovation, rather than a large, less targeted market.
  • Expect trial and error so that a new organization can fail early and without great expense.
  • Don’t develop products and services based on what customers say they would like.
  • Don’t innovate in a singular quality such as performance oversupply. What does innovation look like in functionality, reliability, convenience, and price?
  • Established and entrant firms bring different types of innovations to market.
  • Established firms bring sustaining innovations to maintain market positions and profit margins. However, they still lose market dominance because of their focus on sustaining profits while ignoring new markets brought by disruptive technologies.
  • Knowing what customers want through surveys, focus groups, and interviews is good at incremental improvement, but not effective at creating the next thing.
  • A tunnel-vision chasing of profit margin should be moderated with long term expectations.
  • The difficulty of predicting emerging markets means an established company can’t justify the investment. Consequently, they usually miss out on disruptive technologies and the emerging market that comes with it.
  • Sometimes firms are too inflexible with its Resources/Processes/Values (RPV) framework to adapt to changing conditions.
  • Theoretical models for innovation rarely work in the real world.
  • Disruptive innovations are usually variations on existing technologies that open up a new customer base.
  • The best way for an established company to take advantage of a disruptive technology is to create or acquire an organization that is small but utilizes flexible processes.

1.23 The Lean Startup by Eric Ries

  • Focus the whole team on finding a sustainable business model. The faster the model is found, the likelier the start-up is to succeed.
  • Learn through a scientific approach, constantly validating your findings.
  • Validate your hypotheses by speaking with real customers.
  • Move from believing to knowing by testing the value and growth hypotheses of your product.
  • Test the demand of your product by building a minimal viable product.
  • Establishing the build-measure-learn cycle as fast as possible will get you to your sustainable business model quickly.
  • Split-test all your features to distinguish what would be valuable to your customers and what would be a waste of time.
  • Pick an engine of growth (sticky, viral, or paid) and focus.
  • You must examine the right metric, not superficial metrics that don’t help you towards your goal.
  • Traditional strategies cannot manage start-ups because start-ups lack a history.
  • Don’t be afraid of pivoting your fundamental core assumptions.
  • The main goal for a start-up is to find and build a sustainable business model.
  • Value hypothesis assumes early adopters will accept a product.
  • Growth hypothesis assumes a product will appeal to a larger group of people later.

1.24 The Organized Mind: Thinking Straight in the Age of Information Overload by Dr. Daniel Levitin

The Organized Mind: Thinking Straight in the Age of Information Overload by Dr. Daniel Levitin

  1. Take breaks.
    • One study showed overtime workers suffer from profound diminishing returns—for every extra hour, they achieved only 20 minutes’ worth of work.
  2. Set up different computer monitors for different activities.
  3. Embrace a (modified) paper to-do list.
  4. File correspondence in multiple ways.
  5. Purge, when needed.
  6. Designate time for short tasks and longer projects.
    • Instead of reviewing your inbox every time you get a new message alert, allocate only a couple blocks of time each day to respond to all your messages.
  7. Don’t spend more time on a decision than it’s worth.
    • A CEO won’t take an hour to decide whether to switch office supply companies in order to save a couple dollars.
  8. Sleep, and nap on the job.
  9. Don’t over-organize.
  10. Leave work at work.

1.25 The Righteous Mind

The 5 Moral Foundations:

  1. Harm/Care
  2. Fairness/Reciprocity
  3. In-group/Loyalty
  4. Authority/Respect
  5. Purity/Sanctity

Jonathan Haidt (The Righteous Mind)

1.26 The Seven Habits of Highly Effective People by Stephen Covey

  • Effectively integrating into the world means aligning personal paradigms with universal principles.
  • “Sharpen the Saw” to stay effective. Stay physically fit by exercising. Stay mentally healthy by learning new things. Stay socially and emotionally engaged by developing positive relationships. Maintain spiritual health by confronting and reflecting on your own values.
  • Be proactive and take control of your own fate.
  • Begin with the end in mind and set long term goals with an understanding of your personal mission statement.
  • Visualize the outcome of every step toward your goal so it will be easier to translate into concrete actions.
  • “Put First Things First” by prioritizing things that bring you toward your goals and are consistent with your values or norms.
  • Practice the Win-Win mentality. It will create good relationships, mutual trust, and long term benefits.
  • Forming stable relationships means listening empathetically to others and understanding their personal paradigms so you can contribute and invest in their goals.
  • Engage in active listening by repeating back people’s own words, mirroring their emotions, and helping structure their thought processes.
  • Synergize with others by cooperating openly and respectfully. Collectives can achieve a result that is impossible for an individual.
  • Don’t say yes to everything.
  • Don’t view the world from a Win-Lose, competitive perspective.
  • To change, you have to address your character, not your behavior.
  • Our paradigms are our subjective perception of the world that shapes our habits.
  • If you want to be able to influence others, first seek to understand. Only then can you be understood.

1.27 Tipping Point by Malcolm Gladwell

  • To spread an idea, you must make sure it sticks first. It has to be something special, catchy, unique, and remarkable to cut through the market noise.
  • Keep the group smaller than 150 if the goal is to effectively spread a message.
  • The spread of ideas is similar in behavior to the spread of epidemics.
  • The tipping point is when ideas spread from an initial niche user base into the mass majority.
  • A select few types of people are generally responsible for ideas to spread: connectors, salesmen, and mavens.
  • External elements influence our behavior. Such influence is generally greater than what we perceive it to be.
  • Small changes in context caused by external elements can have a big ripple effect.

1.28 Ultramarathon Man

  • Diet:
    • No refined sugars
    • Low carbs
    • Low saturated fats
  • 40% carbs
  • 30% protein
  • 30% fats
    • 5% saturated
    • 5% polyunsaturated
    • 90% monounsaturated

Eliminate white sugar, white flour, white shortening

  • Daily ex:
    • 6 sets of 12 pullups
    • 3 sets of 30 dips
    • 4 sets of 50 pushups

1.29 Your Money or Your Life by Joe Dominguez

Establish the actual cost in time and money required to maintain your job, and compute your real hourly wage.


  • Deduct from your weekly income the costs of getting to and from work; the cost of the clothes you buy to wear at work; the extra cost of at-work meals; the amount spent to relax and wind down after the stress of a work day; job-related illness; and all other expenses associated with maintaining you on the job.
  • Add to your work week the hours spent in preparing yourself for work, travel to and from work, the time taken to wind down at home after work, recreation need after work as a means of winding down, shopping to make you feel better since your job feels lousy, and all other hours linked with maintaining your job.
  • Divide the new, reduced weekly dollar figure by the new, increased weekly hour figure;this is your real hourly wage.
  • Individuals with variable incomes can get creative — take monthly averages, a typical week, whatever works for you.

You are in the business of selling the most precious resource in existence — your life energy. You had better know how much you are selling it for.

The number that results from this step — your real hourly wage — will become a vital ingredient in transforming your relationship with money.

The book offers examples of the cost and hours we spend that are directly related to having a job:

  • Travelling to and from work could cost $50 a week and take you 7.5 hours.
  • Annual cost of clothing for work, divided by 50 weeks, $15 a week.
  • Time per week dressing and preparing for work, 1.5 hours.
  • Cost of work related meals, coffee breaks, lunches, $20 a week.
  • Time per week of meals and breaks at work, 5 hours.
  • Many people arrive home tired and drained, it takes many people about an hour a day to relax after they get home, so per week, 5 hours.

Three Questions That Will Transform Your Life:

  1. Did I receive fulfillment, satisfaction and value in proportion to life energy spent?
  2. Is this expenditure of life energy in alignment with my values and life purpose?
  3. How might this expenditure change if I didn’t have to work for a living.

Learn and practice intelligent use of your life energy (money) which will result in lowering your expenses and increasing your savings. This will create greater fulfillment, integrity and alignment in your life:

  • Ask the three questions in Step 4 every month.
  • Learn to define your true needs.
  • Be conscious in your spending.
  • Master the techniques of wise purchasing. Research value, quality and durability.

Checklist: Think Before You Spend

  • Don’t shop.
  • Live within your means.
  • Take care of what you have.
  • Wear it out.
  • Do it yourself.
  • Anticipate your needs.
  • Research value, quality, durability, and multiple use.
  • Get it for less.
  • Buy used.
  • Follow the steps of this program.


1.30 Zero to One by Peter Thiel

  • Think about the future as a definitive vision. This is a vision you want to focus on and attain.
  • When thinking about the future, think about the progress which stands between now and the future.
  • Finding ideas most people don’t know about, or agree with, is key to being successful.
  • First aim to be a profitable monopoly at a specific and narrowly defined target market, then expand to other markets.
  • The initial team members are critical. You must find the right mix of skills, vision, and personal connections with each other. This makes it easier to foster a strong company culture.
  • Have balanced owner interests to avoid future misalignments that may cause the company to suffer.
  • Two types of progress bridge the now and the future: horizontal progress (one to n) and vertical progress (zero to one).
  • Vertical progress is hard because it does not exist yet. It requires you to see the present differently. It also requires you to find a truth most people don’t see or agree with.
  • A startup has only one specific future vision leading to success. One must parse decisions relevant to specific conditions.
  • Perfect competition is good for consumers, but it does not drive progress.
  • Real progress, the zero to one type of vertical progress, usually results in monopolies. That means you’re producing something much better than everyone else is.
  • Sales and distribution is vital because your products will never sell themselves. Optimize your sales effort per distribution point to include various sales strategies.
  • Founders tend to be strange people. However, the vision they have is indispensable because the decisions are made to realize that original vision.

2 Communication

2.1 3 short – life changing sentences:

  1. I don’t know.
  2. I was wrong.
  3. Please forgive me.

2.2 3 Tips to Have Better Conversations

Be genuine. Be interested. And stop hogging the conversation.

  1. Know the three tiers of conversations
    1. Tier one is safe territory: sports, the weather, pop culture, local celebrities and any immediate shared experience.
    2. Tier two is potentially controversial: religion, politics, dating and love lives. “Test the waters, and back away if they’re not interested,” one expert told Jen.
    3. Tier three includes the most intimate topics: family, finance, health and work life. “Some people love to talk about what they do and their kids, but don’t ask a probing question until the door has been opened,” said Daniel Post Senning, an etiquette expert and the great-great-grandson of Emily Post.
  2. Be more interested to be more interesting
  3. Don't be a conversation hog
    • Try these tips:
      • Be attentive and give eye contact.
      • Make active and engaged expressions.
      • Repeat back what you've heard, and follow up with questions.
      • If you notice something you want to say, don't say it. Challenge it and go back to listening.
      • For bonus points, wait an hour to bring up that thing you didn't say earlier.
    • And keep in mind that when you say something declarative, seek out the other person's opinion as well.

2.3 3x3x3 perspective that we use at LEANSTACK to connect our vision, strategy and product decisions

I’m sure you’ve run into Simon Sinek’s TED talk on the Golden Circle where he made the case for how great leaders communicate differently — leading first with their why (or purpose), then describing their how (or unique value proposition), and finally describing what they do.

  1. First, get your why in order
    • When thinking about your why, it helps to deconstruct your goal into 2 parts: your purpose and your minimum success criteria
    • OKR stands for objectives and key results and it’s a goal setting framework
    • Qualitative: Why do you exist?
    • Quantitative: How will you measure this impact?
    • Your minimum success criteria is the smallest outcome that would deem your project a success 3 years from now.
      • I find 3 years to be the right length of time to get most ideas past product/market fit and into early scaling which is about as far as we can meaningfully attempt to forecast. This is the first “3” in the 3x3x3 perspective.
  2. Next, formulate possible hows for achieving your why
    • I recommend timeboxing all your strategies to 90 days or 3 months which is the maximum amount of time you give to drive a pivot (change course), persevere (double-down), or reset (kill the strategy) decision. This is the second “3” in the 3x3x3 perspective.
    • Example:
      • Qualitative: Achieve Problem Solution Fit
      • How: Use a mafia offer (problem/solution interviews)
      • Quantitative: Start 30/trials a month
      • Timebox: 3 months
  3. Finally, test your hows iteratively
    • The Lean Startup really shines at testing big ideas using small and fast additive experiments using the build-measure-learn loop.
      • You need to prioritize your experiments based on where you are with respect to your roadmap, and continuously adjust your experiments based on the learning feedback loop from your experiments and metrics.
    • For this reason, we only sketch high-level validation plan briefs at the outset for our 3-month strategies and leave the actual details to reveal themselves during our 3-week lean sprint iterations. Yes, this is the final “3” in the 3x3x3 perspective.

So when baselining your own progress story, consider these 3 perspectives:

  1. What is your 3-year ballpark goal — purpose and minimum success criteria?
  2. What is your 3-month goal and how do you envision getting there — validation plan and strategy?
  3. What are you going to do in the next 3 weeks to test your strategies — experiment and lean sprints?
  4. You only have ~48 sprints to go from idea to early scale which goes by a lot quicker than you expect. So make sure you make each one count.

So when baselining your own progress story, consider these 3 perspectives:

  • Vision
    • Why
    • What is your 3-year ballpark goal — purpose and minimum success criteria?
  • Strategy
    • How
    • What is your 3-month goal and how do you envision getting there — validation plan and strategy?
  • Product
    • What
    • What are you going to do in the next 3 weeks to test your strategies — experiment and lean sprints?


2.4 4 short sentences to help others find solutions:

  1. What might work?
  2. Who might know?
  3. Tell me more.
  4. And what else?

2.5 5 short sentences that ignite forward movement:

  1. What’s next?
  2. Why wait?
  3. Do it now.
  4. Go for it.
  5. What’s stopping you?

2.6 5 Tips for Giving a Persuasive Presentation   edit

When you need to sell an idea at work or in a presentation, how do you do it? Five rhetorical devices can help — Aristotle identified them 2,000 years ago, and masters of persuasion still use them today:

  1. Ethos. Start your talk by establishing your credibility and character. Show your audience that you are committed to the welfare of others, and you will gain their trust.
  2. Logos. Use data, evidence, and facts to support your pitch.
  3. Pathos. People are moved to action by how a speaker makes them feel. Wrap your big idea in a story that will elicit an emotional reaction.
  4. Metaphor. Compare your idea to something that is familiar to your audience. It will help you clarify your argument by making the abstract concrete.
  5. Brevity. Explain your idea in as few words as possible. People have a limited attention span, so talk about your strongest points first.

This tip is adapted from “The Art of Persuasion Hasn’t Changed in 2,000 Years,” by Carmine Gallo


2.7 6 Aspects of Great Feedback

  1. Be Specific
  2. Be Immediate
  3. Tie Feedback to Goals
  4. Ensure Feedback Is Actionable
  5. Use the Right Language
  6. Don’t Avoid It

2.8 7 Short questions to help others reflect

  1. If you could?
  2. What isn’t working?
  3. What worked best?
  4. What’s the purpose?
  5. What energizes you?
  6. What drains you?
  7. What matters now?

2.9 7 Things to Say When a Conversation Turns Negative

  1. Reframe — Cast the issue in a different light.
  2. Rephrase — Say the words in a different, less negative way.
  3. Revisit — Use an earlier success to redefine a current failure.
  4. Restate — Clarify or redirect negative wording.
  5. Request — Ask a question.
  6. Rebalance — Adjust the other person’s power.
  7. Reorganize — Change the priority of the issues.

2.10 7 Tips to Strike Up Conversation with Anyone

Malavika Varadan shares a few things she’s learned having to chat with guests on her radio show. Here are her suggestions, which you can also use in virtually any situation.

  1. Focus on the first word. Get over your nerves by focusing on just getting your greeting out. Malavika makes a good point, “What’s the worst that could happen? They won’t talk to you? Well, they aren’t talking to you now.”
  2. Ask a non-standard question. You want to spark an interesting discussion, which means you need to ask an interesting question. This moves you away from the usual boring topics and onto something you’re both more enthusiastic to chat about.
  3. Find common ground to bond over. Conversation goes a lot easier when you both feel you’re on the same wavelength. Maybe you both like the same kind of music or workout class. Whatever it is, finding a common interest helps you create a connection.
  4. Give them a unique compliment. Paying someone a genuine compliment is a well-known way to start conversation. To really catch someone’s attention, make sure your compliment isn’t one they hear all the time. For example, tall people know they’re tall, find something else to compliment them on.
  5. Solicit their opinion. Asking someone for their opinion gives them an easy response and can help them open up to you.
  6. Give them your full attention. Checking your phone or glancing around the room to see who else is there are habits that are hard to break, but being present in the conversation creates a bond between you and the other person.
  7. Reference their personal details when relevant. As the other person reveals more about themselves, try to remember personal details. This could be as simple as using their name or could be a good way to continue the conversation. For example, if they mentioned their significant other and there’s a lull, you could ask what their significant other does or how they met.

2.11 7 ways to make difficult conversations easy

  1. Keep calm. Don’t turn it into Godzilla vs. Rodan.
  2. Treat’em like a child. You can’t talk them out of emotional outbursts and getting angry over it does nothing good.
  3. Say "Please speak more slowly. I’d like to help." Slow it down. Don't come off like you're fighting back.
  4. Ask "What would you like me to do?" You gotta make'em start thinking in order turn off the rage machine.
  5. Don't make statements. Ask questions. Explaining is veiled dominance. Questions get them thinking.
  6. Start sentences with "I'd like…" not "You are…" If you start with "I" it's hard to be seen as attacking.
  7. Let them have the last word. Don't let your ego blow it at the last minute.

2.12 9 questions for having great conversations

  1. What excites you right now?
  2. What are you looking forward to?
  3. What's the best thing that's happened to you this year?
  4. What's the most important thing I should know about you?
  5. What's your story?
  6. What is one of your defining moments?
  7. Why did you choose your profession?
  8. What are you currently reading?
  9. How can I be most helpful to you right now?

2.13 Avoid these words

  • Really
    • Why: It is vague
    • Do instead: Omit the word
  • Things / stuff
    • Why: It is not specific
    • Do instead: Define what it is
  • I believe / I feel / I think
    • Why: It is not confident
    • Do instead: Remove … Don't say it
  • Was / is /are / am
    • Why: It is passive voice
    • Do instead: Make it active voice
  • Very
    • Why: It is unnecessary
    • Do instead: Replace

2.14 Be BRIEF

Guideline for email responses.

  • B (Background): Provide a quick context—what prompted the update?
  • R (Reason): Explain why you're speaking now—why should they pay attention?
  • I (Information): Provide two to three key nuggets of information you want to share. What are the bullet points of the conversation?
  • E (End): Decide on what note you want to leave the conversation. In this case, you may want to end by telling the CEO what you will do to get the project back on track.
  • F (Follow-up): Consider the questions you anticipate the CEO will ask you when you finish speaking and prepare answers in advance.

2.15 Become A Better Listener

  1. Listen to Learn, Not to Be Polite
  2. Quiet Your Agenda
  3. Ask More Questions
  4. Pay Attention to Your Talk/Listen Ratio
  5. Repeat Back What You Heard
  6. Actually Wait Until Someone is Done Talking Before You Respond

2.16 BIFF Responses

  • B: Brief
  • I: Informative
  • F: Friendly
  • F: Firm

Protect yourself and your reputation by responding quickly and civilly to people who treat you rude while being reasonable in return.

2.17 Could >> Should

  • "Should" traps us into searching for that one right answer
  • "Could" opens our minds to creative possibilities.

2.18 DISC to manage personalities

Four behavioral profiles stand out.

  1. Dominance - a behavior that shapes the environment, overcoming opposition to achieve results. Motivated by winning, competition and success. Negative traits may include speaking loudly, interrupting, direct emails, poor at reading emotions, and they may be surprised if directness is perceived as unkind. Lead "high Ds" by being direct and concise. Motivation should lie in giving them opportunities to work independently, setting their own goals and encouragement of big-picture ambitions. Improvement areas may include patience, sensitivity and allowing deliberation
  2. Influence - Influencers shape the environment by persuasion. Motivated by social recognition, group activities and relationships. May tend to turn work events into social gatherings and are eager to talk. May jump from subject to subject or take longer than most to get the point across. Communication with “high Is” should be through engaged listening while keeping them on task. Put details in writing, and deliver praise publicly. Help them improve by working on follow-through, speaking candidly and staying focused for long periods.
  3. Steadiness - emphasize cooperation with others in the existing environment to reach goals. Eager to help and emphasize sincere appreciation. Excellent listeners, but not highly expressive, not easily excitable and are calm. They tend to avoid unfamiliar topics. "High Ss" are agreeable, supportive and reserved. Communicate with the S by allowing time for small talk, listening closely and responsively and avoiding being demanding or forceful. Avoid rushing results, provide collaboration opportunities, and work on assertiveness, multitasking and adapting to change.
  4. Compliance - work conscientiously in the existing environment to ensure quality and accuracy. They are motivated by opportunities to gain knowledge, show expertise and do quality work. Those in Compliance prefer to avoid social talk, ask detail-oriented questions and may keep notes of the conversation. The perfectionist behavior in Compliance can be nurtured by preparing specifics, providing facts and avoiding forcing quick responses. Motivated Cs by providing opportunities for independent projects, allowing them to show their expertise and showing interest in their ideas. Cs may need help in delegation, joining in social events and making quick decisions.

2.19 Give Great Presentations

  • Great presenters use fewer slides — and fewer words.
    • Reduce clutter where you can.
  • Great presenters don’t use bullet points.
    • Complement text on slides with photos, videos, and images.
  • Great presenters enhance their vocal delivery.
    • Don’t underestimate the power of your voice to make a positive impression on your audience.
  • Great presenters create “wow” moments.
    • Give your audience something extra.
  • Great presenters rehearse.
    • Put in the time to make yourself great.

2.20 Give negative feedback more productively   edit

Describe your reaction to the behavior. You might say: “Your interruption disappointed me because I didn’t get to hear more from Jessica, and it also made me not want to share my own ideas.

  • Start the conversation by noting when and where the behavior you want to discuss occurred. Next, describe it in detail, explaining exactly what you saw and heard. For example: “In our staff meeting this morning, when we were discussing strategies, you interrupted Jessica while she was talking and said, ‘That idea will never work.’”

2.21 Hierarchy of Disagreement

  1. DH0. Name-calling
  2. DH1. Ad hominem
    • attacks the person rather than the point they are making
  3. DH2. Responding to tone.
  4. DH3. Contradiction
    • You offer an opposing case but very little evidence. You simply state what you think is true, in contrast to the position of the person you are arguing with.
  5. DH4. Counterargument
    • A counterargument is a contradiction with evidence and reasoning.
  6. DH5. Refutation
    • A good way to refute someone is to quote them back to themselves and pick a hole in that quote to expose a flaw.
  7. DH6. Refuting the central point
    • The best way to refute someone is to figure out their central point, or one of them if there are several issues involved.

2.22 Impromptu speech

Remember these five functions to build your on-the-fly speech:

  1. Greeting: Pretty obvious; you want to say hello.
  2. Event: State why everyone’s gathered, what the event is about, etc. Nwwazzu suggests starting this off with, “As we all know…”
  3. Common Ground: Discuss something relatable to you and your audience. Maybe start this part off with “Like many of you, I…”
  4. Why You’re Speaking: Include why you’ve been chosen to speak. As Nwwazzu puts it, what gives you the right to speak on this topic?
  5. Call to Action: Finally, end with a call to action, “let’s all toast…” “let’s have a round of applause.” This is a natural closer.

So using the wedding example, you’d say something like:

(1)Hello, as we all know, Jim and Pam are getting married today(2). Like most of you(3), I’ve known either the bride or groom for many years. Pam and I were childhood friends(4), and she and I have been through so much together. It’s nice to know she’s found her partner in crime. Let’s all toast to their love.(5)

2.23 In discussions with others

Winning Arguments:

  1. If the argument you find convincing doesn’t resonate with someone else, find out what does
    • Frame it using their morals
      • Liberal moral foundations include equality, fairness, and protection of the vulnerable.
      • Conservative moral foundations favor in-group loyalty, moral purity, and respect for authority.
  2. Listen.
    • Your ideological opponents want to feel like they’ve been heard.
    • Listen to people, get them to think about their own experience, and highlight your common humanity.

Changing minds:

  • "When we wish to correct with advantage, and to show another that he errs, we must notice from what side he views the matter, for on that side it is usually true, and admit that truth to him, but reveal to him the side on which it is false. He is satisfied with that, for he sees that he was not mistaken, and that he only failed to see all sides. Now, no one is offended at not seeing everything; but one does not like to be mistaken, and that perhaps arises from the fact that man naturally cannot see everything, and that naturally he cannot err in the side he looks at, since the perceptions of our senses are always true."
    • Pascal
  • In other words:
    • Before disagreeing with someone, first point out the ways in which they’re right.
    • To effectively persuade someone to change their mind, lead them to discover a counter-point of their own accord.

2.24 Making a Speech

Distill your message. An effective method is to use this simple, 15-word sentence:

As a result of my [talk], they will understand [this], and respond by [doing that].

Here are a few examples:

  • As a result of my presentation about our company’s analytics platform, they will understand how we can help them boost sales, and respond by hiring us to consult on their portfolios.
  • As a result of my explanation for why we will grow by 21% next year, they will understand how valuable I am to the company, and respond by giving me a raise.
  • As a result of my Q4 sales presentation, they will understand why we need to focus more on developing younger customers, and respond by approving the budget to grow our research team.


  1. Memorize your introduction and conclusion.
    • Brain freeze occurs most commonly during those awful seconds when you first face a crowd.
  2. It’s not about you.
    • Every decision you make must demonstrate that you’re talking for your audience’s benefit, not yours. (Just think how it feels to listen to someone prattling away about something that you don’t care about.)
  3. Do everything you can to help them hear and understand you.
    • People are bad at listening.
    • Use short words, sentences and paragraphs to express your ideas; physical, concrete and vivid images that appeal to the senses; and active verb choices in place of abstract or passive language.
  4. Don’t drown your audience in data.
    • If your talk relies on heavy data, be sure to explain what that data means — on a human level. People want to know how you think, feel, and believe. That’s why you’re in the same room (or on Zoom) with them, instead of sending the data by email.
  5. Eliminate anything that doesn’t clearly support your purpose.
    • If a slide, statistic, joke, or anecdote doesn’t serve your goal, cut it.
  6. Record yourself or practice in front of real people — or both, if you can.


2.25 Negotiating

Do you make the first offer or defer to the other party?

  1. Gain as much information as you can. This starts before the negotiation, when you do your homework and due diligence. And it continues during the negotiation, when you ask important questions and listen carefully to the answers.
  2. Ask yourself these two questions:
    • Do you know why your counterpart values the item?
    • Do you know what prices they would consider reasonable?
  3. If you can’t answer both of these questions, then keep gathering information before you make the first offer.
    • If you find the answers are impossible to get, then invite your counterpart to make the first offer.
    • If you can answer them confidently, be bold and go first.

2.26 Plan for those Awkward moments

Rely on the good old HPM:

  • HISTORY: This reminds me of the last time I rode this coaster…
  • PHILOSOPHY: I HATE coasters! All the ups and downs make me wanna puke. But I go on one every day to prepare me for the ups and downs of life.
  • METAPHOR: Roller coasters are like cigarettes…

2.27 Powerful Leadership Wisdom in only three words:

  • Behavior is destiny.
  • Make things better.
  • Eject energy vampires.
  • Leverage your strengths.
  • Find a coach.
  • Learn from failure.
  • Serve your team.
  • Say something positive.
  • Ask more questions.
  • Build strong relationships.

2.28 Responding vs Reacting

One small thing you can keep in mind—the difference between responding to something and reacting to something.

According to Psychology Today, a reaction is instant, emotional, based on your beliefs and biases, and from your unconscious mind—while a response comes slowly, based on information from both your conscious and unconscious mind. That means that reactions are often defensive or survival-based and you might regret them later, while responses are generally more considerate of more than one point of view and thought out.

In short, a response is an action based on logic, while a reaction is an emotional state—and while in some cases a response and a reaction may look the same, the intention behind them, and the consequences that follow them, can be completely different.

2.29 Storytelling

  1. Prepare!
  2. Understand 5x better than how we want to share
  3. Stay brief
  4. Simplify
  5. Factual events (boring) vs feelings (what we want to convey)

Be a great storyteller - Break these habits:

  1. Giving too much background
  2. Telling, not showing
  3. Taking too much time
  4. Not including any dialogue
  5. Taking your audience through unnecessary detours

2.30 Storytelling - Abraham Lincoln Inspiration

This type of story is so valuable because for people to be engaged, they need to understand why they should take action. "The clarity story provides reasons in the most powerful and digestible format possible," writes Callahan in Putting Stories to Work.

  1. Part 1 begins with a look back at the past to take the listener back to the way things used to be.
    • Four score and seven years ago our fathers brought forth on this continent, a new nation, conceived in Liberty, and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal.
  2. Part 2 shifts to something that happened: the events that caused a problem or opportunity.
    • Now we are engaged in a great civil war, testing whether that nation, or any nation so conceived and so dedicated, can long endure. We are met on a great battle-field of that war. We have come to dedicate a portion of that field, as a final resting place for those who here gave their lives that that nation might live. It is altogether fitting and proper that we should do this.
  3. Part 3 is what Callahan calls "so now . . ." which describes the decision or action needed to respond.
    • But, in a larger sense, we can not dedicate – we can not consecrate – we can not hallow – this ground. The brave men, living and dead, who struggled here, have consecrated it, far above our poor power to add or detract. The world will little note, nor long remember what we say here, but it can never forget what they did here.
  4. Part 4 looks ahead to the future to envision a desired outcome.
    • It is for us the living, rather, to be dedicated here to the unfinished work which they who fought here have thus far so nobly advanced. It is rather for us to be here dedicated to the great task remaining before us – that from these honored dead we take increased devotion to that cause for which they gave the last full measure of devotion – that we here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain – that this nation, under God, shall have a new birth of freedom – and that government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth.

2.31 Top 10 rules for talking like a leader:

  1. The only reason to open your mouth is to make something better. (If you only remember one rule, make it this one.)
  2. Be brief. The longer you talk, the less effective you become. The Gettysburg address was 272 words.
  3. Be brief and ask, “What else would you like to know?”
  4. Stay present with others. Presence is “going with” even when challenging ideas. You aren’t present when pushing your own agenda at the expense of others.
  5. Ask people what they need to know, before telling them what they need to know.
  6. Stay on topic. Chasing rabbits is for dogs.
  7. Explain yourself. Don’t give people the benefit of your conclusions without explaining how you found them.
  8. Include purpose when giving direction. Busyness is a fog that obscures the big picture.
  9. Tell stories. (Remember rule #2.)
  10. Stay calm if you expect to connect. Strong emotion intimidates.

2.32 Use the 2-second rule

To help yourself avoid interruptions and boost your charisma, follow the “two-second rule”:

  • Count to 2 seconds before responding.
    • Often, people were not finished speaking. They merely paused. By waiting two seconds, you allow them to finish their entire thought. Rather than interrupting the other person, you communicate genuine interest and attention to what they are saying.
    • Waiting two seconds creates a moment of tension between the end of their thought and your reply. Because most people immediately jump into their reply, in waiting two seconds you communicate confidence and power.

Remember, charisma and likability aren’t based on how smart or talkative you are, they’re about the way you carry yourself and conduct communication with others.

Make other people feel valuable and you become valuable.

2.33 Writing

3 Environment

3.1 Everyday things to Minimize Climate Impact

  1. Driving 2 less days a week reduces annual greenhouse gas by 2 tons annually per EPA
  2. Removing beef from your diet could be more effective than getting rid of your car
  3. Swap all lightbulbs over to LEDs

Need support:

  • Use wooden toothpicks over plastic floss
  • Use paper bags or reusable bags (# times??)
  • Grow a garden

3.2 Give Your Yard Back to Nature

  1. Step 1: Understand Your Land
    • Plants grow in the wild without fertilizer. Survivors adapt, learning to love even marginal soil. They also forge relationships with other plants, animals, and the microbiology of the soil. These relationships become the foundation of a sustainable and resilient landscape.
  2. Step 2: Design Your Space
    • What plants will thrive in my yard? In other words, what does nature want? And what do I want? Where these desires meet will be the foundation of your design.
    • Choose your plants
      • Long-term, native perennials will create a more stable, low-maintenance landscape. While native plants are essential to local wildlife— especially the keystone genera (which make up only 5 percent of the area’s native species but produce 75 percent of the food)
  3. Step 3: Prepare the Site and Install
    • Remove invasive plants
    • Start small
    • Don’t amend the soil
      • There are plants—beautiful ones—that are adapted to pretty much every soil type
    • Cover the ground
      • Landscape plugs—small seedlings sold in flats—spaced at 10 to 12 inches on center or growing from seed are the most cost-effective ways to do this.
      • Instead of raking the leaves to the curb, spread them under your trees and shrubs. Tiny insects will make their homes there, feeding birds. Plus: free mulch!
  4. Step 4: Maintain It
    • The establishment phase is about two years
    • Mow your lawn high
    • Water less
      • Grass needs one inch of water per week during the growing season. East of the Mississippi, as long as you don’t mind dormancy during a drought—meaning, it may look crispy and brown, depending on the type, but still be very much alive — you don’t need to irrigate your lawn.
  5. Step 5: Support It


3.3 Stop using plastic

  • Replace plastic bags with reusable bags
  • Decline freebies or find a good use.
  • Replace your other disposable plastic
    • Try some reusable food wraps instead of Saran Wrap
    • Try bar soap instead of plastic-bottled body wash
    • Look for brands that sell the same thing in paper instead of plastic
    • When you do buy disposable stuff, lean toward paper again.
  • Carry your own food containers
    • Make your own coffee and if you want it on the go, use a thermos. One thermos, which you keep for years. Keep a glass water bottle at your desk, and a collapsible water bottle in your bag.
    • Bring your own reusable silverware around
  • Get less takeout
  • Look up your local recycling rules

4 Equations

4.1 3 Ways to Improve Your Decision Making

  1. Rule #1: Be less certain.
  2. Rule #2: Ask “How often does that typically happen?”
  3. Rule #3: Think probabilistically — and learn some basic probability.

4.2 Add value to your life

  • Happiness = Reality / Expectations.
    • If I am 200 pounds I can change reality slowly. But I can change expectations lower in a second (I’m fine weighing 200 pounds but I’m going to start eating healthier).
  • Anger = Fear Clothed
    • Understanding the underlying fears that angry people have leads to mastery in life.
  • The 5/25 Rule
    • List the top 25 things you most want to accomplish in life.
    • Now take the top 5, move them over here, and take the bottom 20 and move them over there.
    • These 20 are still in the TOP 25 things you want to do in life. So they are special and important to you.
  • The 5×5 Rule
    • You are the average of the 5 people you spend the most time with.
    • Your health is the average of the 5 foods you eat the most
    • Your mental state is the average of the 5 things you think about the most.
    • Your creativity is the average of the five works of art you spend the most time trying to read or watch or understand.
    • Your ability to be loved is the average of the five things you most do that are lovable.
    • Corollary: Stand next to the smartest person in the room.
  • Persistence + Love = Abundance
  • The 1% Rule
    • If something compounds at 1% a day, it will be 37 times better in a year.
    • If something loses 1% a day, it will be 0.03% of what it was in a year.
  • The "What I Liked As a Kid" rule
    • List the things you liked when you were 6, 8, 10, 14.
    • Now list what you can do with those things as an adult. How did these loves age with you?
  • Plus, Minus, Equal (To learn…)
    • PLUS: a real or virtual mentor who can teach you.
    • EQUALS: people who can challenge you
    • MINUS: people you can teach, because teaching solidifies learning.
  • Everyone is Irrational All of the Time
    • What this means: it’s no use assuming people will be rational towards us. It’s no use fighting for strong opinions. It’s no use telling people what to do or using rational arguments to get people to do what you would like them to do, even if it’s to treat you nicer.
    • This is the argument for living by example. Even in life: Show and don’t tell.
  • The 64/4 Rule
    • If 20% of the effort creates 80% of the value (think of a job: 20% of the employees do 80% of the work), then square that.
    • So now 20% of the 20% of the effort makes 80% of 80% of the value.
    • So 4% of the work you do in life creates 64% of the benefits in your life.
    • Find that 4%, be ok with only creating 64% of the benefits, and then use the other 96% each day to focus on things that you love.
  • Bring the Target Closer
    • Break a problem into smaller parts. List the parts. Break those parts down. List them. Do one thing. You just brought the target closer.
  • The 1,000 Hour Rule (or “Idea Sex”).
    • Spend 500 hours getting pretty good at one thing. Spend 500 hours getting pretty good at something else.
    • Now you will be the best in the world at the intersection.
  • The F+ Rule
    • In real life, if 51% of your decisions are mostly good, then you will be a massive success in life (in Baseball, of course, if only 30% of the time you hit safely to base then you are an all-star).
    • If more than 70% of your decisions are good then you are probably a failure. You aren’t taking enough risks.
    • 50–60% seems to be the right mix. Practice being wrong.
  • Nobody Cares If You Are At The Party
    • But people care only when you have something great to offer. Nobody cares when you mess up. Everyone messes up.
    • Nobody is ever thinking about you. They are worried about what you think of them.
    • Create something good. Then come to the party.
  • Positive Action > Feeling Gratitude
  • Well Being = Good relationships + Improving Competence, + Freedom
  • The Hell Yeah Rule
    • “If it’s not a HELL, YEAH, it’s a NO!”
    • This is the way to say NO almost all of the time.
    • This can also be called the “Life is too short” rule.
  • Surrender
    • I can only do the best I can right now and then surrender the results. Once you release the bowling ball, your job is done.

4.3 Generalize

  1. Most things improve
  2. If you feel unsure, expect most are in the middle - it's one hump (Bell curve)
  3. First social then rich
  4. If something is scary, it is likely exaggerated problem

4.4 My Favorite Life equations

Equations to use in life:

  1. On Discussions vs arguments:
    • I feel x whenever y happens, I would like z…. And to try to never use the word "you" as that puts many people on the defensive.
  2. On change:
    • Change + unknown = Chaos
  3. The Financial Independence Formula
    • The first part calculates your FI Number – the total amount of money required to give you a sufficient income for life:
      • FI Number = Yearly Spending / Safe Withdrawal Rate
    • The second part of the formula uses your FI Number to figure out how many years it will take you to reach FI:
      • Years to FI = (FI Number – Amount Already Saved) / Yearly Saving
  4. Evaluate cost of items before purchase
    • (Cost of item)/(#uses per month) = Monthly Relative Cost
  5. Deep Work:
    • High quality work produced = (time spent) x (intensity of focus)
    • Georgetown professor and author Cal Newport writes in his new book "Deep Work". It's a phrase Newport coined for intense sessions of distraction-free work that requires the full use of one's focus and intelligence.
    • Newport writes that "there's one idea in particular that seems central to his method: the batching of hard but important intellectual work into long, uninterrupted stretches."
  6. Risk = Hazard x Exposure
    • Think motorcycle risk (hazard) -> the more you ride (exposure), the higher the risk
    • The difference between 100 people going to Vegas once vs 1 person going to Vegas 100 times
  7. Stress + Rest = Growth

4.5 Rules of Life

  1. Rule No. 1: Life is a competition
    • But never fall for the collective delusion that there's not a competition going on. People dress up to win partners. They interview to win jobs. If you deny that competition exists, you're just losing. Everything in demand is on a competitive scale. And the best is available only to those who are willing to truly fight for it.
  2. Rule No. 2: You're judged by what you do, not what you think
    • Society judges people by what they can do for others. That's not how we judge ourselves, though. We judge ourselves by our thoughts. We like to think that society rewards those who do the best work. But in reality, social reward is just a network effect. Reward comes down mostly to the number of people you reach. You may hate this. It may make you sick. Reality doesn't care. You're judged by what you have the ability to do, and the volume of people you can affect. If you don't accept this, then the judgment of the world will seem very unfair indeed.
  3. Rule No. 3: Our idea of fairness is self-interest
    • People like to invent moral authority. It's why we have referees in sports games and judges in courtrooms: We have an innate sense of right and wrong, and we expect the world to comply. But reality is indifferent. You studied hard, but you failed the exam. You worked hard, but you didn't get promoted. You love her, but she won't return your calls. Take a proper look at that person you fancy but didn't fancy you back. That's a complete person. A person with years of experience being someone completely different from you. A real person who interacts with hundreds or thousands of other people every year. But however they make you feel, the actions of others are not some cosmic judgment on your being. They're just a byproduct of being alive.

4.6 Slow is smooth, smooth is fast

4.7 The seven deadly sins of statistical misinterpretation, and how to avoid them

  1. Assuming small differences are meaningful
  2. Equating statistical significance with real-world significance
    • If the effect size is small, then the two groups are very similar. Even if the effect size is large, the two groups will still likely have a great deal of variation within them, so not all members of one group will be different from all members of another group.
  3. Neglecting to look at extremes
    • Avoid this error by reflecting on whether you’re dealing with extremes or not. When you’re dealing with average people, small group differences often don’t matter. When you care a lot about the extremes, small group differences can matter heaps.
  4. Trusting coincidence
    • Avoid this error by asking how reliable the observed association is. Is it a one-off, or has it happened multiple times? Can future associations be predicted? If you have seen it only once, then it is likely to be due to random chance.
  5. Getting causation backwards
    • You can avoid this error by remembering to think about reverse causality when you see an association. Could the influence go in the other direction? Or could it go both ways, creating a feedback loop?
  6. Forgetting to consider outside causes
    • You can avoid this error by remembering to think about third factors when you see a correlation. If you’re following up on one thing as a possible cause, ask yourself what, in turn, causes that thing? Could that third factor cause both observed outcomes?
  7. Deceptive graphs
    • You can avoid this error by taking care to note graph’s labels along the axes. Be especially sceptical of unlabelled graphs


4.8 Understanding Risks   edit

Consider the basic mathematics of repeated risks. When we do some activity that has pretty low risk "R" each time we do it — say, a 1-in-1000 chance of serious injury — and the risk each time is independent from the previous times, then if we do this activity once, we have a risk of R. By contrast, if we do the activity twice, we face the risk of the bad outcome twice, so the risk is about 2*R. Likewise, the total risk we take on when we do the same activity T times (assuming T is not super large) is about T * R. This is the basic risk formula you should keep in your mind.*

So if you're about to commit yourself to do something 30 times, you're taking on about 30 times the risk you'd take on by doing it once. Does your brain properly appreciate that huge multiplier? Do you feel on a gut level that doing something 30 times more often is 30 times riskier? Probably not. As the risk R gets bigger, individual decisions of course becomes more significant. But the actual risk is about T * R, so R itself is not enough to consider if you plan to repeat the activity a number of times. If we limit our considerations to R by itself, then we're likely to end up too risk-averse on individual decisions, and not nearly cautious enough about repeated choices.

Let's consider motorcycles. According to the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, American motorcyclists in 2006 faced about a 1-in-26,000 chance of dying for every 100 miles' travel. For reference, this is 11 times the chance of dying that an American 30-year-old man faces on a random day, or 24 times the chances of death that a 30-year-old woman faces on a random day.

So, if you are considering buying a motorcycle, and predict you will ride it for 100 miles each week for the next 5 years, that's about 52 weeks * 5 years = 260 times that you'll go on a 100-mile ride. This behavior would amplify your risk of death by 260:

  • R * T = (1 / 26000) * 260 = 1 / 100

That is, you've just taken on a predicted 1% risk of death by buying and regularly riding this motorcycle! Of course, injuries are much more common than death (about 20x higher, it seems) in motorcycle accidents, so the chance of injury you've taken on is even higher than that. So this is a very weighty decision. It becomes weightier still if you think you'll ride it for 10 years instead of 5. But even in the 5-year case, consider: how much money would you pay NOT to have to roll a 100-sided die where death occurs if you roll a 100, and a potentially grave motorcycle-accident injury occurs if you roll, say, an 80 or higher? That's the kind of risk you're taking on by choosing to ride a motorcycle 100 miles a week for 5 years.**

Part of the reason we can underestimate risk is because we convince ourselves that we can stop at any time. For instance, we can buy the motorcycle and then later just decide to stop using it. Surely we can, but the question is, will we? We need to make the decision based on what we predict will happen, not what could theoretically happen.

The point is here that doing a "risky" thing once is far less risky than doing a risky thing many times — about T times more risky! — but your brain won't necessarily perceive the right relationship. For small independent risks, the total risk of a bad thing happening scales with the number of times T you do the thing. So remember the risk formula: R * T, and teach it to your brain.

Another clear illustration of this idea can be found in this New York Times analysis of the effectiveness of various forms of birth control over time. Consider the oral contraceptive pill, for instance; the Times analysis finds that 9 women in 100 would develop an unplanned pregnancy after a year of typical use of this popular birth control method. (Evra patches and NuvaRings are other hormone-based birth control systems with failure rate similar to the pill.):

After 5 years of typical use, the proportion of women who would likely experience an unwanted pregnancy rises to 38 in 100:

And after 10 years, the proportion of women on the pill who could expect an unwanted pregnancy rises to a surprising 61 out of 100. The male condom, a similarly popular birth control device, rises to a somewhat astonishing 86 in 100 unwanted pregnancies after 10 years of typical use in this accounting. (However, it's worth noting that James Trussell, the academic whose work provides the basis for the Times analysis, believes these graphs overestimate the "typical use" failure rate.):

So we urge you: be appropriately wary of repeated risks! There are many things that are fine to do once, but that are dangerous to do T times, for a moderately large T.

4.9 Work smarter, not harder

3 of 7 behaviors made up 66% of the difference in how people performed. (By comparison, standard metrics like education, age, and hours worked were only responsible for 10% combined.):

  1. Do Less — Then Obsess
    • Top performers definitely focus on fewer goals — but they also obsess like crazy over them.
  2. Use “The Learning Loop”
    • Deliberate practice seems straightforward in sports, music or chess. But how do you do it in the modern workplace?
      • Pick one and only one skill at a time to develop.
      • Carve out your 15.
      • Isolate micro-behaviors.
      • Get feedback.
  3. Feel Passion & Purpose
    • 6 ways to derive passion from your work:
      1. Task passion: The obvious one. What you do excites you.
      2. Achievement passion: A salesperson might not be keen on the product, but they get a high every time they close a big deal.
      3. Creative passion: An engineer might not be thrilled about the project, but they love solving hard problems.
      4. People passion: The company or the job might not be that great, but you love supporting and interacting with the people around you.
      5. Learning passion: We’ve all heard someone say that they love what they do because they learn something new every day.
      6. Competence passion: We all get excited when we’re doing something we’re good at.

5 Finance

So there are basically three approaches to saving:

  • You can work more.
  • You can save more.
  • Or you can want less.

For anyone beginning to build wealth, we have some million-dollar advice that we will give to you for nothing:

  • Keep it simple.
  • Keep it cheap.
  • And keep at it.

"Never cheap out on anything that goes between you and the ground."

5.1 10 best pieces of advice I can give you about money

I've been helping the ultra-rich protect their wealth for years, and here are the 10 best pieces of advice I can give you about money

  1. Be mindful of the tax consequences on any investments you make.
    • We cannot escape taxes, as they impact not only our earnings but also our investments. The wealthy understand the impact of taxes and try to see it as a benefit, when possible. An example is 2008 and the “great recession.” Many mutual funds were down by -30% to -40%. Rather than avoid them in 2009, if the mutual fund had a strong track record the wealthy and their financial advisors embraced them as their losses were carried forward for future investors, thus creating a positive tax benefit (less tax drag). This is one example of how taxes, used properly, can be positive.
  2. Don’t follow the masses.
    • Too often investing is about following the masses rather than thinking outside the box. One key characteristic of the wealthy is continuing to have their assets grow by thinking differently. They don’t concentrate on ETF portfolios or mutual funds, but use investments like private equity, commercial real estate, and advanced-option strategies to build and hedge risks. The wealthy make certain the advisors and firms have a record of working with high net worth families in this area.
  3. Work with “smart” people.
    • Hiring a professional is easy — you look for an individual who works in a particular field and ask questions to make certain they are good. We’ve found an interesting characteristic with the wealthy: They continually hire what we consider to be the “smartest” professionals. Their accountants understand filing taxes, of course, but also complicated tax structuring. Their attorneys can draft documents but also think “ten years from now what happens.” And their financial advisors think beyond investing — behavioral finance, communication skills, and the history of the markets.
  4. Structure the ownership of assets.
    • When we work with wealthy families, one key trait we examine is the ownership structure of their assets. Those who have wealth not only have money but they create structuring to protect it. They are concerned with asset protection: utilizing proper ownership so that unforeseen events do not risk the assets, such as putting their home in trust. They are concerned with generational wealth — using generation skipping trusts and irrevocable trusts. They think about passing their money to their children; revocable trusts to avoid probate and provide secrecy.
  5. Prepare your children for the future.
    • Regardless of news reports to the contrary, the wealthy do not “turn all their money over to a charity.” It is given to their children and grandchildren. With the gift comes responsibility for the children. The best families prepare their children for wealth and try their best to make certain they understand wealth can bring responsibility and complications. They utilize “Next Gen” training programs offered by firms like JPMorgan, UBS, and BofAML. They help their children get internships with Private Wealth Advisors and groups to further their children’s educations around money.
  6. Debt is not a bad word
    • When looking at the balance sheet for wealthy families, you will inevitably see one common feature — debt. Not in the form of a bond issuance like Apple, but rather securities backed lending, mortgages, and other forms. With historically low-interest rates, the wealthy take advantage and create a “spread” between their investment return and the cost of borrowing. When we evaluate a financial advisor we want to see if they utilize debt and are they providing competitive rates.
  7. Create a financial plan.
    • Shockingly, not all clients have a clearly laid out financial plan listing their assets, liabilities, future expected outlays, and goals. Investing without a financial plan is a recipe for disaster and leads to the basic question, “How can someone invest on your behalf without these basic facts?” We’ve found that the wealthy typically have a clearly laid out financial plan, updated on a regular basis. Their advisors work hand-in-hand with them to create and update the information.
  8. It’s not only about the financial markets.
    • Moving from high net worth ($5mm to $25mm) to ultra-high net worth ($25mm+) is more about owning “other assets” then growing assets in the markets. The UHNW will have business interests, real estate, or other assets outside the market. One common feature of the UHNW is their use of financial advisors who understand “the markets are not everything” and can help them get a complete picture on funding and introductions for their business growth.
  9. Ask your advisor to simplify their data.
    • A challenge we see is the complexity of data delivered to a client — the “yearly review.” Even with our decades of experience in finance and investing we come out of meetings shaking our heads and wondering, “What where they thinking? No one could understand that yearly review material.” One thing is certain, the wealthy and particularly the families having generational wealth do not have this problem. There is accountability around information delivered — returns, investments, benchmarks, and more. The investment advisors and bankers are judged on results and there are clear expectations at each meeting.
  10. Avoid concentrated positions.
    • The wealthy generally have one thing in common — their wealth came from success in a business. A feature of the wealthy is diversification from this concentration. They recognize wealth can be lost quicker than it can be made. To help them keep their wealth, they employ wealth-management strategies on diversification of risk.

5.2 2 Financial mindsets

These are the two mindsets of building wealth.

  1. People who stay poor or middle class see money as something to be spent.
  2. People who become rich see money as something to be invested.

5.3 2016 Tax brackets

Tax Income
10% $0 to $9,275
15% $9,275 to $37,650
25% $37,650 to $91,150
28% $91,150 to $190,150
33% $190,150 to $413,350
35% $413,350 to $415,050
39.6% $415,050+

5.4 25% finances

Start by dividing your before-tax income into four equal parts and grouping the daunting list of expenses your paycheck needs to cover into four categories:

  • taxes
  • housing (rent or mortgage)
  • debts (excluding mortgage payments)
  • living expenses


  1. The first 25 percent: Taxes Figure on a bill that could total 25 percent of pretax income for moderate earners.
  2. The second 25 percent: Housing Limit your monthly payments to no more than 25 percent of your pretax monthly salary.
  3. The third 25 percent: Debts Limit your monthly loan payments to no more than one-quarter of your pretax monthly salary.
  4. The last 25 percent: Living expenses

5.5 50/20/30 Finance Rule

50/20/30 rule is a basic, broad guideline aimed at helping you budget for different financial goals.

  • Fixed Costs (50%): Everything you have to pay for monthly should fit in half your paycheck, wherever possible. If you earn $3,000/mo, don’t live in a place with $2,000 rent. Keep rent/mortgage, utilities, and recurring bills under that 50% line.
  • Financial Goals (20%): This category should be devoted to some form of goal you have. This can include building your savings, paying down debt, building an emergency fund, and so on.
  • Flexible Spending (30%): This category can include anything that changes month to month. That can mean things like grocery shopping, but it can also include your entertainment budget, or your hobbies.


5.6 529 Plans

5.7 7 Life-Changing Pieces of Financial Advice

  1. “Most people who overspend their income do so in one of three ways: 1) Too much house, 2) Too much car, 3) Too much entertainment.” // Financial adviser, 2008.
  2. “Begin your marriage living on just one income.” // Boss, 2000.
  3. “Buy your car with cash.” // Friend, 2004.
  4. “If you can’t keep a monthly budget, use a spending plan instead.” // Writer, 2009.
  5. “You are never too poor to give.” // Parents, 1979.
  6. “Never take a job just because of the money. Always consider the money, but never let it be the determining factor.” // Mentor, 1998.
  7. “One extra monthly payment per year on your mortgage shortens the length of your loan by years.” // Real Estate Broker, 2001.

5.8 AHRP Allocations

AHRP Allocations:

  • Bonds - Comerica SDA Ttl Bond Mkt Idx: 13%
  • Large Cap Equity - Vanguard 500 Index (VIIIX): 10%
  • Mid Cap Equity - Comerica SDA Mid-Small Cap Idx: 10%
  • Small Cap Equity - MSIF Small Company Growth (MFLLX): 15%
  • International Equity - Comerica SDA Intl Equity: 28%
  • Emerging Markets Equity - DFA Emerging Markets Value (DFEVX): 17%
  • Realty - Cohen & Steers Realty Shares: 7%

5.9 Asset Class / Percent of Your Portfolio


  • U.S. Stock 30%
  • Foreign Stock 26%
  • Emerging Markets 18%
  • REITs 13%
  • Bonds 7%
  • TIPS 6%


  • 43% Domestic
  • 25% Foreign Developed
  • 15% REITs
  • 17% Foreign Emerging
  • Bonds: 50% Investment grade; 50%Treasury Inflation Protected Securities
  • Make sure to own small cap and value stock

General ideas from Future Advisor:

  • The main asset classes we use at FutureAdvisor are stocks, bonds, real estate and inflation-protected securities.
  • Generally, FutureAdvisor recommends passive funds with fees under 0.6%, and ideally a lot lower for mainstream investments, such as the S&P 500.
  • FutureAdvisor recommends that no more than half of your stock exposure be domestic. The remaining exposure should be split between developed markets, emerging markets and international real estate stocks, roughly in descending order of exposure. Your bond holdings should be internationally diversified too.

5.10 Diversify Income (Passive Incomes)

Ideas of ways to have more than 1 income:

  1. Earned income (salary)
  2. Profit income (business profit)
  3. Rental income (real estate)
  4. Royalty/patents income (depending on your business)
  5. Capital gains income (if you sell an asset for more than you bought it for)
  6. Dividend (4% every year on average in index funds)
  7. Interest (lending money to someone else)

5.11 Dollar today ($1) vs Dollar tomorrow ($10)

  • First, because of taxes and compounding one dollar saved is worth more than one dollar spent.
    • Taxes:
      • If you bought a new $23,000 Mini Cooper, for example, you’d use money left over after paying the government. But in order to get that $23,000, the average American would have to earn $30,000. The other $7000 — in the form of 5-1/2 weeks of work — goes to taxes.
    • Compounding:
      • Every time you spend one dollar you could have invested, you don’t just lose that dollar but any future return you might have earned on it.
      • Assuming typical stock-market growth, one dollar would have a value of $1.93 ten years from now — and $7.20 in thirty years.

On average, each dollar an American spends represents $2.57 of value in ten years or $9.57 in thirty years.

The opportunity cost of spending one dollar today is ten dollars you might have had in retirement.

  • By carefully guarding your dimes, you turn them into future dollars.

5.12 Financial Docs

  • Balance Sheet
    • Assets = Liabilities + Owner’s Equity
  • Profit/Loss
    • The P&L is the best view into your bottom line, or net income, which is why it’s typically used to show business lenders and investors whether your company has made or lost money during a given period.
    • Taxable Income
  • Cash Flow
    • Operations: the business functions you need to operate, including accounts receivable, accounts payable, and inventory.
    • Investing: long-term changes to equipment, acquiring or selling assets, etc.
    • Financing: acquiring debts, repaying loans, etc. which don’t affect your bottom line, but they do affect the amount of cash in the bank!

5.13 Financial Freedom Steps

The math is simple: if you’re receiving more per month in passive income than you’re spending, then you’re financially free.

  1. Goal 1: Financial Security
    • This means that your mortgage, utilities, food, insurance, and other very basic needs are covered.
    • This number will vary for you based on your current home, utilities, diet, insurance, family, etc. but go ahead and get a rough estimate of what you spend each month on:
      • Rent / mortgage
      • Utilities
      • Food
      • Insurance
      • Basic needs
  2. Goal 2: Financial Independence
    • This is whatever the current lifestyle you have costs.
    • The easiest way to figure this out is to look at what you’re spending each month right now.
  3. Goal 3: Absolute Financial Freedom
    • This is where you have more money than you know what to do with.

Your goal is to build up enough non-work income (or potential for non-work income) that you hit your Security, Independence, and Absolute Freedom levels. And more importantly, to be reasonably assured that it’s not going to suddenly disappear tomorrow and leave you in the lurch.

Those sources break down into two categories:

  1. Investments
    • You need to figure out how much you need to have invested. To do that, take your financial security number, multiply it by 12 to get the annual number, then by 25 (the inverse of 4%).
    • Security Investment = Financial Security Monthly Cost x 12 x 25
  2. Passive Income


  • Create your financial freedom calculator by making a copy of mine
  • Set goals for Security, Independence, and Absolute Freedom
  • Cut your costs to make security and independence easier your goals
  • Maximize how much you’re investing somewhere like Wealthfront
  • Create passive income to speed everything up

5.14 Financial Rules

  1. When estimating income, $1 an hour in wage is equivalent to $2000 per year in pre-tax earnings.
    • The reverse is also true: $2000 per year in salary is equal to $1 an hour in hourly wage. (This rule works because the average worker spends roughly 2000 hours per year on the job.)
  2. Divide your age by ten, then multiply by your annual gross income. Your net worth should be equal to this number (less any inheritances).
    • So, if you're 40 and make $50,000 per year, your net worth should be $200,000. If you have less than half the expected amount, you're an "under-accumulator of wealth". If you have twice the target, you're a "prodigious accumulator of wealth".
  3. On average, each dollar an American spends represents about $2.50 of after-tax value in ten years or $10 in thirty years
    • This is due to two reasons: taxes and compounding. When you buy something, you spend after-tax dollars. On average, Americans have to earn $1.33 to have $1.00 left over.
  4. Inflation is the silent killer of wealth
    • Assume 3.5% - or even 4% - average inflation in the future.
  5. U.S. stocks have earned long-term real returns (meaning inflation-adjusted returns) of about 7%. Bonds have long-term real returns of around 2.5%.
  6. If you withdraw about four percent of your savings each year, your wealth snowball will maintain its value against inflation.
  7. Multiply your current annual expenses by 25. If the result is less than your savings, you've achieved financial independence
  8. Determine how long you'll need to save before you're financially independent.
    • Figure out your current saving rate (or profit margin, if you prefer).
    • Subtract this number from 60.
    • Roughly speaking - and assuming you've started from a zero net worth - that's how long you'll need to work before your nest egg is big enough to support you in retirement.
  9. Assuming a safe withdraw rate of roughly four percent, every $100 you save gives you one penny per day in perpetuity.
  10. Balanced Money Formula: Spend no more than 50% of your after-tax income on Needs, put at least 20% into savings (including debt reduction), and spend the rest (around 30%) on Wants.
  11. Each year, contribute 1% of your home's current value to a separate account.
  12. rule of thumb, budget $10,000 per child per year.
  13. If you get a windfall, use 1% to treat yourself.
  14. To approximate a new vehicle's five-year cost of ownership (in monthly terms), double the price tage and divide by 60.
    • Looking at a brand-new Mini Cooper ? Double that $30,000 sticker price to get $60,000, then divide by 60. Is it really worth $1000 per month to get rid of your crummy Ford Focus?
  15. The standard rule of thumb is to save at least 10% of your income.
    • "Save 10% for basics, 15% for comfort, 20% to escape."
  16. According to Consumer Reports, when you're faced with the repair of an appliance (such as a refrigerator or washing machine), you should buy a new one if the appliance is more than eight years old (or if the repair would cost more than half what it would take to buy a replacement).

5.15 Frugal Habits Masterlist

  1. Combine car trips. If you need to run out to the store/run an errand, combine that with another errand that you need to run. Hold off on non-essential errands until you can do so, map out your route. Once you know the cost per mile for operating your vehicle, you'll find that it's likely you could save a couple of bucks each and every time you do this vs running out to the store for one thing.
  2. Drink water. Don't just drink water in addition to whatever else you're drinking to meet a quota, but replace beverages with water. I limit myself to one non-water beverage a day, and that one beverage I almost always make at home vs. buying at a shop. I've witnessed coworkers drink a Starbucks in the morning, a bottled beverage with their takeout lunch, and then an energy drink over the course of the 8 hour day. That's $10 right there! Add in the beer after work and that's a whole lot of money and calories spent on non-essential items.
  3. Set aside money every time you resist a purchase. I have the Bank of America app where you can set up "goals". Every time I get tempted to buy something and resist, I put whatever amount it would have cost me toward that goal. Makes it easy to resist temptation when I see that money pile up. I very satisfyingly transfer that total to my high yield savings account at the end of the month.
  4. Bring your own bag, or no bag, and buy only what you can carry. If I go shopping somewhere like a mall or market for non-essentials, I bring a bag and I only let myself buy what I can carry in that bag. Or I bring no bag at all and I'm limited to buying only what I can carry. Granted I know that expensive things can be small, but this helps me be more mindful. If I do this at a grocery store, it helps me cut down on buying snacks since I need the space for actual groceries.
  5. Try out the non-Goodwill thrift stores in your area. I hope this isn't an obvious one, but I find that the smaller non-chain stores tend to have better prices, are less crowded, and often better finds because they're not as picked over.
  6. Refill/repurpose instead of buying new. I either have those 64 oz refill jugs for soaps or I go to my local refill store. You'd be surprised at what you can refill. I swap throw pillow covers to keep up with decor trends rather than buying whole new pillows.
  7. Hike/walk/yoga. These are all free or very cheap compared to other activities. There's also great adaptive yoga/exercise videos on YouTube if you can't walk.
  8. Wash your clothes less frequently. You can finds all sorts of articles on why you don't need to wash your jeans/jackets with every use, plus fewer microplastics in our water. Also, this is probably more cultural, but you don't need to shower or wash your hair every day either if you're not active that particular day…
  9. Don't buy it unless you love it. I don't care if I just like it, I need to love it. It's remarkable how many things I put back on the shelf/rack when I really think about if I feel strongly about it.

These require certain circumstances/effort:

  1. No alcohol. Alcohol is wildly expensive and does not bring any positives to my life and health. I never have to pay for Ubers either.
  2. Reevaluate everything you own every six months/year/couple of years. Timeline/scope may vary, but if I haven't used or thought about an item for the past 6 months/1 year and it's not sentimental, it gets sold, donated, recycled, or trashed. It's a great reminder to think hard before any purchase, and declutters your life and mind. Apparently I've been Marie Kondo-ing my entire life.
  3. Figure out what brands your local consignment clothing store likes. I've found that my local store seems to buy ANYTHING Brandy Melville, Urban Outfitters, Madewell, even if they're in worse condition than the items that I bring in that aren't those brands. I look for these brands when I thrift to wear for a bit and then resell, and/or those are the brands that I buy new knowing I'll recoup some money.
  4. Take the plunge with your side hustle/start today! If you aren't already deep into your side hustle, go for it! I have an Etsy store and I see posts in that sub all the time of people getting their shop perfect and ready for MONTHS before launching, having a large product line/inventory, building a social media following, etc etc. People are afraid of putting themselves out there and I get it! But I just read up on taxes and listings, created a shop with three items: one sold after a week and it all snowballed after that. I could have wasted months of sales dilly-dallying. I won't pretend that I probably had some luck there as well, but sometimes you just have to dive in.

5.16 Frugality buys freedom

Hourly Wage:

  • Think about your job. Think of all the things you do and the money you spend that you wouldn’t if you didn’t work.
  • Your Money or Your Life lists eight such possible job expenses, including a few which might be applicable to Joe:
    • Commuting — Joe’s office is 20 miles from home. Every day, he spends an hour total commuting to and from work in his 2010 Toyota Camry, which costs about 58 cents per mile to operate. His weekly commute costs him five hours and $116 (58 cents times 200 miles).
    • Clothing — It doesn’t take Joe extra time to get dressed in the morning, but it does cost him a little extra money. Several times each year, he has to buy new work clothes because the old ones wear out. Maybe he spends $500 annually on work clothes.
    • Food — Joe might take a sack lunch if he were on his own, but he works with a partner who prefers fast food. Joe likes McDonald’s and Burger King too, so he’s happy to go along for the ride. Each day, Joe spends about $5 and one hour for lunch.
    • Now that he knows how much time and money Joe spends on the job, he can compute his true hourly wage. The equation is simple.
      • First, Joe subtracts his work-related expenses from his annual salary to find his actual earnings. Using the figures above, Joe is actually earning $46,000 per year ($53,000 base minus $7000 for commuting, clothing, and food).
      • Next, he computes the total time he spends on his job (including business trips and Christmas parties, etc.). Joe leaves the house at 6:30 in the morning, and doesn’t return until 4:30 in the afternoon, which means he’s devoting 50 hours per week to work, or about 2500 hours per year.
      • Finally, Joe divides his actual earnings by the total number of hours he spends each year on work-related tasks.

Because of taxes and compounding one dollar saved is worth more than one dollar spent.

  • When you combine the effects of taxes and compounding, the results are remarkable. On average, each dollar an American spends represents $2.57 of value in ten years or $9.57 in thirty years. (If you live outside the U.S., the consequences of spending that dollar are probably even greater.)
  • The bottom line? The opportunity cost of spending one dollar today is ten dollars you might have had in retirement.

As you know, I believe profit margin (or saving rate) — the percentage of your income that goes to saving and investing — is the most important number in personal finance. Profit doesn’t just remove the wall of worry from your life, but it also buys time — both now and in the future.

  • When you learn to live on less, when you keep your profit margin high, you gain the freedom to work less. By maintaining an ambitious saving rate of 50 or even 70 percent in your twenties and thirties, you can retire when you’re 40 years old instead of 65. This gives you forty years of freedom to do what you want with life rather than fifteen.

Ultimately, work-life balance is about managing the way you use both time and money.

5.17 Get your financial life in order

  1. How much money do you have?
  2. How much do you earn each month?
  3. How much debt do you have?
  4. How much money do you spend each month?
  5. How much do you spend each month on debt payments only?
  6. How much money are you saving each month?
  7. How much is in your emergency fund?
  8. What is your net worth?
  9. What’s your plan?
  10. Bonus question to make up for question #1: How many months until you are debt free?

5.18 Goal allocations for non-FutureAdvisor Accounts

  • Domestic Total Stock - 28%
  • Domestic Small Cap - 7%
  • Real Estate - 7%
  • International Total Stock - 28%
  • Emerging Markets - 17%
  • Total Bond - 7%
  • Treasury Inflation Protected Securities - 6%

5.19 Guideline for spending

  • Savings = 20%
  • Tithe = 10%
  • House = 25%
  • Food = 10%
  • Utilities (including phone and cable) = 15%
  • Transportation = 10%
  • Clothing = 5%
  • Other = 5%

5.20 How to allocate your spending

Table 1: Here is how experts like Dave Ramsey suggest you allocate your spending.
Category Percentage of Net Income
Giving 10%
Saving 10%
Food 10-15%
Utilities 5-10%
Housing 25-35%
Transportation 10%
Insurance 10-20%
Health 5-10%
Recreation 5-10%
Personal 5-10%
Miscellaneous 5-10%

5.21 Organize Your Financial Documents

  1. Write Down All of Your Account Information
    • Examples of accounts:
      • Checking and savings accounts
      • Credit cards
      • 401(k)s and IRAs
      • Brokerage accounts
      • Student loan accounts
      • Car loan
      • Mortgage
      • Medical debt
      • Auto insurance
      • Home/renter's insurance
      • Life insurance
      • Taxes
  2. Check Your Credit Report
  3. Flag Financial Emails
  4. Organize Your Financial Paperwork
    • Keep only the most recent copies of things (like your bank balances or auto insurance policy) and shred the old ones. One exception: Tax returns.
  5. Put a semi-regular reminder in your calendar to stay on top of your paperwork.

5.22 Own a car for $30/week

First, start by putting $30 per week into a savings account. Make sure it’s a boring, vanilla savings account; we don’t want this money invested in anything risky.

  • Create a separate savings account to create a wall between it and the rest of your cash – you’re less likely to spend it.
  • Make the weekly transfer automatic and forget about it entirely. You’ll barely miss the cash.
  • Next, wait seven years. It sounds like a long time, but most cars last at least that long with proper maintenance.
  • In seven years, your measly $30 transfers will have amassed into $10,920 plus a small amount of interest.

A handy metric for used cars is 7-7-7.

  • Try to target used cars that are seven years old, with around 70,000 miles on them, for around $7,000.
  • Kelley Blue book values plenty of great cars in this category at $7,000: Honda Civic, Honda Fit, Hyundai Elantra, Toyota Corolla and Toyota Scion.
  • With $7,000 spent for the car, you’ve still got an additional almost $4,000 to help with registration, maintenance, and insurance.

5.23 Price searching

  • Orbitz for Flights/Hotels
  • Kayak for Rental Cars
  • Frontier/Spirit/Allegiant usually for flights
  • cheapest flights around world for a trip

5.24 Retirement Accounts and Taxes

  1. 401(k)s, 403(b)s and Traditional IRAs Contributions and gains in these tax-deferred accounts are taxed at your income tax rate in retirement when you withdraw funds. Required minimum distributions will begin at age 70½ for those with traditional IRAs and 401(k)s, which can cause a major headache for seniors who are still working at that age at their highest income ever. RMDs could push you into a higher tax bracket, increasing your tax burden. To lessen the tax load on these accounts, the AARP recommends starting to take disbursements “while still in your 60s and in a lower tax bracket,” rather than waiting until 70½. “With care, you can steadily withdraw money and stay within your current tax bracket.”
  2. Roth IRAs Roth IRA withdrawals are tax free (assuming you’ve had the account for at least five years and you’re over 59½), as you contribute money to these accounts that you’ve already been taxed on. If you’re under 59½, you’ll face a 10 percent early-withdrawal fee on the gains (but not your contributions). Again, you could convert some of your money into a Roth later on to try to save on taxes. You’ll pay income taxes on the amount you convert, but after that you won’t be taxed again and there’s no required distribution.
  3. Pensions Pensions are typically taxed at your income tax rate, as they’re funded with pre-tax dollars.
  4. Social Security To what degree your Social Security benefits are taxed depends on your marital status and your “provisional income,” and could be as high as 85 percent. Determining your provisional income gets a bit complicated (the IRS has a calculator), but basically, half of your Social Security income is added to your other retirement income, and if that amount exceeds $32,000 annually for couples and $25,000 for singles, your Social Security benefits will be taxed: up to 50 percent if your income is between $32,0000 and $44,000 ($25,000 to $34,000 for singles), and up to 85 percent if you’re earning more than $44,000 ($34,000 for singles).
  5. Stocks, Bonds and Mutual Funds If you sell stocks, bonds or mutual funds that you’ve owned for more than one year, you’ll owe the long-term capital gains tax. And depending on your income, that could mean no taxes at all: For example, for tax year 2018, if you’re married filing jointly and earn up to $77,200 (or single earning up to $38,600), gains are tax-free. Married couples making between $77,200 to $479,000 (and singles earning between $38,600 and $425,800) are taxed at 15 percent, and people with incomes above those levels face a 20 percent tax. If you held the asset for less than a year, you owe the short-term capital gains tax if you sell the investment, which is your ordinary income tax rate. For more, check out this explainer.
  6. Dividends Qualified dividends—those that meet requirements for a specific holding period—are taxed at long-term capital gains rates, while non-qualified dividends are taxed at your ordinary income rate. One note: If the dividends are reinvested in a 401(k) or IRA, they’ll be taxed at your ordinary income rate (since they weren’t taxed before).
  7. Annuities This all depends on how your annuity is funded. If you use after-tax money to buy your annuity, then only the gains on annuities used for retirement income are taxable at your ordinary income level. The principal amount is not taxed. However, if you purchase your annuity using pretax IRA or 401(k) money, then 100 percent of payouts are taxed as ordinary income. For more nuance on the differences between deferred and immediate annuities, read this article.
  8. CDs and Money Market Accounts Interest payments on these funds are taxed at your ordinary income rate. There’s one big caveat to all of this, and that’s if you live in one of nine states with no income tax. So if you retire in Alaska, Florida, Nevada, New Hampshire, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Washington or Wyoming, you won’t pay state income tax on 401(k) and IRA withdrawals, Social Security benefits or pension payments.

5.25 Retirement on 4% rule

"We basically follow what's called a 'four percent rule,' and that means you can withdraw, basically four percent of your net-worth and live off of that. Four percent of $500,000 was $20,000, and we could get by off of that without any problem. Today our net-worth has increased since that time period. When we retired in 1991 the S&P 500 was at 312.49 at the day we retired. And as of yesterday I think it's around 1850 or so."

If you live off 15% - you could retire on that amount in 5 years.

$100 - live on $15 saving $85. In 5 years -> 85x5=425

4% of $425 = $17

5.26 Sell stuff

  • Craigslist
  • Offer up
  • Let Go
  • Next Door
  • Facebook

5.27 Taxes

Dependent Plan:

  • 2016: Ella
  • 2017: Caleb
  • 2018: Ella
  • 2019: Caleb
  • 2020: Ella
  • 2021: Caleb
  • 2022: Ella
  • 2023: Caleb
  • 2024: Ella
  • 2026: Ella

5.27.1 2017 Tax Tables

Table 1. Single Taxable Income Tax Brackets and Rates, 2017

Rate Taxable Income Bracket Tax Owed
10% $0 to $9,325 10% of Taxable Income
15% $9,325 to $37,950 $932.50 plus 15% of the excess over $9,325
25% $37,950 to $91,900 $5,226.25 plus 25% of the excess over $37,950
28% $91,900 to $191,650 $18,713.75 plus 28% of the excess over $91,900
33% $191,650 to $416,700 $46,643.75 plus 33% of the excess over $191,650
35% $416,700 to $418,400 $120,910.25 plus 35% of the excess over $416,700
39.60% $418,400+ $121,505.25 plus 39.6% of the excess over $418,400

Table 2. Married Filing Joint Taxable Income Tax Brackets and Rates, 2017

Rate Taxable Income Bracket Tax Owed
10% $0 to $18,650 10% of taxable income
15% $18,650 to $75,900 $1,865 plus 15% of the excess over $18,650
25% $75,900 to $153,100 $10,452.50 plus 25% of the excess over $75,900
28% $153,100 to $233,350 $29,752.50 plus 28% of the excess over $153,100
33% $233,350 to $416,700 $52,222.50 plus 33% of the excess over $233,350
35% $416,700 to $470,700 $112,728 plus 35% of the excess over $416,700
39.60% $470,700+ $131,628 plus 39.6% of the excess over $470,700

Table 4. 2017 Standard Deduction and Personal Exemption

Filing Status Deduction Amount
Single $6,350
Married Filing Jointly $12,700
Head of Household $9,350
Personal Exemption $4,050

5.27.2 2017 Tax Checklist (Incomplete)   personalme

Wages & Salaries

  • [X] Wages from MEDTRONIC INC (W-2)
  • [X] Wages from MEDTRONIC INC (W-2)

Interest & Dividends - 1099-INT/1099-DIV/1099-OID

  • [X] Interest from TD AMERITRADE CLEARING INC (1099-INT)
  • [X] Interest from Fidelity (1099-INT)
  • Interest from USAA FEDERAL SAVINGS BANK (1099-INT) (Nothing as <$10)
  • Interest from USAA FEDERAL SAVINGS BANK (1099-INT) (Nothing as <$10)
  • [X] Interest from ALLY BANK (1099-INT)
  • [X] Interest from Capital One N.A. (1099-INT)
  • [X] Interest from Community First C.U. of Florida (1099-INT)
  • [X] Dividends from TD AMERITRADE CLEARING INC (1099-DIV)
  • [X] Dividends from Medtronic PLC (1099-DIV)
  • [X] Dividends from National Financial Services (1099-DIV)
  • [X] Dividends from National Financial Services (1099-DIV)
  • [X] Original issue discount from LendingClub Corporation (1099-OID)

Retirement - 1099-R

  • [X] Matt Trad IRA
  • [X] Erica Trad IRA

Miscellaneous Income (1099-MISC)

  • [ ]

Self-employed income (Schedule C)

Distributions from MSA or HSA

  • [ ] Distributions from Optum Bank (1099-SA)

Deductions and Credits:

Home Mortgage Interest Interest paid to JPMORGAN CHASE BANK, N.A. (1098) Interest paid to PHH Mortgage Services (1098)

Charitable Donations Donations to Goodwill Donations to Human Rights Campaign Donations to Planned Parenthood Federation of America Donations to EQUALITY FLORIDA Donations to Special Olympics of Minnesota

Auto Registration Fees Mini Cooper S Hardtop Volvo XC60

5.27.3 2018 Tax Checklist   personalme

Wages & Salaries

    • Matt-2018-W2
  • [X] Wages from MEDTRONIC INC (W-2)
    • 2018W2ELeon

Interest & Dividends - 1099-INT/1099-DIV/1099-OID

  • [ ] Dividends from Medtronic PLC (1099-DIV) (AONHEWITT)
    • Pending
  • [X] Interest from Fidelity (National Financial Services) (1099-INT/1099-Div/1099-Misc)
    • [X] Joint
      • 2018-E&M-JOINT-Investments-X84719358-Consolidated-Form-1099-and-Supplemental-Information
    • [X] Erica
      • 2018-EL-Individual-X90536761-Consolidated-Form-1099-and-Supplemental-Information
  • [X] Interest from TD AMERITRADE CLEARING INC (1099-INT/1099-Div/1099-Misc)
    • TdAmeritradeAccount-938053980
  • [X] Interest from ALLY BANK (1099-INT)
    • Ally-2018-1099-INT
  • [X] Interest from USAA FEDERAL SAVINGS BANK (1099-INT)
    • (Nothing as <$10)
  • [X] Interest from Capital One N.A. (1099-INT)
    • 20181099INTELeon-CapitalOne
  • [X] Interest from Community First C.U. of Florida (1099-INT)
    • (Nothing as <$10)
  • [X] Original issue discount from LendingClub Corporation (1099-B)
    • LendingClub-Consolidated-2018

Retirement - 1099-R

  • [X] Matt Trad IRA
    • Did not contribute - Nothing in 2018
  • [X] Erica Trad IRA
    • Did not contribute - Nothing in 2018
  • [X] Erica Roth Tax Docs (5498)
    • 2018-ROTH-IRA-230223724-Form-5498-EL
    • 2018-Rollover-IRA-143687782-Form-5498-EL

Miscellaneous Income (1099-MISC)

  • [X] Jax Rental Property (1099-Misc)
    • 2018Form1099MISCRentalProp

Self-employed income (Schedule C)

  • Nothing :(

Distributions from MSA or HSA

  • [X] Distributions from Optum Bank (1099-SA)
    • 2018Form1099-SAOptumHSA

Deductions and Credits:

Home Mortgage Interest

  • [X] Interest paid to JPMORGAN CHASE BANK, N.A. (1098)
    • 1042-Chase-2018-taxdocuments
  • [X] Interest paid to LoanCare (1098)
    • 1272-LoanCare-2018-Jax-house

Charitable Donations

  • [X] Donations to The V Foundation
    • $110
  • [X] Donations to CVMA
    • $20
  • [X] Donations to Girls on the Run
    • $20
  • [X] Donations to Goodwill
    • $200
  • [X] Donations to Human Rights Campaign
    • $179

Auto Registration Fees

  • [X] Volvo XC60 (Aug), Mini Cooper S Hardtop/Kawasaki (Sep)
    • $103.20

Tax prep 2017

  • [X] $65

5.28 What to do when you retire

more needed When you retire early, you Use up your taxable accounts first.

On your first day of freedom, you log into your account, find the option for what to do with dividends, and set those to get automatically deposited into your checking account.

Right now, the VTI fund happens to pay a 1.89% annual dividend, which means that the $500,000 account in that green box above will pay $9000 in annual dividends straight to you.

Then, if you're shooting for $40,000 of annual spending, simply set up an automatic monthly withdrawal of an additional $31,000 per year ($2583 per month) to be sent to your checking account, which is set to automatically pay off your credit card, which you use to buy your groceries.

6 Fitness

6.1 Diet

6.1.1 My Daily Nutrition Goals

  • Total Daily Energy Expenditure: 2400
  • Goal calories (20% of TDEE): 1929kcal


  • Carbs 125g - 499kcal (30%)
  • Sugar <37g - <150kcal
  • Fats 70g - 630 kcal (30%)
  • Protein 200g - 800kcal (40%)
  • Fiber 28g

6.1.2 3-4-5

Breakfast: 300 kCal Snack: 150 kCal Lunch: 400 kCal Snack: 150 kCal Dinner:: 500 kCal

Total: 1500 kCal

6.1.3 4x400

Breakfast: 400 kCal Brunch: 400 kCal Late lunch: 400 kCal Dinner: 400 kCal

Total: 1600 kCal

6.1.4 13 Foods That Are as Inexpensive as They Are Healthy

  1. Brown Rice
    • An affordable staple in many parts of the world, rice is more filling and much healthier in its brown (unprocessed) form. Brown rice is an excellent source for fiber and contains such nutrients as selenium and iron. What’s even better is how versatile brown rice is. While it can be eaten on its own, brown rice can also serve as an ingredient in many delicious recipes, from soups to stews to casseroles.
  2. Oatmeal
    • Dirt cheap, filling, and packed with nutrients, oatmeal is an almost perfect food for folks without much cash to spare. Oatmeal is an especially good source for fiber, which is necessary for the digestive system to function properly, and can help lower cholesterol. Oats also contain omega-3 fatty acids, potassium, and folate. When buying oatmeal, consumers should avoid flavored varieties, which contain added sugar.
  3. Bananas
    • Bananas maintain a low price year round, and are extremely healthy to boot. This natural snack food is notably high in potassium, B vitamins, and fiber, and has smaller quantities of vitamin A and healthy carbohydrates. Bananas are especially helpful to the budget consumer since most fruits are not particularly cheap.
  4. Beans
    • Since they provide lots of protein, beans are as filling and satisfying as they are cheap. Enjoyable on their own, beans are a great way to boost a meal’s nutritional content, since they can be used as an ingredient in many different recipes. Beans are also a valuable source for such nutrients as potassium, an excellent way to consume enough fiber, and often contain antioxidants. Plus, beans can be bought in bulk for greater savings.
  5. Almonds
    • Though most nuts are expensive, almonds are a happy exception. Almonds are the ideal snack since they provide a quick burst of energy and are much healthier than most other snack foods. Healthy (monounsaturated) fats, magnesium, vitamin E, and vitamin B are the most significant of the important vitamin and minerals found in almonds. Almonds are a valuable source for protein and fiber as well. Studies have found that almonds contribute to heart health and help lower cholesterol.
  6. Whole-wheat bread
    • Sandwiches, one of the cheapest and most convenient meals there is, are too often created with nutrient-poor white bread. A far better choice is fiber-rich whole-wheat bread, which is just as inexpensive, but much healthier. A grain’s nutritional value is almost entirely contained in its germ and bran, which are generally removed except in products like whole-wheat bread.
  7. Spinach
    • Vegetables are crucial to any diet, and spinach is one of the most nutrient-dense veggies there is, making it an excellent choice for those on a budget. Spinach is packed with vitamins and minerals such as folate, magnesium, vitamin A, vitamin K, and vitamin E. Though spinach on its own may be unpalatable to some, it can also be used as an ingredient in salads, soups, and many other dishes.
  8. Canned tuna
    • As convenient as a food can be, canned tuna is an economical way to get a significant amount of the protein and calories the body needs every day. Even better, canned tuna is a great source for omega-3 fatty acids, which are necessary for many basic bodily functions and are crucial to brain health. Vitamin B12 (crucial for processing food into energy) and niacin (which helps the skin and digestive system stay healthy) are found in tuna as well.
  9. Whole milk
    • Although high in fat, milk’s nutritional value to cost ratio simply can’t be ignored. Since it is high in protein, milk will help drinkers feel full and satiated for longer. Milk is a great source for calcium (crucial to bone integrity), vitamin D, and potassium. Also found in milk are such minerals and vitamins as phosphorus, magnesium, zinc, and vitamin B12. Bottom line: milk provides a fantastic nutritional bang for its buck.
  10. Peanut butter
    • High in protein, peanut butter will provide a big energy boost and stave off hunger for hours — two qualities important to people needing to save on food. Though peanut butter is rich in fat, this fat is mostly healthy, heart-friendly monounsaturated fat. Magnesium, vitamin E, and potassium are also found in peanut butter.
  11. Frozen vegetables
    • Besides the specific veggies mentioned above, frozen vegetables of almost any type are a great deal for consumers. Surprisingly, frozen vegetables are also generally at least as healthy as the fresh stuff. As soon as they are harvested, frozen vegetables are flash frozen, locking in almost all available nutrients. In contrast, fresh vegetables start losing their nutritional value immediately after being picked. Cheaper and healthier — frozen vegetables are a fantastic buy.
  12. Eggs
    • Eggs are so rich in protein they could be described as nature’s answer to protein powder, which means that consuming a hard boiled egg will promote feelings of fullness and provide a big energy boost, making them an excellent value purchase. Plus, B vitamins, vitamin D, iron, and carotenoids are found in eggs.
  13. Whole-grain pasta
    • A classic budget-friendly meal, normal pasta is, however, not especially healthy. A much better choice is the whole-grain variant of pasta, which is still extremely cheap. Whole-grain pasta is more nutritious than regular pasta because it contains three times as much fiber, double the calcium, extra protein, and higher amounts of substances such as selenium, phosphorus, B vitamins, magnesium, manganese, and copper.

As the above list clearly shows, the idea that eating nutritiously and saving money are mutually exclusive is wrong. Neither a limited budget nor a desire to cut expenses is a serious barrier to eating a good diet. The key is simply to prioritize consumption of foods that are both cheap and highly nutritious

6.1.5 Flexitarian

Becoming a flexitarian is about adding five food groups to your diet – not taking any away.

These are:

  1. the “new meat” (tofu, beans, lentils, peas, nuts and seeds, and eggs)
  2. fruits and veggies
  3. whole grains
  4. dairy
  5. sugar and spice (everything from dried herbs to salad dressing to agave nectar sweetener)

6.1.6 Healthy snack bars


  • Avoid bars with >20%dv of saturated fat (2.6gm)
  • Avoid the need for added sugar.
    • "added sugar" is defined as honey, maple syrup, and any other sweeteners that do not come from some form of fruit.
    • Date paste, raisins, and raisin juice are not considered forms of added sugar.
  • To keep you full, bars should contain at least:
    • 5 grams each of fiber, protein, and unsaturated fat.
  1. Healthy snack/meal replacement bar

    General Ideas

    • <200 cal (snack)
    • <8g sugar (snack)
    • 5-15g protein
    • 5-10g fiber
    • 300-400 cal (meal replacement)
    • Aim for 30g carbs (meal replacement)
    • <15g sugar (meal replacement)
    • Similar amount of sugar and protein gram for gram (meal replacement)
      • The “net carbs” in the protein bar is the total carbs minus the grams of fiber. If the amount of net carbs is less than the grams of protein, that’s a positive sign.
    • >8g mostly unsaturated fats for meal replacements
    • Small ingredient list - try to hold the ingredient list to fewer than 10 items


    1. KIND Cashew and Ginger Spice
      • Bar type: snack
      • Calories: 200
      • Fiber: 5g
      • Protein: 6g
      • Sugar: 4g
    2. KIND Dark Chocolate Chili Almond
      • Bar type: snack
      • Calories: 200
      • Fiber: 7g
      • Protein: 6g
      • Sugar: 5g
    3. KIND Dark Chocolate Nuts and Sea Salt
      • Bar type: snack
      • Calories: 200
      • Fiber: 7g
      • Protein: 6g
      • Sugar: 5g
    4. Clif Bars - Black Cherry Almond
      • Bar Stats: Meal Replacement
      • 250 calories
      • 10g protein
      • 5g fat (1.5g saturated)
      • 5g fiber
      • 20g sugar
    5. Health Warrior Chia Bar
      • Bar type: snack
      • Calories: 100
      • Fiber: 4g
      • Protein: 3g
      • Sugar: 5g
    6. Ginnybakes Karma, Love, and Apricot Ginnybar
      • Bar type: snack
      • Calories: 190
      • Fiber: 4g
      • Protein: 4g
      • Sugar: 7g
    7. Larabar Renola Cocoa Coconut
      • Bar type: snack
      • Calories: 200
      • Fiber: 3g
      • Protein: 5g
      • Sugar: 5g
    8. Larabar Uber Dark Chocolate Turtle
      • Bar type: meal replacement
      • Calories: 220
      • Fiber: 3g
      • Protein: 5g
      • Sugar: 8g
    9. Simple Squares Coffee
      • Bar type: meal replacement
      • Calories: 230
      • Fiber: 3g
      • Protein: 6g
      • Sugar: 9g
    10. Rise Almond Honey Protein Bar
      • Bar type: meal replacement
      • Calories: 280
      • Fiber: 4g
      • Protein: 20g
      • Sugar: 13g

6.1.7 IIFYM - If It Fits Your Macros - My diet

The 40/40/20 ratio is the typical low-fat, high-protein bodybuilder diet many of us are accustomed to seeing. The 30/20/50 ratio is a relatively high-fat, low-carbohydrate diet. The 20/50/30 ratio represents what the typical American diet looks like.

Once you know your macro ratio, it's time to put those percents to good use and turn them into actual calories. For example, let's say you're going to eat 2,500 calories in a 40/40/20 split. In that case, 40 percent of your total (1,000 calories) would come from protein; 40 percent (1,000 calories) would come from carbs; and 20 percent (500 calories) would be from fat.

When you know how many calories you should eat from each subgroup, divide them by the calories in 1 gram of each macro. A gram of carbohydrate has 4 calories, one gram of protein has 4, and one gram of fat has 9.

So, continuing with 2,500 calories broken down into 40/40/20, 1,000 calories from protein would be 250 grams; 1,000 calories from carbs would be 250 grams; and 500 calories from fat would be 55 grams. Every day, you'll aim to eat 250 grams of protein, 250 grams of carbs, and 55 grams of fat. Voila!

6.1.8 Portion estimates

  • Thumb tip = 1 tsp
    • 1 serving of butter
  • Thumb = about an ounce
    • 1 serving of cheese
  • 2 Thumbs = 1 tbsp
    • 1 serving of nut butters
  • Handful = 1 ounce
    • 1 serving of nuts
  • Fist = 1 cup
    • 1 serving of fruit or vegetables
  • Palm = 3 ounces
    • 1 serving of meat

6.1.9 Protein


6.2 Workouts

6.2.1 A Full-Body Strength Workout That Has Just 5 Moves


  • Farmer carry
  • Goblet squat
  • Romanian deadlift
  • Bent-over row
  • Push-up

6.2.2 Aerobic

  1. 10-20-30 Running/Riding

    The essentials of 10-20-30 training are simple.

    Run, ride or perhaps row on a rowing machine gently for 30 seconds, accelerate to a moderate pace for 20 seconds, then sprint as hard as you can for 10 seconds.

    (It should be called 30-20-10 training, obviously, but that is not as catchy.)



  2. Jump Rope Training Progression



    -Rope Length -Grip -Resting Position -Basic Jumps

    1. STEP 1: BASE PHASE - MASTER BASIC TECHNIQUES a. Developing Jump Rope Proficiency GOAL: 140 jumps without miss in 5 sessions per week TECHNIQUE: bounce step, then alternate-foot step TIME: 2 weeks b. Developing Jump Rope Capacity GOAL: 1 set of 500 consecutive jumps, 4-5 times per week, at min 160 RPM TECHNIQUE: Alternating bounce and alternate-foot step TIME: 2 weeks
    2. STEP 2: CONDITIONING PHASE - DEVELOP SKILLS AND ENDURANCE c. Level 1: (Single Jump) GOAL: 10 min of jumping at 180 RPM TECHNIQUES: Varied TIME: 4 weeks d. Level 2: (Double Jump) GOAL: 10 minutes TECHNIQUE: Varied, but including power jumps (two rotations in one jump) TIME: 2 weeks e. Level 3: (Triple Jump) GOAL: Optional, 10 minutes TECHNIQUE: Varied, but including triple jumps TIME: Optional
    3. STEP 3: SPORTS TRAINING PHASE GOAL: 10 minutes, 180-240 RPM minimum TECHNIQUE: Varied TIME: 2-4 weeks

      A rope length equal to the distance from the jumping surface to your shoulder is ideal for mastering the 15 basic jumping techniques and can enable you to produce up to 200 RPM (3.3 RPS). A rope adjusted at shoulder height will clear your head by about a foot (30 cm) as you execute basic jump rope movements. As you become more proficient at jumping, you can reduce your rope length so that the rope clears your head by 6 to 10 inches (15 to 25 cm) during high-speed jump rope training sessions. As noted earlier, consider carefully whether making such an adjustment will simulate the movement and energy demands of your sport better than the shoulder measurement does.

      To use the shoulder measurement to determine your proper rope length, follow these steps:

      1. Stand on the center of the rope with one foot.
      2. Pull the handles up along the side of your body so that the ends of the handles extend no higher than your shoulder. If the handles extend beyond your shoulders, the rope is too long, which will cause excessive drag through the air, reduce the rope’s rotational speed, and increase the frequency of catches and tangles. These effects, in turn, will reduce your duration of continuation, even if you are using a lightweight speed rope.
      3. If the rope is too long, adjust the length by temporarily tying knots in the rope. Though it may slightly reduce your rope-jumping efficiency, you may need to tie more than one knot on each side in order to establish the proper rope-jumping length. Once you become comfortable with the proper rope length, take out the knots and make a permanent adjustment to an appropriate rope length. Avoid cutting the rope too short, since doing so may force you to purchase another rope.


      1. Grip the handle with your thumb and index finger on the foam grip or at the center of the handle.
      2. Wrap your hand around the handle.
      3. Maintain a grip that is firm yet comfortable and relaxed. To avoid wrist soreness, never use a tight grip.
      4. Turn the rope by making 2-inch (5 cm) circles with your wrists.
      5. Keep your elbows lightly tucked to your sides without letting them make contact with your rib cage.
      6. Position your hands on a horizontal plane no more than 2 inches (5 cm) lower than your

      hips. If you find that you must position your hands on a horizontal plane above your hips, shorten your rope. Jumping with your hands held above hip level reduces your intensity levels, or revolutions per minute (RPM), and your duration of continuation.

      1. Keep the rope handles parallel with the jumping surface.


      Rope behind your knees, arms extended forward, just below just level, hands gripping the rope.



      1. Jump with your feet together.
      2. Jump just high enough to clear the rope (no more than 3/4 inch [1.9 cm] from the jumping surface) by pushing from the balls of your feet while slightly bending your knees and flexing your ankles.
      3. Land lightly on the balls of your feet.
      4. Stay on the balls of your feet and repeat steps 2 and 3.
      5. Do not double bounce


      1. Jump by lifting your knees forward without kicking your feet backward (kicking your feet behind you while executing this technique can cause your feet to catch the rope). You may raise your nonjumping foot a little higher than an inch (2.5 cm) from the jumping surface.
      2. Swing the rope around and jump over it with one foot; on the second turn of the rope, jump over it with your other foot.
      3. Continue alternating your feet (lifting your knees as if you were jogging in place) at a slow pace until you establish a comfortable jumping rhythm.
      4. Count only the jumps with your right foot, then multiply by two to calculate your total number of jumps per set.

      ULTIMATE GOAL: 1 set of 500 consecutive jumps, 4-5 times per week, at min 160 RPM TECHNIQUES: Bounce Step, Alternate Foot Step TOTAL TIME: 4 weeks


      GOAL: 140 jumps without miss in 5 sessions per week TECHNIQUE: bounce step, then alternate-foot step TIME: 2 weeks

      1. Practice to master the two basic skills of jumping; master the bounce step first, then move on to the alternate-foot step.
      2. Your goal is to execute 1 set of 140 jumps without a miss in 5 sessions per week.
      3. Begin with as few as 5 to 10 jumps per set. Do a total of 10 sets per training session. Jump for 5 minutes. Rest as needed between sets.
      4. Gradually increase your number of jumps in each set by adding 10 to 25 reps in subsequent sessions as your timing and jump rope capacity improve. As your proficiency improves, you will need fewer sets to reach 140 consecutive jumps in each session.
      5. Follow the same steps for mastering the alternate-foot step.


      GOAL: 1 set of 500 consecutive jumps, 4-5 times per week, at min 160 RPM TECHNIQUE: Alternating bounce and alternate-foot step TIME: 2 weeks

      The following strategy will help you develop basic jump rope capacity:

      1. Perfect the two basic skills of jumping (the bounce step and the alternate-foot step) so that you can easily make the transition between one skill and the next without losing rhythm and timing. Make 4 jumps with one skill before executing the next one. For ex- ample, execute 4 bounce steps followed by 4 alternate-foot steps while jumping no more than 3/4 inch (1.9 cm) off the surface on each jump. By the end of the first week, you should be able to perform 200 consecutive jumps. Next, try to reach 500 total jumps in 3 sets; then aim for 500 total jumps in 2 sets.
      2. I recommend that you break your goal of 500 total jumps into 2 or 3 sets. Here are three possible combinations:

      150 + 200 + 150 200 + 300 250 + 250

      1. Work up to 1 set of 500 consecutive jumps (without catches or tangles of the rope) while alternating between the bounce step and the alternate-foot step at a minimum pace of 160 RPM.

      ULTIMATE GOAL: 10 min of jumping at 180 RPM TECHNIQUE: Varied, including double-jump or optionally triple jump TIME: 6+ weeks

      c. CONDITIONING PHASE LEVEL 1: (Single Jump)

      GOAL: 10 min of jumping at 180 RPM TECHNIQUES: Varied TIME: 4 weeks

      • Week 1: Progress from 500 jumps in 1 set to 5 to 10 minutes of continuous jumping at a pace of 160 to 180 RPM while alternating between the bounce step and the alternate-foot step. • Week 2: Continue building from 5 to 10 minutes of jumping while incorporating the basic bounce and alternate-foot step, but expand your jump rope training regimen to include the high step, side straddle, forward straddle, skier’s jump, and bell jump. Maintain your commitment to jump for 5 to 10 minutes per session using the two basic techniques while adding the new techniques. Try to perform 500 repetitions of the new skills during each session. Try to maintain an intensity level of 160 to 180 RPM (2.7 to 3 RPS). In order to gradually build your jump rope capacity to 500 jumps, I recommend that you break these sessions into 2 to 4 sets, with at least 1 set consisting of 150 or more continuous jumps (or up to 50 seconds at 3 RPS). Try to rest for 30 to 60 seconds between sets (taking extended recovery time reduces the training benefit for your anaerobic energy system). Ideally, add one new jump rope skill to each session during the second week and then combine all the skills in the week’s Final training session. • Week 3: Expand your regimen from the basic bounce and alternate- foot step, continuing to build from 5 to a total of 10 minutes of jumping, this time by adding the half twister, full twister, X-foot cross, forward shuffle, and backward shuffle. Maintain a commitment to jump 10 minutes per session using the two basic techniques while adding the new techniques for this week. Try to perform 500 repetitions total of the new skills during each session. As with the previous week, keep your intensity level between 160 and 180 RPM, but this time establish a goal of 300 continuous jumps. During your final training session for this week, include each of the 10 new rope-jumping techniques. Again, add at least one, but not more than two, of the new techniques during each training session. • Week 4: Jump to increase your jump rope capacity from 5 to 10 minutes while mixing in new skills with the two basic jumps. Enhance your repertoire by adding the heel-to-toe, backward, arm crossover, arm side swing, and side swing jump. Commit to jumping for 10 minutes per session using the two basic techniques while adding the new techniques for this week. Try to perform 500 repetitions of the new skills during each session. Maintain appropriate intensity levels and limit your recovery times to 30 to 60 seconds after each set. Also, challenge yourself to keep jumping until you reach 500 continuous jumps in a sequence that incorporates each of the 15 jump rope techniques. Again, add at least one, but not more than two, of the new techniques to each training session.


      GOAL: 10 minutes TECHNIQUE: Varied, but including power jumps (two rotations in one jump) TIME: 2 weeks

      • Week1,sessions1&amp;2: Complete 5 minutes of jumping,incorporating the 15 techniques you learned in level 1. Then add the basic power jump and the power alternate-foot step. Practice jumping for 5 minutes with these new techniques in sets of 25 jumps with rest periods in between as needed. • Week1,sessions3&amp;4: Complete 5 minutes of jumping, incorporating the 15 techniques you learned in level 1, including the basic power jump and the power alternate-foot step techniques. Then practice for 5 minutes with the new power jumps, in this case the power high step, the power side straddle, and the power forward straddle in sets of 25 jumps with rest periods in between as needed. In addition, mix in rotating cycles of 10 to 15 jumps each for the 15 basic techniques you learned in level 1. • Week2,sessions1&amp;2: Complete 5 minutes of jumping, incorporating the 15 techniques you learned in level 1, including the ve new power jumps you learned in week 1. In the next 5 minutes, add sets of 25 jumps of the power skier’s jump, power bell jump, and power X-foot cross with rest periods in between as needed. • Week2,sessions3&amp;4: Complete 5 minutes of jumping, incorporating the 15 techniques you learned in level 1, including the eight new power jumps you learned in previous sessions. During the subsequent 5 minutes, add sets of 25 jumps of the power arm crossover and the power side swing with rest periods in between as needed. Mix in with rotating cycles of 10 to 15 jumps each for the 15 basic techniques you learned in level 1. Establish a goal of 300 or more continuous jumps, including all 25 jump rope techniques.

      Basic Power Jump:

      1. Start with the bounce-step stance.
      2. Execute three bounce-step jumps.
      3. On the fourth jump, bend your knees forward, push off, and jump at least 5 inches (13 cm) from the jumping surface while turning your wrists a little faster so that the rope passes under your feet twice in one jump.
      4. Repeat.
      5. When you have developed your rhythm and timing for this sequence, perform 2 consecutive power jumps, then 3, then 4, and so on.
      6. Once you are able to perform 20 consecutive power jumps, concentrate on decreasing the height of your jump to 2 inches (5 cm) off the ground.


      I recommend that you attempt the triple jump only after you have mastered all of the power jumps. The triple jump represents the beginning of level 3 and requires you to exert more push upon takeoff and greater control upon landing in order to minimize impact and minimize your risk of injury. This technique is not required, but it can serve as an additional way to challenge yourself to move on to another level once you have mastered all of the 25 techniques included in levels 1 and 2.


      GOAL: 10 minutes, 180-240 RPM minimum TECHNIQUE: Varied TIME: 2-4 weeks

      • Week 1, session 1. Warm up with 3 minutes of the bounce step and the alternate-foot step at an intensity level of 160 to 240 RPM. Spend 2 minutes integrating the skier’s jump and the forward straddle at the same intensity level (but trying to stay above 180 RPM). Next, spend 5 minutes adding as many as 10 more techniques of your choice into a combination regimen at intensity levels that reach the range of 3.7 to 4 RPS for 15 to 30 seconds at least three times. Try not to allow your intensity level to fall below 180 RPM at any time during this 5-minute session. • Week 1, session 2. Warm up with 3 minutes of the bounce step and the alternate-foot step at an intensity level of 180 to 240 RPM. Then spend 2 minutes integrating the side straddle and X-foot cross at the same intensity level. Next, spend 5 minutes adding 5 more techniques of your own choice into a combination regimen at intensity levels that reach the range of 3.7 to 4 RPS for 30 to 45 seconds at least three times. Try not to allow your intensity level to fall below 180 RPM at any time during this 5-minute session. • Week 1, session 3. Warm up with 3 minutes of the bounce step and the alternate-foot step at an intensity level of 180 to 240 RPM. Then spend 2 minutes integrating the bell and skier’s jump at the same intensity level. Next, spend 5 minutes incorporating all 25 techniques from levels 1 and 2 into a combination regimen at intensity levels that reach the range of 3.7 to 4 RPS for 45 to 60 seconds at least three times. Try not to allow your intensity levels to fall below 180 RPM at any time during this 5-minute session. • Week 2, session 1. Perform 4 minutes of continuous jumping with the 25 techniques from levels 1 and 2 at an intensity level of 160 to 240 RPM. Then do 6 minutes of continuous rope jumping at intensity levels ranging from 3 to 4 RPS (180 to 240 RPM) and including two blasts of maximum RPM for 60 to 90 seconds. At no time should you allow your RPM to drop below 180 during this last 5-minute set. • Week 2, session 2. Perform 2 minutes of continuous jumping with the 25 techniques from levels 1 and 2 at an intensity level of 160 to 240 RPM. Then do 7 minutes of continuous jumping at intensity levels ranging from 3 to 4 RPS (180 to 240 RPM) and including at least two blasts of maximum RPM for 90 to 120 seconds. At no time should you allow your RPM to drop below 180 during this last 7-minute set. • Week 2, session 3. Perform 2 minutes of continuous jumping with the 25 techniques from levels 1 and 2 at an intensity level of 160 to 240 RPM. Then do 8 minutes of continuous jumping with these techniques at intensity levels ranging from 3 to 4 RPS (180 to 240 RPM) and including two or more blasts of maximum RPM for 120 or more seconds. At no time should you allow your intensity level to drop below 180 RPM during each set.

  3. New Ultra Plan

    Run 60 min daily 5d a week

    Vary intensity Can break up into 2/30 min jogs

  4. Runs


    1. 11.5mi Jax out and back


    1. 11.5mi WP Circle
    2. 7.27mi if to Cady Way park only 8.8mi if to Semoran 9.97mi if to Forsyth


    1. 7mi Sanford Loop
    2. 9.44mi Sanford out and back
  5. Run/Walk

    Run: 10:00 Walk: 13:45 Avg: 10:28 @ 5/1

  6. Ultra-training

    A run/walk pattern of 15 minutes running with 3 minutes walking seems to work well. - Great running site

    Try the Jimbo Test. Picture three things in your mind; a cold drink, a cheeseburger, and a slice of cake.

    • If the cold drink appeals, then you're probably thirsty/dehydrated. (Remember, drink to thirst as over-hydration kills.)
    • If the cheeseburger appeals, then you're either after fat or salt.
    • If the cake appeals, then you'll probably have to some carbohydrate.

6.2.3 Bodyweight

  1. 2 exercises that will keep you fit for life
    1. Burpees
    2. Jump Rope
  2. 7 Min Workout - A series of 12 exercise

    There are 12 exercises.

    • Each should take 30 seconds, with a 10-second "break".
    • Jumping jacks
    • Wall sit
    • Push-up
    • Abdominal crunch
    • Step-up onto chair
    • Squat
    • Triceps dip on chair
    • Plank
    • High knees running in place
    • Lunge
    • Push-up and rotation
    • Side plank
  3. 28 Days Plank Challenge
    1. Dаy 1 20 seconds
    2. Dаy 2 20 seconds
    3. Dаy 3 30 seconds
    4. Dаy 4 30 seconds
    5. Dаy 5 40 seconds
    6. Dаy 6 Rest
    7. Dаy 7 45 second
    8. Dаy 8 45 seconds
    9. Dаy 9 60 seconds
    10. Dаy 10 60 seconds
    11. Dаy 11 60 seconds
    12. Dаy 12 90 seconds
    13. Dаy 13 Rest
    14. Dаy 14 90 seconds
    15. Dаy 15 90 seconds
    16. Dаy 16 120 seconds
    17. Dаy 17 120 seconds
    18. Dаy 18 150 seconds
    19. Dаy 19 Rest
    20. Dаy 20 150 seconds
    21. Dаy 21 150 seconds
    22. Dаy 22 180 seconds
    23. Dаy 23 180 seconds
    24. Dаy 24 210 seconds
    25. Dаy 25 Rest
    26. Dаy 26 210 seconds
    27. Dаy 27 240 seconds
    28. Dаy 28 As much аs you like or cаn
  4. 3-day workout routine

    Even though you can choose which days to go to the gym, it is recommended that you leave at least one day of rest between each workout.

    Here is the suggested combination for your easy three-day workout routine.

    • Day 1 - Chest, back, abdominal muscles, and cardiovascular exercises (30 minutes)
    • Day 2 - Day off
    • Day 3 - Shoulders, legs, abdominal muscles, and cardiovascular exercises (30 minutes)
    • Day 4 - Day off
    • Day 5 - Biceps, triceps, abdominal muscles, and cardiovascular exercises (30 minutes)
    • Day 6 - Day off
    • Day 7 - Day off
  5. Barstarz

    Whole body: (3 sets)

    • Pullups
    • Australian pullups (same # as pullups)
    • Dips
    • Reverse crunches
    • Air Squats ending with toe raises
    • Lunges
    • Pushups

    Legs: (3 sets)

    • Squats
    • Lunges
    • Calf raises
  6. Daily?

    Squats: 60 Push-ups: 30 Mountain climbers: 30 Lunges: 60 Jumping Jacks: 45

  7. Reddit's BWF

    Stretches (5-10 reps each)

    • Wall extensions
    • Band dislocates
    • Cat-Camel
    • Scapular shrugs
    • Full body circles
    • Front leg swings
    • Side leg swings
    • Wrist mobility


    Bodyline work (10-60s each)

    • Plank
    • Side plank
    • Reverse plank
    • Hollow hold (leg lift hold)
    • Arch hold (superman)

    Skill work (5-10min)

    • Handstand
    • Support


    Strength work (Rest 90s-3m between sets; 10x0 tempo = Do 1s down, no pause, explode up, no pause at top).

    Pairing two exercises means doing a set of the first exercise, then resting 90 seconds, then doing a set of the second exercise and resting 90 seconds, and then repeating until you've done all sets of that pair.

    • Pair 1: a - Pullup (3x 5-8 reps) b - Dips (3x 5-8 reps)
    • Pair 2: a - Squats (3x 5-8 reps) b - L-sits (3x 10-30s)
    • Pair 3: a - Pushups (3x 5-8 reps) b - Row (3x 5-8 reps)


    • Pullup
      • Negative
      • Assisted pullup (105/45)*
      • Pullup
      • L-sit pullup
      • Pullover
    • Support
      • Parrallel bar dips assisted (105/45)*
      • Parrallel bar dips
      • Ring dips
      • Rings L-sit dips
    • Squat
      • Assisted squat
      • Squat*
      • Deep step-up
    • L-sit
      • Foot supported L-sit
      • One-leg foot supported L-sit (30s)*
      • Tuck L-sit
      • Advanced tuck L-sit/One-leg L-sit
      • L-sit
    • Pushup
      • Vertical
      • Incline
      • Full*
      • Diamond
      • Rings wide
      • Rings
      • RTO
      • RTO PPPU
    • Row
      • Vertical
      • Incline (TRX) *
      • Horizontal
      • Wide
      • Tuck front lever
      • Tuck ice cream maker
      • Tuck front lever
      • Advanced tuck front lever

6.2.4 Gif Exercise Examples

6.2.5 Push Pull Legs   edit

Push Pull Legs has been around forever, and for good reason: it’s simple, it makes good biomechanical sense, and it works.

  • Day 1 - Push
    • On this day you train your chest, shoulders, and triceps.
  • Day 2 - Pull
    • On this day you train your back and biceps.
  • Day 3 - Legs
    • I think you know what this entails.


Day 1

  • Chest & Triceps
    • The triceps are heavily involved in your chest training so it makes sense to train them directly as well.

Day 2

  • Back & Biceps
    • The back & biceps relationship mirrors the chest & triceps, which is why they are usually combined.

Day 3

  • Legs & Shoulders
    • These muscle groups are obviously completely unrelated, but they’re what’s left so they get combined. And they make for a tough workout.

The Best Chest Exercises

Incline Barbell Bench Press

Incline Dumbbell Bench Press

Flat Barbell Bench Press

Flat Dumbbell Bench Press

Dip (Chest Variation)

The Best Back Exercises

Barbell Deadlift

Barbell Row

One-Arm Dumbbell Row


Lat Pulldown (Front and Close-Grip)

T-Bar Row

Seated Cable Row (Wide- and Close-Grip)


Barbell Shrug

The Best Shoulder Exercises

Seated Barbell Military Press or Standing Barbell Military Press

Seated Dumbbell Press or Arnold Dumbbell Press

Dumbbell Side Lateral Raise or One-Arm Dumbbell Side Lateral Raise

Rear Delt Raise (Bent-Over or Seated)

Face Pull

Barbell Rear Delt Row

Dumbbell Front Raise

The Best Leg Exercises

Barbell Squat

Front Squat

Hack Squat (sled, not barbell)

Leg Press

Barbell Lunge (Walking or In Place)

Dumbbell Lunge

Romanian Deadlift

Leg Curl (Lying or Seated)

The Best Biceps Exercises

Barbell Curl

E-Z Bar Curl

Dumbbell Curl

Hammer Curl


The Best Triceps Exercises

Close-Grip Bench Press

Seated Triceps Press

Dip (Triceps Variation)

Lying Triceps Extension (“Skullcrusher”)

Triceps Pushdown

6.2.6 Reddit Bodyweight Plan

The routine is intended to be done three days per week.

It’s a full body workout.

Instead of specific exercises, it includes categories of exercises. For each, you choose the exercise in that category that you can do for about 5 reps.

  1. Warm-up movements
    • 5-10 Yuri's Shoulder Band Warmup
    • 5-10 Squat Sky Reaches
    • 10+ GMB Wrist Prep
    • 30s Deadbugs
    • 10 Arch Hangs (add these after you reach Negative Pull-ups)
    • 30s Support Hold (add these after you reach Negative Dips)
    • 10 Easier Squat progression (add these after you reach Bulgarian Split Squats)
    • 10 Easier Hinge progression (add these after you reach Banded Nordic Curls)
  2. Superset 1: pull-up and squat
  3. Superset 2: dip and hinge
  4. Superset 3: row and pushup
  5. Superset: anti-extension, anti-rotation, and extension core exercises

Example of exercises

Pair 1

3x 5-8 Squat Progression 3x 5-8 Pull-up Progression
Level 1: Assisted squat Level 1: Scapular Pulls
Level 2: Squat Level 2: Arch Hangs
Level 3: Bulgarian Split Squat Level 3: Negative Pull-ups
Level 4: Beginner Shrimp Squat Level 4: Pull-ups
Level 5: Intermediate Shrimp Squat Level 5: Weighted Pull-ups
Level 6: Advanced Shrimp Squat  

Pair 2

3x 5-8 Hinge Progression 3x 5-8 Dip Progression
Level 1: Romanian Deadlift Level 1: Parallel Bar Support Hold
Level 2: Single Legged Deadlift Level 2: Negative Dips
Level 3: Banded Nordic Curl Negatives Level 3: Parallel Bar Dips
Level 4: Banded Nordic Curl Level 4: Weighted Dips
Level 5: Nordic Curl  

Pair 3

3x 5-8 Push-up Progression 3x 5-8 Row Progression
Level 1: Vertical Push-up Level 1: Vertical Rows
Level 2: Incline Push-up Level 2: Incline Rows
Level 3: Full Push-up Level 3: Horizontal Rows
Level 4: Diamond Push-up Level 4: Wide Rows
Level 5: Pseudo Planche Push-up Level 5: Weighted Inverted Rows

Core Triplet

3x 8-12 Anti-Extension Progression 3x 8-12 Anti-rotation Progression 3x 8-12 Extension Progression
Ring Ab Rollouts Banded Pallof press Reverse Hyperextension

Pairing two exercises means doing a set of the first exercise, resting 90 seconds, then doing a set of the second exercise, resting 90 seconds, and repeating until you've done 3 sets of that pair.

Tempo: ​Ideally, all these exercises are to be done in a "10X0" (1,0,X,O) tempo. That means 1 second down, no pause at the bottom, explode up and no pause at the top. When "exploding up", if the actual movement is slow, that's okay, it's the intent that matters.


6.2.7 StrongLifts 5×5 program consists of two workouts

  1. Workout A: Squat, Bench Press, Barbell Row
  2. Workout B: Squat, Overhead Press, Deadlift


  • Do three workouts per week.
  • Never train two days in a row or do two workouts in a day.
  • Wait one day before doing your next workout.
    • This gives your body time to recover, get stronger and build muscle so you can lift heavier next workout.
  • Alternate workout A and B each time you train.

Here are the recommended starting weights if you’re new to lifting…

  • Squat, Bench Press, Overhead Press: 20kg/45lb (the empty Olympic barbell)
  • Deadlift: 40kg/95lb (the empty bar with a plate of 10kg/25lb on each side)
  • Barbell Row: 30kg/65lb (the empty bar with 5kg/10lb on each side)

5×5 means you do five sets of five reps with the same weight.

  • Squat 20kg five times, rack the weight, and rest 90 seconds.
  • Then Squat 20kg for five reps again.
  • Repeat until you’ve done five sets of five (5×5).
  • Then move to the next exercise.
  • On Deadlifts only do one set of five reps (1×5).

Increase the weight every workout on each exercise where you completed five reps on each set.

  • Add 2,5kg/5lb on those exercises.
  • On Deadlift add 5kg/10lb.

6.2.8 The Cubicle Workout Routine

Warm up: 2 Minutes jogging/marching in place, or walk briefly around the building


  • 15 Glute Squeezes – Sitting straight in your chair with your feet flat on the floor, contract your glutes and hold for 2-3 seconds so that you raise up a bit in your chair before relaxing muscles.
  • 15 Arm Circles in each direction – Extend arms and make small clockwise circles with your fingertips. Switch directions to repeat circles counterclockwise.
  • 15 Abdominal Contractions – Sit in your chair with a straight back and pull your belly button in towards your spine. Hold for 5 seconds for each repetition.
  • 15 Seated Tricep Dips – Scoot to the edge of your chair and support your bodyweight with your fingers hanging over the edge of the seat. Lower your body weight, keeping elbows tucked into sides. Make sure to choose a chair without wheels for this office exercise!
  • 15 Squats – This is an easy way to bump up your calorie burn and tone glutes and thighs in an office workout when you are limited on space.
  • 15 Wall Push Ups – To tone your chest with an office exercise routine, do push ups against the wall (you can do regular push ups if you’re not in a dress and/or have enough space).
  • 15 Toe Raises – A great move for cubicle routines, these allow you to tone the calves without breaking a sweat and with minimal room.
  • 15 Dumbbell or Resistance Band Curls – Keep dumbbells or exercise bands handy at your desk and you will open up a wealth of different office exercises and toning moves that require very little space.

6.2.9 To build your own modified 7-Minute Workout

  • The key is to stick to the sequence - cardio, lower body, upper body and core - so that each muscle group has nearly two minutes to rest before being challenged again.
  • You can adjust the rest interval. Instead of five seconds between exercises, try 10 seconds and make it an eight minute workout, or rest 15 seconds and make it a nine minute workout.
  • Pick your cardio, lower body, upper body and core exercises.
  • Repeat the sequence of exercise and rest three times.

Sample Exercises

  • Cardio: jumping jacks, high knees (on your toes), jump rope, march in place, stand and box
  • Lower Body: chair-assist split squat, chair-assist squat (holding on to the back of a chair as you move up and down from a near-sitting position), lunge, side lunge, wall sit
  • Upper Body: kneeling push-up, push-up, triceps dip, chair-assisted push-up, wall push-up
  • Core: abdominal crunch, kneeling side plank, plank, Superman, kneeling plank

6.2.10 Weekly Exercise Plan

Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat Sun
Plank/core Run - 5k Plank/core Run - 10k Plank/core Run 10 mi  
Pushups Burpees Pushups   Pushups    
Pullups   Pullups   Pullups    
Lunges   Lunges   Lunges    
Squats   Squats   Squats    
Dips   Dips   Dips    

6.2.11 WODs

  1. Time - Full body 01

    30 Rounds For Time:

    1 Push-ups 2 Sit-ups 3 Air Squats

6.3 Dance

6.3.1 Salsa DVDs

Salsa 1 DVD:

  • 00:33 - Basic - Bg-01
  • 02:55 - Exhibe - Bg-01
  • 05:55 - Enchufle - Bg-01
  • 09:17 - dile que no cross body lead - Bg-02
  • 12:40 - Enchufle Doble - Bg-02
  • 14:11 - Para Ti Para Mi
  • 16:16 - Chuleria - Bg-02 (also closed position)
  • 19:36 - Helecoptero - Bg-02 - Last turn the gent adds a different spin!
  • 21:25 - Setenta - Bg-02
  • 23:38 - Sombrero - Bg-02
  • 25:30 - check y vuelta - Bg-02
  • 27:40 - broken left - Bg-02
  • 29:58 - La Social - In-01
  • 32:46 - Revolving Doors - In-01
  • 35:06 - Hook Turn - In-01
  • 37:17 - Coca Cola - In-01
  • 40:03 - Setenta Alade - In-01 - Pretty!
  • 42:08 - Hook and Axle - In-01
  • 44:54 - Shines - slide, kick step, and Suzie Q - In-01
  • 50:07 - All the moves!!!
  • 51:47 - Bloopers

Salsa 2 DVD:

  • 0:34 Back drop*
  • 2:38 Walk through*
  • 5:16 Out of the way*
  • 7:30 Coca cola para atras
  • 10:06 Flamenco*
  • 12:25 Flip flop
  • 14:21 LA*
  • 16:02 Pa ella*
  • 18:46 Mojito
  • 21:14 Swivels*
  • 24:30 PR move
  • 28:05 Montaña
  • 31:07 La copa
  • 33:13 Dedo
  • 36:01 La mazcla
  • 38:21 Puente
  • 41:10 Balsero
  • 43:20 Shines Hop Rhonde
  • 44:40 Shines Flare Step*
  • 45:49 Shines Reverse Suzie Que*
  • 47:40 Bloopers

6.3.2 Bachata

6.3.3 Salsa Moves I learned

  • Beginners:

Basic Pa Bajo Exhibe Enchufla Exhibe con enchufla Dile que no Enchufla Doble Setenta Check y vuelta Chuleria Sombrero Helicoptero Broken left

  • Intermediate

La social Coca cola Back drop Flamenco Revolving doors Hook and axle Walk through LA Out of the way Paella Setenta Alarde Swivels

6.3.4 Salsa for me

Setentas: Setenta Setenta Alarde Setenta LA

Dile que no: Dile que no Coca Cola Shoulder crossbody lead Open crossbody lead

Enchufla: Enchufla Paella Setenta Revolving doors (all versions)

Guy turns: Back drop (exibe w/L half axle) Flamenco (exibe w/hook turn) Walk through (walk through/exibe) Out of the way (R hand exibe w/R half axle) Hook and axle Revolving doors v1 (wrist lead for her R spin) Revolving doors v2 (L hand lead for her R spin) Revolving doors v3 (R hand lead for her R spin)

6.3.5 Salsa Heat

  1. Beginners
    • Basic
    • Pa bajo
    • Exhibe
    • Enchufla
    • Exhibe con enchufla
    • Dile que no (Cross body lead)
      • Closed
      • Open
      • Left hand
      • Shoulder
    • Enchufla doble
    • Setenta
    • Check y vuelta
    • Broken left
    • Chuleria
    • Sombrero
    • Helicoptero
    • La social
  2. Intermediate
    • Revolving doors
    • Back drop
    • Flamenco
    • LA
    • PR
    • Axle crossover
    • Mojito
    • Walk through
    • Pull through
    • Out of the way
    • Paella
    • Setenta alarde
    • Swivels
    • Flip flop wth BST

6.4 Fitness Practical Science

6.4.1 Fitness Science

  • Intensity of Effort:
    • Train to momentary muscular failure in order to recruit all possible muscle fibers. Do not train to a set number of repetitions.
  • Volume and Frequency
    • There’s little evidence that performing more than 1 set of each exercise increases muscle growth, if that 1 set is done to failure.
    • Single set training appears to be as effective as multiple sets for muscle growth. There’s little scientific evidence for a recommendation as to frequency of training.
  • Loading and Volume
    • "For novice and intermediate individuals, it is recommended that moderate loading be used (70-85% of 1 RM) for 8-12 repetitions per set for one to three sets per exercise." (LOE A)
    • "For advanced training, it is recommended that a loading range of 70-100% of 1 RM be used for 1-12 repetitions per set for three to six sets per exercise in a periodized manner such that the majority of training is devoted to 6-12 RM and less training devoted to 1-6 RM loading." LOE C
  • Load and Repetition Range
    • Select a weight of 80%RM and do reps to failure, which is optimal for strength, muscular endurance, and bone density.
  • Repetition Velocity
    • "It is recommended that slow to moderate velocities be used by novice- and intermediate-trained individuals. For advanced training, it is recommended that slow, moderate, and fast repetition velocities be used depending on the load, the repetition number, and the goals of the particular exercise." LOE C
  • Repetition Duration
    • Lift slowly enough to maintain muscular tension. In extreme cases, this may be 10 seconds up, 10 down, though that doesn’t appear to be necessary. I use a cadence of 4–5 seconds up, same down.
  • Rest Intervals
    • "It is recommended that 1- to 2-minute rest periods be used in novice and intermediate training programs. For advanced training, rest period length should correspond to the goals of each exercise or training phase such that 2- to 3-minute rest periods may be used with heavy loading for core exercises and 1-2 minutes may be used for other exercises of moderate to moderately high intensity." LOE C
    • Rest intervals may make a difference to cardiovascular conditioning. If you want to emphasize the cardiovascular aspect of training, short rest intervals are better.
    • Select your own rest interval for muscle growth. Use short rest intervals for cardiovascular conditioning.
  • Frequency
    • It is recommended that a frequency of 2-3 days/week be used for novice training (when training the total body each workout). LOE A
    • For intermediate training, the recommendation is similar for total-body workouts or 4 days/week when using an upper/lower body split routine (each major muscle group trained twice per week). LOE B
    • For advanced training, a frequency of 4-6 days/week is recommended. Muscle group split routines (one to three muscle groups trained per workout) are common enabling higher volume per muscle group. LOE C
  • Endurance Training and Lifting
    • Endurance training doesn’t hinder muscle growth.
    • However, additional training may hinder recovery time.
  • Range of Motion
    • A restricted range of motion appears to increase strength and size as much as full range.
    • Use any range of motion you like.
  • Machines vs Free Weights
    • Use either machines or free weights as you wish.
  • Training and Detraining
    • A mere 3 weeks of training is enough to produce muscle growth in untrained people.
    • 3 weeks of no training appears to have little to no effect on muscle strength.
    • If you feel the need to take some time off, or just can’t manage to get to the gym for awhile, don’t worry about it.


  • Nicholas Ratamess, Brt Alvar, Tammy K. Evetoch Terry J. Housh, W. Ben Kibler, William J. Kraemer, N. Travis Triplett. Progression Models in Resistance Training for Healthy Adults. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise: March 2009, Volume 41, Issue 3, pp 687-708.
  • Fisher, James, et al. “Evidence-based resistance training recommendations.” Med Sport 15.3 (2011): 147–162.
  • Science-Based Weight Training By P. D. Mangan

6.4.2 Meditation

  1. Observe. Sit in a quiet place, close your eyes, take a step back from your mind, and watch your thoughts
  2. Silence. Sit, close your eyes, listen to the silence around you. If it gets noisy, focus on the silence between the noise or behind the noise
  3. Breath. Sit, close your eyes, and inhale deeply into your belly, then slowly exhale. Focus on the sensation of your breath filling your body and emptying out
    1. 4-7-8: Breath in for a 4 count; hold for a 7 count; breath out through mouth for 8 count. Repeat.

6.4.3 Muscle growth

The simple explanation is this:

  1. If you want to build larger muscles,you need to consistently add weight to the bar over time, resulting in progressive overload of those muscles.
  2. If you want to consistently add weight to the bar over time, you have to consistently get stronger.
  3. If you want to consistently get stronger, you have to consistently emphasize the lower-rep portion of the strength-endurance continuum in your training.
  4. Men that are new to weightlifting should emphasize the 4 to 6 rep range in their training. This means lifting weights that are 80 to 85% of your 1RM
  5. Women that are new to weightlifting should emphasize the 8 to 10 rep range in their training. This means lifting weights that are 70 to 75% of your 1RM.

6.4.4 Nutrition

Eat over 10 hour window Liquids are ok anytime

6.4.5 Net calorie burn

The "Net Calorie Burn" measures calories burned, minus basal metabolism. Scientists consider this the best way to evaluate the actual calorie-burn of any exercise.

The walking formulas apply to speeds of 3 to 4 mph.

At 5 mph and faster, walking burns more calories than running.

Your Total Calorie Burn/Mile Running .75 x your weight (in lbs.) Walking .53 x your weight

Your Net Calorie Burn/Mile Running .63 x your weight (in lbs.) Walking .30 x your weight

Running burns twice as many net calories per mile as walking. And since you can run two miles in the time it takes to walk one mile, running burns four times as many net calories per hour as walking.

Adapted from "Energy Expenditure of Walking and Running," Medicine & Science in Sport & Exercise, Cameron et al, Dec. 2004.

6.4.6 Run injured?

From Phoebe Wright:

On a scale of 1-10, how bad does it hurt?

  • 1-2
    • How long has it been hurting?
      • 1-2 days
        • Is it your achilles?
          • Yes - Take 3 days off
          • No - Try running. STOP if it hurts worse.
      • >3 days - Take 3 days off
  • 3-10 - Take 3 days off

6.4.7 Sweat rates

Below are some numbers that will show you the amount of fluid you should consume for each mile you run.

Weight 100 Fluid Ounces Per Mile Depending On The Temperature: 50°F: 3.0 60°F: 3.2 70°F: 3.3 80°F: 3.6 90°F: 4.1 100°F: 4.7

Weight 120 Fluid Ounces Per Mile Depending On The Temperature: 50°F: 3.6 60°F: 3.8 70°F: 4.0 80°F: 4.3 90°F: 4.9 100°F: 5.6

Weight 140 Fluid Ounces Per Mile Depending On The Temperature: 50°F: 4.2 60°F: 4.4 70°F: 4.6 80°F: 5.0 90°F: 5.7 100°F: 6.5

Weight 160 Fluid Ounces Per Mile Depending On The Temperature: 50°F: 4.8 60°F: 5.0 70°F: 5.3 80°F: 5.8 90°F: 6.5 100°F: 7.4

Weight 180 Fluid Ounces Per Mile Depending On The Temperature: 50°F: 5.4 60°F: 5.7 70°F: 5.9 80°F: 6.5 90°F: 7.3 100°F: 8.4

Weight 200 Fluid Ounces Per Mile Depending On The Temperature: 50°F: 6.0 60°F: 6.3 70°F: 6.6 80°F: 7.2 90°F: 8.1 100°F: 9.3

Weight 220 Fluid Ounces Per Mile Depending On The Temperature: 50°F: 6.6 60°F: 6.9 70°F: 7.3 80°F: 7.9 90°F: 8.9 100°F: 10.2

Weight 240 Fluid Ounces Per Mile Depending On The Temperature: 50°F: 7.2 60°F: 7.6 70°F: 7.9 80°F: 8.6 90°F: 9.7 100°F: 11.2

6.5 Archive notes

6.5.1 Keys 100 - 50 Miler

  • Rules
    • Start: 0945 on May 21 from Marathon Garden Club
    • Packet pick-up:
      • 1600-2000 Holiday Inn on Key Largo
      • 0800-0915 Marathon Garden Club on Marathon Key
    • Mandatory meeting: 0915 without crew at Marathon Garden Club
    • Report 5min before wave - Me 0950 [MUST CONFIRM]
    • Must complete race in 16 hours
    • Race Bib must be in front
    • After 1930: Racer/pacer must
      • Wear reflective vest
      • Wear front/back LEDs
    • Pacing allowed after 7mi bridge
  • Plans
    • Pace: 11-13min/mi
    • Overall time: 538-650min (9.2-10.8 hrs)
    • Est Finish Time: 2200
    • See My Maps
  • Crew
    • Volunteers [2/4]
      • [X] Erica
      • [X] Maria
      • [X] Scott
      • [ X] George
    • Rules
      • Only 1 vehicle
      • Runner number and caution signs must be visible on vehicle
      • No shadowing allowed
  • Official Check-ins
  • Weather
    • 77F-87F
    • UV Extreme
    • Wind: SE 5-10mph
    • Humidity: 78-85%
    • Sunset @ 2006
  • Running Supplies [0/13]
    • [ ] Hat
    • [ ] Sunscreen
    • [ ] Insect repellant
    • [ ] Socks
    • [ ] Shoes
    • [ ] Camelback
    • [ ] Bandana/headband
    • [ ] Running vest/LEDs
    • [ ] Glide
    • [ ] Sunglasses
    • [ ] Massage roller
    • [ ] Radios
    • [ ] GPS Watch
  • Running Support [0/3]
    • [ ] Dish cleaning sponges
    • [ ] Checklist printout
    • [ ] Clipboard
  • Crew Supplies [0/8]
    • [ ] Snacks
    • [ ] Drinks
    • [ ] Meals
    • [ ] Speaker - Bose
    • [ ] Music
    • [ ] Second GPS Watch
    • [ ] Phone charger (iphone)
    • [ ] Phone charger (android)
  • Nutrition
    • Estimated Needs:
      • 300 cal/hr
      • 400-800mg Na
      • 30oz H2O
    • Pre-race meal
      • 2x (2)egg/cheese burritos
    • Race (40% fluid/60% solid)
      • Fluid (120cal/400mg Na/30oz H2O)
        • Base:
          • 30oz H2O
          • 8 tsp sugar (120cal)
          • 1g NaCl (400mg Na)
        • EFS:
          • 1.25 scoops
          • 120 cal
          • 338mg Na
      • Foods (180cal) - Pick 2 (mostly)
        • 0.1 cups plain M&Ms (105cal; 30c,9f,2p)
        • 1ox Pretzels (110cal; 24c,0.5f,3p)
        • 20 olives (100cal; 2c,5f,0p - 330mg Na)
        • 7.5oz Coke (90cal; 25c, 0f, 0p)
        • PB 1/2 Sandwhich (If this choice - only pick)
          • 1 tbsp Creamy PB (95cal; 8c, 16f, 7p)
          • 1 tbsp Jelly (56cal; 15c, 0f, 0p)
          • 1 Wheat bread slice (80cal; 15c, 1f, 3p)
  • Medical Supplies [0/11]
    • [ ] Teflon
    • [ ] Coban
    • [ ] Tape
    • [ ] Needles
    • [ ] Gloves
    • [ ] ACE bandage
    • [ ] Ice
    • [ ] Plastic bags for ice
    • [ ] Aloe/Lidocaine
    • [ ] Spray bandaid
    • [ ] Tums
  • Buy [0/4]
    • [ ] Radios
    • [ ] Window paint
    • [ ] LEDs
    • [ ] Sunglasses
  1. Nutrition
    • Estimated Needs for hot day:

      • 300 cal/hr
      • 400-800mg Na
      • 30 oz H2O
      • Pre-race meal
        • 2x (2)egg/cheese burritos
      • Race (40% fluid/60% solid)
        • Fluid (120cal/400mg Na/30oz H2O)
          • Base:
            • 30oz H2O
            • 8 tsp sugar (120cal)
            • 1g NaCl (400mg Na)
          • EFS:
            • 1.25 scoops
            • 120 cal
            • 338mg Na
        • Foods (180cal) - Pick 2 (mostly)
          • 0.1 cups plain M&Ms (105cal; 30c,9f,2p)
          • 1ox Pretzels (110cal; 24c,0.5f,3p)
          • 20 olives (100cal; 2c,5f,0p - 330mg Na)
          • 7.5oz Coke (90cal; 25c, 0f, 0p)
          • PB 1/2 Sandwhich (If this choice - only pick)
            • 1 tbsp Creamy PB (95cal; 8c, 16f, 7p)
            • 1 tbsp Jelly (56cal; 15c, 0f, 0p)
            • 1 Wheat bread slice (80cal; 15c, 1f, 3p)

6.6 10 Best Fast Food Meals

  1. Grilled Chicken Sandwich and Fruit Cup (Chick-fil-A)
    • Several fast food chains offer a grilled chicken sandwich. The trick is ordering it without mayo or creamy sauce, and making sure it’s served with a whole grain bun.
    • Nutritional breakdown: A Chick-fil-A Chargrilled Chicken Sandwich (without the honey-roasted BBQ sauce), along with a large fruit cup, has 400 calories, 3.5 grams fat (8% calories from fat), 1 g saturated fat, 0 g trans fat, 55 mg cholesterol, 1120 mg sodium, 65 g carbohydrate, 6 g fiber, and 30 g protein.
  2. Chili-Topped Potato (Wendy's)
    • A plain baked potato and small chili from Wendy’s has 460 calories, 6 g fat (12% calories from fat), 2.5 g saturated fat, 0 g trans fat, 40 mg cholesterol, 855 mg sodium, 80 g carbohydrate, 12 g fiber, and 21 g protein.
  3. Grilled Chicken Breast with Mashed Potatoes, Corn on the Cob (KFC)
    • A meal of grilled chicken, mashed potatoes, and 5.5-inch corncob from (KFC) contains 430 calories, 10 g fat (21% calories from fat), 2 g saturated fat, 0 g trans fat, 90 mg cholesterol, 905 mg sodium, 49 g carbohydrate, 5 g fiber, and 41 g protein.
  4. Chick-n-Minis Breakfast (Chick-Fil-A)
    • Chick-Fil-A's Chick-n-Minis have 260 calories, 10 g fat (35% calories from fat), 2.5 g saturated fat, 0 g trans fat, 40 mg cholesterol, 650 mg sodium, 30 g carbohydrate, 1 g fiber, and 14 g protein.
  5. Chicken Teriyaki Bowl (Jack in the Box)
    • The Chicken Teriyaki Bowl from Jack in the Box contains 585 calories, 6 g fat (9% calories from fat), 1 g saturated fat (2% calories from saturated fat), 0 g trans fat, 36 mg cholesterol, 1461 mg sodium, 106 g carbohydrate, 4 g fiber, and 25 g protein.
  6. Chargrilled Chicken Cool Wrap (Chick-fil-A)
    • Chick-fil A's Chargrilled Chicken Cool Wrap with Fat Free Honey Mustard Dressing has 470 calories, 12 g fat (23% calories from fat), 4 g saturated fat, 0 g trans fat, 55 mg cholesterol, 1510 mg sodium, 64 g carbohydrate, 10 g fiber, 33 g protein.
  7. Southwest Salad and Fruit n Yogurt Parfait (McDonalds)
    • A meal of McDonald's Southwest Salad with Grilled Chicken (not including dressing) and Fruit ‘n Yogurt Parfait has 480 calories, 11 g fat (21% calories from fat), 4 g saturated fat , 0 g trans fat, 75 mg cholesterol, 1045 mg sodium, 61 g carbohydrate, 7 g fiber, and 34 g protein.
  8. Veggie Burger and Garden Salad (Burger King)
    • A Burger King Veggie Burger (without mayonnaise), Garden Salad (no chicken) and half a packet of Light Italian Dressing totals 450 calories, 12.5 g fat (25% calories from fat), 4.2 g saturated fat, 0 g trans fat, 10 mg cholesterol, 1320 mg sodium, 52.5 g carbohydrate, 10 g fiber, 26 g protein.
  9. Veggie Delite Sandwich and Tomato Orzo Soup (Subway)
    • A 6-inch Veggie Delite sandwich plus Fire-Roasted Tomato Orzo soup from Subway totals 360 calories, 3.5 g fat (9% calories from fat), 1 g saturated fat , 0 g trans fat, 5 mg cholesterol, 820 mg sodium, 69 g carbohydrate, 7 g fiber, 14 g protein.
  10. Chicken Fresco Burrito Supreme and Pintos 'n' Cheese (Taco Bell)
    • A Chicken Fresco Burrito Supreme with Pintos ‘n Cheese from Taco Bell has 520 calories, 15 g fat (26% calories from fat), 5.5 g saturated fat, 0 g trans fat, 40 mg cholesterol, 2140 mg sodium, 69 g carbohydrate, 17 g fiber, 28 g protein.


6.7 The Four Core Rules

  1. Always remember to breathe. This seems obvious, but when you’re in the middle of an exercise you may actually forget. In most cases you’ll exhale when you do the hard work (e.g. the pushing up part of a push up), and inhale on the easier part (e.g. when you lower your body for the push up). This isn’t always the case, however, and special breathing instructions are noted where relevant in this post.
  2. Form is extremely important. If you do an exercise wrong, what seems like progress initially will quickly dissipate and possibly result in injury. Be sure you’re doing the exercises correctly before you begin. Ask a friend to watch your form first. If you know a professional, ask them to help guide you. While this guide will explain proper form, it is your responsibility to ensure you doing the exercises properly and not cutting any corners.
  3. Take it slowly. While aerobic exercise if often the exception, most other exercise is best performed slowly. This doesn’t mean you should take long breaks in between each push up and sit up, but that you shouldn’t perform each as quickly as possible. Going slowly will work the muscle more and make you stronger.
  4. Your goal is to fail. The key to a good work out is failure. That doesn’t mean giving up because you’re frustrated and tired, but rather pushing the limits of your strength until your strength is spent. Obviously you don’t want to push yourself to the point of injury, but that shouldn’t be a concern so long as you’re exhibiting the proper form. Don’t worry too much about the number of repetitions of any given exercise, but instead concentrate on working as hard as you can. A larger number of push ups doesn’t necessarily mean you’re stronger. Some days you’ll have more energy than others and will perform better. Some days you’ll perform worse. The key is to do the best you can with all of the energy you have. If you fail, you succeed.

6.8 Complete Workout

  1. Cardio
    • Interval Training
      • A light jog for a few minutes to get moving (2-5 minutes).
      • 1 minute of high-speed running, then 1 minute of low-speed jogging, repeated 5-10 times (depending on your stamina).
      • A 5 minute light jog to cool down (or more if necessary).
    • Stair Climbing
  2. Upper Body
    • Do as many push ups as you can without taking a break. Don’t stop because you’re tired—stop because you cannot physically do another push up.
    • Take the total number of push ups you were able to do and cut that down to half. For example, if you did 30 push ups total that would result in the number 15.
    • Next time you do your push ups, do three sets of that number (15 in our example) with 60-90 seconds breaks in between. If you can manage to do more on the last set, you should.
    • Exercises:
      • Push Ups
      • Dips
      • Curls
  3. Core
    • The Basic Plank
  4. Lower Body
    • Squats
    • Stair Steps / Step Ups

6.9 10 simple strength and conditioning exercises you can do at home

  1. Squats
    • Body positioning and technique
      • Stand with your feet just over shoulder width apart. Feet at a 0–45 degree angle (or however comfortable)
      • Shoulders back and down, looking straight ahead
      • Engage your glutes and core
      • Push hips back over the heels, until your knees are at 90 degrees (see image above) — imagine sitting on a chair behind you!
      • Push through the heels to drive back to standing position
      • Repeat for three sets of 8–12 repetitions
  2. Romanian deadlifts
    • Body positioning and technique
      • Stand with a slight bend of the knee
      • Shoulders back and down
      • Hinge at the hip and push bum back
      • Run your hands down your legs until your knee bends
      • Push back up to standing from your heels
      • Drive glutes and hips through and thrust forward
      • Repeat for three sets of 8–12 repetitions
  3. Reverse lunges
    • Body positioning and technique
      • Stand hip-width apart, then take a big step back so your knees are at 90 degrees
      • Make sure the front knee is behind the toes
      • Back knee movement is down — think about sinking down towards the ground
      • Keep weight on the front knee
      • Squeeze the glutes (bum), keep your hips tucked under
      • Push with your front heel to standing
      • Repeat for three sets of 8–12 repetitions for each leg
  4. Bulgarian squat
    • Body positioning and technique
      • Begin in the standing position, with one foot behind on a bench around knee height
      • Shoulders back and down
      • The front knee should be at 90 degrees
      • Slowly, and in a controlled manner, move the body down towards the floor
      • Push back up with the front heel
      • Repeat for three sets of 8–12 repetitions
  5. Glute bridge
    • Body positioning and technique
      • Lie on your back with feet on the floor, hip-width apart and close to the bum
      • In a slow controlled movement, drive your hips up to the ceiling by pushing through your heels
      • Ensure you control the movement on the way down — don’t touch the floor, just hover above the ground
      • Timing is 1 second up, 3 seconds down
      • Repeat for three sets of 8–12 repetitions
  6. Lateral lunge
    • Body positioning and technique
      • Start in a standing positioning and take a big step to the side, hinge your hips back with your chest and head up
      • Drop the knee between 45–90 degrees
      • Driving through the heel, push yourself back up to standing
      • Repeat for three sets of 8–12 repetitions
  7. Push ups
    • Body positioning and technique
      • Start by placing your hands on the ground, just outside shoulder-width apart (like a high plank)
      • Maintain tension throughout the body (don’t drop the hips) and slowly lower your body towards the ground, then push back up to the starting position
      • If this is too much of a challenge, start on your knees
      • Repeat for three sets of 8–12 repetitions
  8. Dead bugs
    • Body positioning and technique
      • Lie on your back with knees in a table top position (90 degrees at the knee and hip)
      • Hold your arms out straight towards the ceiling, pushing the lower back into the ground and sucking your belly button in
      • Slowly lower your right arm and left leg to just above the ground
      • Ensure your spine is flat against the floor without doming
      • Bring your arm back up and repeat with the other arm/leg
      • Repeat for three sets of 8–12 repetitions
  9. Plank
    • Body positioning and technique
      • Start on your forearms, elbows just underneath the shoulders
      • Hold tension in the whole of your body, being careful not to drop the hips or hold them too high
      • Hold this exercise for 30 seconds to a minute, depending on how it feels
      • Bonus: try moving between your regular plank and a high plank as an extra challenge (using straight rather than bent arms)
  10. Bear crawl hold
    • Body positioning and technique
      • Start on all fours, with your pelvis tucked in. Hands should be under your shoulders
      • Knees should be situated under the hips at 90 degrees and 1-inch above the ground
      • Make sure the glutes and core are engaged
      • Keep the spine neutral from head to tail
      • Hold this exercise for 30 seconds to a minute

6.10 Benefits of walking   edit

  1. It helps you maintain a healthy weight. It may seem like a no-brainer, but regular walking can lead to weight loss because exercise burns calories. But with walking, the calories you burn depend more the distance you cover rather than your pace, according to Harvard Health. During a 15-year study, researchers found that people who walked gained significantly less weight than those who didn't and the more people walked, the less weight they gained.
  2. It saves your brain. Walking keeps your mind sharp. In a University of California at San Francisco study, researchers measured the cognitive abilities of nearly 6,000 women age 65 and older. They tracked their physical activity for several years and found that age-related memory decline was lowest in the women who walked the most.
    • Another study published in the December 2018 issue of Neurology shows that older adults who never exercise and already show signs of cognitive concerns can reverse cognitive decline (i.e. decision-making skills) in as little as six months just by walking.
  3. It can help you live longer. Several studies have linked regular walking to longevity. A 2018 study found that walking can lower your risk of dying from cardiovascular disease. Another study in 2018 found that walking at a brisk pace seems to cut the risk of dying by 24 percent, while walking at an average pace reduces the risk by 20 percent. A study by the American Cancer Society found that even low levels of walking are linked with lower mortality.
  4. Walking strengthens bones and muscles. All those steps can keep your bones strong and ward off bone loss, fractures and osteoporosis. That back-and-forth movement also tones the muscles in your legs and abs. If you swing your arms when you walk, you can strengthen those arm muscles, too.
  5. It eases joint pain. Walking protects your joints by lubricating them and strengthening the surrounding muscles that support them. Several studies also have shown that walking eases arthritis-related pain and if you walk enough, it might prevent arthritis from forming in the first place, says Harvard.
    • Walking can make you happy — and don't even get us started about how happy your dog will be. (Photo: bbernard/Shutterstock)
  6. It boosts your mood. The more people walk each day, the more energetic they feel and the better their mood, according to a California State University study. Walking releases endorphins, which are chemicals that trigger positive feelings in the body.
  7. It can reduce your breast cancer risk. An American Cancer Society study found that women who walked seven or more hours a week had a 14 percent lower risk of developing breast cancer than those who walked three hours or fewer per week.
  8. Walking can help you sleep. An hour of walking and stretching, especially in the morning, can help you fall asleep and stay asleep, reports WebMD.
  9. It can reduce your risk of diabetes. Walking can help prevent diabetes or reduce its severity. Findings from the Harvard Nurses' Health Study suggest that walking briskly for 30 minutes daily reduces the risk of developing Type 2 diabetes by 30 percent.
  10. It helps your heart. Walking does wonders for your heart and circulation, according to the Arthritis Foundation. It lowers your blood pressure, strengthens your heart, cuts your risk of stroke and wards off heart disease.

6.11 Physical inactivity costs   org

Nearly 12% of depression and anxiety and 31% of colon cancer, heart disease, osteoporosis, and stroke cases were attributable to physical inactivity. Heart disease was the most expensive outcome of physical inactivity within the health plan population, costing $35.3 million in 2000. Total health plan expenditures attributable to physical inactivity were $83.6 million, or $56 per member.

2004 study: Physical inactivity: Direct cost to a health plan

On average, someone who met the exercise guidelines paid $2,500 less in annual health care expenses related to heart disease than someone who did not walk or otherwise move for 30 minutes five times per week.

Those numbers included annual savings of about $400 on prescription medicines and far fewer emergency room visits and hospitalizations for people who regularly exercised.

The researchers arrived at these figures after controlling for insurance coverage, meaning that people with good insurance who did not meet the exercise guidelines paid more annually for their health care than those with skimpier coverage who regularly exercised.

  • Patients with heart disease who met weekly guidelines for moderate to vigorous exercise saved on average more than $2,500 in annual healthcare costs.
  • Healthy patients, and those with cardiovascular risk factors, who exercised as recommended also had lower average medical costs.

6.12 Best Home Bodyweight

  1. Air Squat
  2. Walking lunge
  3. Single Leg Balance
  4. Backward Lunge
  5. Single-leg bridge
  6. Bulgarian Split squat (lunge with back foot on chair)
  7. Glute bridge
  8. Plank
  9. Mountain Climber
  10. 6-inch hold
  11. Russian twist
  12. Leg lift
  13. Bicycle crunch
  14. Superman
  15. Bird dog
  16. Swimmers
  17. Pushup
  18. Tricep dip
  19. Burpee

6.13 Cross-Training Workout for Runners

Don't go to failure!

  1. Squat with Resistance Band
  2. Push-Up to Side Plank (with Hip Dip)
  3. Side Steps with Resistance Band (Lateral Steps)
  4. Forearm Plank
  5. Backward Skate with Resistance Band
  6. Box Step-Ups
  7. Windshield Wipers
  8. Forward Lunge
  9. Calf Raise
  10. Runner’s Deadlift

6.14 Minimalist workout for all-around strength:

2-3x week

  • 3x6 pull-up
    • Grip the bar with your palms facing out and hands slightly wider than shoulder-width apart. Pull yourself up so your chin is above the bar. Hold for one second. Then extend all the way down so your arms are straight and elbows are locked. Throughout the movement, focus on keeping your core taut.
  • 3x8 goblet squat
    • Stand with your legs slightly wider than shoulder-width apart, feet pointing slightly out. Hold a kettlebell by the horns, or a dumbbell with palms facing up, close to your chest. Squat down, keeping your heels on the ground. At the lowest point, your butt should be parallel to or just below your knees. Then push up to a standing positioning, locking your knees at the top.
  • 3x16 push-up
  • 3x8 lunge
    • Stand straight, toes pointing forward, feet about six inches apart. Step forward with either foot so your knee is above your ankle. Push through the heel of the forward leg to return to an upright standing positioning.
  • 3x8 single-leg deadlift
    • Stand on one leg, keeping your knee slightly bent. If you’re using dumbbells, hold them on the same side as the leg you’re standing on. Bend forward at the hip, extending your free leg straight behind you for balance. Continue lowering until your chest is parallel with the ground, dumbbell almost touching the floor. Then press back to an upright position.

6.15 Incidental Activity instead of Exercise

But there are plenty of free and accessible ways to incorporate incidental physical activity into our routines, including:

  • Replacing short car trips with fast walking, or cycling if it’s safe;
  • Walking up the stairs at a fast pace instead of using the elevator;
  • Leaving the car at the edge of the shopping center parking lot and carrying the shopping for 300 ft;
  • Doing three or four “walking sprints” during longer stretches of walking by stepping up your pace for 300-600 ft (until you feel your heart rate is increasing and you find yourself out of breath to the point that you find it hard to speak);
  • Vigorous walking at a pace of about 130-140 steps per minute;
  • Looking for opportunities to walk uphill;
  • Taking your dog to an off-leash area and jogging for 30-90 seconds alongside the pup.

6.16 Ultra training

6.16.1 Running Tips

Training for an ultra-marathon is no different to training for other running events, in that you need to progress your training gradually over time. There are no shortcuts. You also need to include regular recovery periods, so that your body can adapt, enabling you to train consistently for many months.

Your training should be built around three key runs each week. The first is a long run, where you slowly increase the duration over a period of months, up to a maximum of 5 hours (depending on the distance of your target event). This run should be done at chatting pace, ideally over a series of laps, so you can take on energy drinks and snacks at the end of each lap.

If you are training for a hilly ultra choose terrain and elevation proportionally similar to that of your chosen race. Training for long durations on trails in the hills/mountains will take some preparation and forethought. Your backpack may need to contain spare kit, nutrition, hydration, phone, navigation, mini first aid, cash, sun protection and more.

Your second key run is also relatively long, typically done in midweek, where you build up over several months to running a maximum of 2 hours. This run should ideally be done on terrain or gradients that are like your target event.

For your long runs, it’s always good to run in company, at least for some of it. It’s great motivation and it helps the miles fly by. Do your best to work this into your training plan if you can. Otherwise, it can get tough at times.

The final key run is a speed or tempo session. These are not endurance sessions as such, but they do improve your running pace, which then enables you to run at a given pace for less effort. You can vary these types of workouts throughout the course of your training. For example, you could try a weekly tempo session such as 5 x 1 mile at 10-mile race pace, with 1-minute recoveries (plus a warm up and cool down). After four weeks of that, you could progress it to 3 x 2 miles with 90 seconds recoveries.

Once you’ve done eight weeks of weekly tempo runs, move onto some speed work for the next eight weeks. For example, try doing 5 x 800m hard with 2 minutes 30-second recoveries (plus warm up and cool down). Progress your workouts every four weeks to keep your training fresh, and to encourage your body to keep adapting.

For Hilly Ultra Trail races these key runs will include skill-specific sessions. Such as training to improve your strength and efficiency in preparation for the ascents and descents you will encounter. Include workouts that have intervals of effort for both up and downhill running.

Any other runs can be done at chatting pace, typically 35 to 75 minutes in duration. If possible, do some of your running on soft surfaces like grass or trails, to reduce the impact on your body. Always be mindful of avoiding injury – over half of all runners are injured every year. Your first goal is always to make the start-line of your target race.

For this reason, we alternate the duration of the long runs in our training plans, so you’re not hammering your body every single weekend. Our training plans feature a three-week cycle like this:

Week 1: Moderately Long Sunday Run, Week 2: Long Sunday Run, Week 3: Active Recovery Week.

During your “active recovery weeks” your training is half as much as normal. This gives your body a chance to adapt, boosting your fitness and reducing your chances of getting injured.

After each “active recovery week” we then gradually progress the difficulty of your key workouts, so you’re continually challenged. This pattern of training will ensure you improve at the optimal rate.

6.16.2 Zones

Calculate 220 minus your age, to get an estimate of your max heart rate. You can also do this via our heart rate zone calculator

  • Zone 1 – Feels like “Easy/Recovery” – Heart rate 68-73% of max.
  • Zone 2 – Feels like “Steady/Endurance” – Heart rate 73-80% of max.
  • Zone 3 – Feels like “Mod. Hard/Tempo” – Heart rate 80-87% of max.
  • Zone 4 – Feels like “Hard/Threshold” – Heart rate 87-93% of max.
  • Zone 5 – Feels like “V. Hard/VO2 Max” – Heart rate 93-100% of max.
  • Zone 1: Easy – 68% to 73% of max HR. Useful for encouraging blood flow, to aid recovery after a tough workout.
  • Zone 2: Steady – 73% to 80% of max HR. Training in this zone will boost endurance and the efficiency with which you use fat and carbohydrates as fuel.
  • Zone 3: Moderately Hard – 80% to 87% of max HR. Training in the upper end of this zone is thought to enable you to delay fatigue caused by lactic acid. Repetitions should be 10-20 minutes long, with relatively short recoveries of 1 to 3 minutes.
  • Zone 4: Hard – 87% to 93% of max HR. Boosts lactate threshold, but training in this zone will soon lead to fatigue. Use this zone for 3 to 10 minute repetitions with 1-2 minute recoveries.
  • Zone 5: Very Hard – 93-100% of max HR. Training in this zone is only possible for short periods, and helps you develop top-end speed. Train att this intensity for short repetitions of 1 to 3 minutes, with a similar amount of time as recovery.


Heart Rate Training Zones Feels Heart Rate (beats per minute)
1 Easy 122 - 131
2 Steady 132 - 144
3 Moderately Hard 145 - 157
4 Hard 158 - 167
5 Very Hard 168 - 179

6.16.3 The Workouts

Base building runs

The majority of your runs should be done at an easy, aerobic pace. I tell my clients that they should run these at a “conversational pace”. In other words, a pace where you could easily carry on a conversation with a running partner, without feeling as though you are gasping for breath or struggling to speak.

Keeping the majority of your runs at this lower intensity will help prevent injury and burnout as you begin to push the larger weekly mileage volumes, and the longer distance long runs, both required of ultramarathon training. The aerobic zone also encourages fat oxidization (using stored fat for fuel), capillary building, and building a solid endurance base. This is essentially where you become better at running slow miles for a long time.

Hill and speedwork

Once a week, you should incorporate a strength building run – either a speed or hill workout. The mileage prescribed includes warm up and cool down. Again, what you do for that speed or hill workout is up to you. Be creative!

Long runs

Long runs are truly where your body adapts to running for long periods of time, physically and mentally, and are a cornerstone of ultramarathon training. Further, long runs are the perfect “dress rehearsal” for your race. Long runs give you an opportunity to experiment with – and perfect – nutrition and hydration plans, anti chafing products, new shoes or shorts…you get the idea. Long runs should be done at an easy effort pace.

You’ll notice that some of the long runs are provided with a range of mileage. This gives you options, depending upon how you are feeling that day. Struggling to get through, or short on time? Go with the lower end. Feeling amazing, and don’t want to stop running? Hit the higher end of the mileage.

Back to back long runs

Back to back long runs are done to simulate and adapt to running on fatigued legs, which is something you will definitely experience in the later stages of your ultramarathon. It’s also a safer and more efficient way to increase total volume of miles for the week, without putting in extreme long distance runs.

In this training plan, the second long run is prescribed in time, rather than mileage. I find this allows each athlete to truly listen to their body and complete the long run accordingly, rather than pushing to meet an arbitrary number of miles. If you are feeling strong, your body may allow you to push a little further. Feeling beat up from a long week of training? Take it easy, and use the time as a true recovery run.

Important note: weekly mileage totals in the plan are based upon a 10:00/mile pace for the second long run. DO NOT WORRY if your pace is faster or slower, and it changes the overall weekly mileage. Stick with the prescribed time.

Rest days

A common misconception among many runners is that more running = stronger runner, and therefore, many runners loathe rest days for fear that time off will make them lose progress. This couldn’t be further from the truth. Rest days are an integral part of the training process. During rest days, your body recovers from the physical stress of workouts, rebuilds damaged tissue, and becomes stronger. For the love of all things, do not skip your rest days.

Active recovery

During cutback weeks, you will notice active recovery days. These workouts are designed to help promote blood flow, encourage healing, stimulate cardiovascular endurance, but remain low impact. Workouts like: swimming, biking, hiking, yoga, elliptical, etc. are all great options. Keep the effort on the lighter end.

6.16.4 12-Week Beginner Ultra Marathon Plan

Average weekly training hours are 5:02 with the biggest week at 8:24 hours. There are four runs and a 45-minute strength and conditioning session. There is usually one workout per day and one day off each week.

Your plan features a three-week cycle like this:

  • Week 1: Moderately Long Sunday Run
  • Week 2: Long Sunday Run
  • Week 3: Active Recovery Week.

6.16.5 My Run Plan

Week M T W T F S S
1 Rest 7 mi (Z2) 5 mi (speed) 6 mi (Z2) Rest 15 mi (Z2) 60 min (Z2)
2 Rest 7 mi (Z2) 5 mi (speed) 6 mi (Z2) Rest 15 mi (Z2) 90 min (Z2)
3 Rest 3.5 mi (Z2) 3 mi (Z2) 3 mi (Z2) Rest 8 mi (Z2) Rest
Taper Rest 6 mi (Z2) 4 mi (Z2) 6 (Z2) Rest 10 mi Rest
Race 4 mi Rest 4 mi 30 min Rest 50 K  

Your plan features a three-week cycle like this:

  • Week 1: Moderately Long Sunday Run
  • Week 2: Long Sunday Run
  • Week 3: Active Recovery Week

6.17 What to Eat and Drink for Hot Weather Exercise   edit

Healthy and fit people usually don't need to drink or eat when they exercise at a casual pace for less than two hours. However, they can prolong their endurance by taking:

  • a source of sugar when they race or exercise very intensely for more than an hour
  • a source of water when they exercise intensely for more than a half hour in very hot weather or several hours in cooler weather
  • a source of salt when they exercise for more than three hours

Mild Dehydration Does Not Impair Exercise Performance

Most competitive athletes can maintain their speed and efficiency by drinking when they feel thirsty (Ann Nutr Metab, Feb 22, 2011).

Recent studies show that fit humans can tolerate significant fluid loss before their performance suffers, and that most cases of muscle cramps are not caused by dehydration or salt loss. They are caused by muscle or nerve damage and can be controlled by stopping exercise and stretching the cramped muscle.

Lack of Sugar

Low levels of sugar can cause muscle pain and weakness called "hitting the wall" that occurs in long distance runners and confusion and passing out called “bonking” that occurs in cyclists. Your muscles use primarily sugar and fat for energy. You have an almost infinite amount of fat stored in your body, but you start to run out of sugar stored in your liver after 70 minutes of intense exercise.

Bonking: There is only enough sugar in your bloodstream to last three minutes at rest. To maintain blood sugar levels, your liver constantly releases sugar into your bloodstream. However, there is only enough sugar stored in your liver to last about twelve hours at rest and less than 70 minutes when you exercise intensely. Your brain has almost no stored energy, so it gets almost all of its energy from the sugar carried to it in your bloodstream. When liver sugar levels drop, your blood sugar levels must also drop and your brain has lost its main source of energy. Your brain then cannot function normally and you feel weak, tired, and confused, and can even pass out and lie on the ground unconscious.

Hitting the Wall: Muscles have only a limited amount of sugar stored in their cells. When muscles run out of their stored sugar supply, they hurt as you exercise and become difficult to coordinate. A limiting factor to how fast you can move is the time it takes to bring oxygen into your muscles. Since sugar requires less oxygen than fat does to power your muscles, you will slow down when your muscle sugar and blood sugar levels start to drop.

Sugar before Competition or Intense Exercise

Take sugar no more than five minutes before you start your competition. Do not take sugar earlier than that because when you eat sugar and your muscles are not contracting, you can get a high rise in blood sugar that causes the pancreas to release large amounts of insulin. This can cause a drop in blood sugar levels that can tire you. On the other hand, exercising muscles draw sugar rapidly from the bloodstream without needing insulin, so taking sugar during exercise or just before you start usually does not cause the high rise in blood sugar levels.

During your competition or exercise session, take sugar before you feel hungry. Hunger during exercise is a very late sign of not getting enough calories. By the time you feel hungry, your body will be so depleted of sugar that you will have to stop or slow down so you can eat a lot of carbohydrate-rich food just to restore your sugar supplies. On days that are not too hot, your exercise performance will be harmed far earlier by lack of sugar than from lack of water. The rule of thumb is that athletes should take a source of sugar during all competitions lasting longer than an hour.

During Competitions Longer than an Hour, Take Caffeine with Sugar

Taking caffeine with sugar during athletic competitions can increase endurance and improve your performance (Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, July 2010). Caffeine works by increasing the absorption of sugar from your intestines and by increasing your exercising muscles' uptake of sugar by as much as 26 percent (Journal of Applied Physiology, June 2006). However, taking sugar and caffeine when you are not exercising doubles your rise in blood sugar (Journal of Caffeine Research, April 16, 2011). High rises in blood sugar can damage every cell in your body to increase risk for weight gain, diabetes and heart attacks.

Lack of Salt

The only mineral that you need to take during prolonged exercise is sodium, found in regular table salt. Potassium, calcium and magnesium deficiencies do not occur in healthy athletes (Medicine & Science in Sport & Exercise, October 1999). Just about everyone agrees that you need to take in extra salt during extended athletic competitions in hot weather. Salt is necessary to hold water in your body, prevent muscle cramps, and help keep your muscles contracting with great force.

If you do not meet your needs for salt during extended exercise in hot weather, you will tire earlier and increase your risk for heat stroke, dehydration and cramps. During vigorous exercise lasting longer than three hours, you should eat salty foods such as salted nuts, peanuts or potato chips. Some sports drinks contain salt, but since salted drinks taste awful, the amount added is so small that it may not be enough to meet your needs. One study showed that you cannot replace salt lost through exercise by drinking the sports drinks that contain salt, since they typically contain very little salt (British Journal of Sports Medicine, April 2006).

You Can Take In TOO MUCH Fluid

The American College of Sports Medicine used to recommend fluid intake of 1200 cc (five cups, 2.5 pints or 2 average-size water bottles) per hour, but for a person who is not exercising near his or her maximum, this can be too much (Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine, July-August 2005). A person exercising near his capacity and not slowed down by fatigue probably does not have to worry about limiting fluid intake. He is working so hard at maintaining intensity, he doesn't have enough time to drink too much. On the other hand, people slowed down by fatigue or those who are out of shape should limit fluid intake, probably to fewer than two large water bottles per hour.

Some people develop hyponatremia (low salt) when they drink too much. It almost always occurs in people who attempt events that are beyond their training levels. They run out of energy, slow down and focus on drinking fluids instead of maintaining their pace. Hyponatremia is caused by drinking too much fluid, not by excessive loss of salt in sweat or by the stress of exercising. The extra fluid expands blood volume and dilutes blood salt levels. This causes blood salt levels to drop to low levels, while brain salt levels remain normal. Fluid moves from an area of low salt concentration into areas with high salt levels, so in hyponatremia, fluid moves from the bloodstream into the brain to cause brain swelling. Since the brain is enclosed in the skull, which is a tight box, the expanding brain has nowhere to go and the squashing can cause a headache, nausea and blurred vision. Since these are the same symptoms caused by pure dehydration with normal blood salt levels, the only way to diagnose the condition is with blood tests. As blood salt levels drop even lower, the person becomes confused, develops seizures and falls unconscious. You should suspect hyponatremia if the person has been exercising more than three hours and has been drinking often. Under any circumstances, a person who is confused, has seizures or has passed out should be sent to a hospital immediately. Hyponatremia requires skilled management because the first impulse is to give intravenous fluids, which would dilute blood salt levels further to cause more brain swelling that could kill the patient.

My Recommendations

  • When you exercise casually in hot weather, listen to your body. Drink water when you are thirsty, eat fruit when you are hungry, and eat salted peanuts, nuts or potato chips if you are exercising in the hot sun for more than three hours.
  • If you are competing in sports that last more than 70 minutes, take a source of sugar, such as jelly beans or any sugared drink, a few minutes before you start and during your event. There is no significant advantage to special sports drinks.
  • If you are competing for more than two hours, take a food source of sugar such as fruit, cookies or candy bars. You don't need special energy bars because no sugar source is better for you than one that contains both glucose and fructose and almost all types of candy and pastries contain these two sugars.
  • If you are going to exercise or compete for more than three hours, add salty foods such as salted nuts or potato chips.

7 Habits

  1. Start very small.
  2. Do only one change at a time.
  3. Be present and enjoy the activity (don’t focus on results).
  4. Be grateful for every step you take.

7.1 10 fundamental truths that will change your life

  1. Great success is often preceded by failure.
  2. Being busy does not equal being productive.
  3. You're only as good as those you associate with.
  4. You're living the life you've created.
  5. Fear is the #1 source of regret.
  6. You don't have to wait for an apology to forgive.
  7. Live in the moment.
  8. Your self-worth must come from within.
  9. Life is short.
  10. Change is inevitable - embrace it.

7.2 100 Tips to Better Life

7.2.1 Body

  1. The 20-20-20 rule: Every 20 minutes of screenwork, look at a spot 20 feet away for 20 seconds. This will reduce eye strain and is easy to remember (or program reminders for).
  2. Exercise (weightlifting) not only creates muscle mass, it also improves skeletal structure. Lift!
  3. Exercise is the most important lifestyle intervention you can do. Even the bare minimum (15 minutes a week) has a huge impact. Start small.
  4. (This is not medical advice). Don’t waste money on multivitamins, they don’t work. Vitamin D supplementation does seem to work, which is important because deficiency is common.
  5. Phones have gotten heavier in the last decade and they’re actually pretty hard on your wrists! Use a computer when it’s an alternative or try to at least prop up your phone.

7.2.2 Compassion

  1. Call your parents when you think of them, tell your friends when you love them.
  2. Compliment people more. Many people have trouble thinking of themselves as smart, or pretty, or kind, unless told by someone else. You can help them out.
  3. If somebody is undergoing group criticism, the tribal part in you will want to join in the fun of righteously destroying somebody. Resist this, you’ll only add ugliness to the world. And anyway, they’ve already learned the lesson they’re going to learn and it probably isn’t the lesson you want.
  4. Cultivate compassion for those less intelligent than you. Many people, through no fault of their own, can’t handle forms, scammers, or complex situations. Be kind to them because the world is not.
  5. Cultivate patience for difficult people. Communication is extremely complicated and involves getting both tone and complex ideas across. Many people can barely do either. Don’t punish them.
  6. Don’t punish people for trying. You teach them to not try with you. Punishing includes whining that it took them so long, that they did it badly, or that others have done it better.
  7. Remember that many people suffer invisibly, and some of the worst suffering is shame. Not everybody can make their pain legible.
  8. Don’t punish people for admitting they were wrong, you make it harder for them to improve.
  9. In general, you will look for excuses to not be kind to people. Resist these.

7.2.3 Cooking

  1. Steeping minutes: Green at 3, black at 4, herbal at 5. Good tea is that simple!
  2. Food actually can be both cheap, healthy, tasty, and relatively quick to prepare. All it requires is a few hours one day to prepare many meals for the week.
  3. Cooking pollutes the air. Opening windows for a few minutes after cooking can dramatically improve air quality.
  4. Food taste can be made much more exciting through simple seasoning. It’s also an opportunity for expression. Buy a few herbs and spices and experiment away.
  5. When googling a recipe, precede it with ‘best’. You’ll find better recipes.

7.2.4 Hazards

  1. There are two red flags to avoid almost all dangerous people: 1. The perpetually aggrieved ; 2. The angry.
  2. Some people create drama out of habit. You can avoid these people.
  3. Those who generate anxiety in you and promise that they have the solution are grifters. See: politicians, marketers, new masculinity gurus, etc. Avoid these.
  4. DO NOT TALK TO COPS. (This is not legal advice)
  5. It is cheap for people to talk about their values, goals, rules, and lifestyle. When people’s actions contradict their talk, pay attention!
  6. "If they'll do it with you, they'll do it to you" and "those who live by the sword die by the sword" mean the same thing. Viciousness you excuse in yourself, friends, or teammates will one day return to you, and then you won’t have an excuse.

7.2.5 Joy

  1. Bad things happen dramatically (a pandemic). Good things happen gradually (malaria deaths dropping annually) and don’t feel like ‘news’. Endeavour to keep track of the good things to avoid an inaccurate and dismal view of the world.
  2. Human mood and well-being are heavily influenced by simple things: Exercise, good sleep, light, being in nature. It’s cheap to experiment with these.
  3. If other people having it worse than you means you can’t be sad, then other people having it better than you would mean you can’t be happy. Feel what you feel.
  4. Liking and wanting things are different. There are things like junk food that you want beyond enjoyment. But you can also like things (like reading) without wanting them. If you remember enjoying something but don’t feel a desire for it now, try pushing yourself.
  5. People don’t realize how much they hate commuting. A nice house farther from work is not worth the fraction of your life you are giving to boredom and fatigue.
  6. Some types of sophistication won’t make you enjoy the object more, they’ll make you enjoy it less. For example, wine snobs don’t enjoy wine twice as much as you, they’re more keenly aware of how most wine isn’t good enough. Avoid sophistication that diminishes your enjoyment.
  7. Sturgeon’s law states that 90% of everything is crap. If you dislike poetry, or fine art, or anything, it’s possible you’ve only ever seen the crap. Go looking!
  8. There’s some evidence that introverts and extroverts both benefit from being pushed to be more extroverted. Consider this the next time you aren’t sure if you feel like going out.
  9. You don’t have to love your job. Jobs can be many things, but they’re also a way to make money. Many people live fine lives in okay jobs by using the money they make on things they care about.
  10. You have vanishingly little political influence and every thought you spend on politics will probably come to nothing. Consider building things instead, or at least going for a walk.

7.2.6 Others

  1. In choosing between living with 0-1 people vs 2 or more people, remember that ascertaining responsibility will no longer be instantaneous with more than one roommate (“whose dishes are these?”).
  2. Understand people have the right to be tasteless.
  3. You will prevent yourself from even having thoughts that could lower your status. Avoid blocking yourself off just so people keep thinking you’re cool.
  4. Being in groups is important. If you don’t want to join a sports team, consider starting a shitty band. It’s the closest you’ll get to being in an RPG. Train with 2-4 other characters, learn new moves, travel from pub to pub, and get quests from NPCs.
  5. It’s possible to get people to do things that make you like them more but respect them less. Avoid this, it destroys relationships.
  6. Think a little about why you enjoy what you enjoy. If you can explain what you love about Dune, you can now communicate not only with Dune fans, but with people who love those aspects in other books.
  7. When you ask people, “What’s your favorite book / movie / band?” and they stumble, ask them instead what book / movie / band they’re currently enjoying most. They’ll almost always have one and be able to talk about it.
  8. Bored people are boring.
  9. A norm of eating with your family without watching something will lead to better conversations. If this idea fills you with dread, consider getting a new family.
  10. If you bus to other cities, consider finding a rideshare on Facebook instead. It’s cheaper, faster, and leads to interesting conversations.

7.2.7 Possessions

  1. If you want to find out about people’s opinions on a product, google <product> reddit. You’ll get real people arguing, as compared to the SEO’d Google results.
  2. Some banks charge you $20 a month for an account, others charge you 0. If you’re with one of the former, have a good explanation for what those $20 are buying.
  3. Things you use for a significant fraction of your life (bed: 1/3rd, office-chair: 1/4th) are worth investing in.
  4. “Where is the good knife?” If you’re looking for your good X, you have bad Xs. Throw those out.
  5. If your work is done on a computer, get a second monitor. Less time navigating between windows means more time for thinking.
  6. Establish clear rules about when to throw out old junk. Once clear rules are established, junk will probably cease to be a problem. This is because any rule would be superior to our implicit rules (“keep this broken stereo for five years in case I learn how to fix it”).
  7. Don’t buy CDs for people. They have Spotify. Buy them merch from a band they like instead. It’s more personal and the band gets more money.
  8. When buying things, time and money trade-off against each other. If you’re low on money, take more time to find deals. If you’re low on time, stop looking for great deals and just buy things quickly online.

7.2.8 Productivity

  1. Advanced search features are a fast way to create tighter search statements.
    • For example:
      • img html will return inferior results compared to: img html -w3
  2. You can automate mundane computer tasks with Autohotkey (or AppleScript). If you keep doing a sequence “so simple a computer can do it”, make the computer do it.
  3. Learn keyboard shortcuts. They’re easy to learn and you’ll get tasks done faster and easier.
  4. Done is better than perfect.
  5. Keep your desk and workspace bare. Treat every object as an imposition upon your attention, because it is. A workspace is not a place for storing things. It is a place for accomplishing things.
  6. Reward yourself after completing challenges, even badly.

7.2.9 Rationality

  1. Noticing biases in others is easy, noticing biases in yourself is hard. However, it has much higher pay-off.
  2. Explaining problems is good. Often in the process of laying out a problem, a solution will present itself.
  3. Foolish people are right about most things. Endeavour to not let the opinions of foolish people automatically discredit those opinions.
  4. You have a plan. A time-traveller from 2030 appears and tells you your plan failed. Which part of your plan do you think is the one that fails? Fix that part.
  5. If something surprises you again and again, stop being surprised.
  6. Should you freak out upon seeing your symptoms on the worst diseases on WebMD? Probably not! Look up the base rates for the disease and then apply Bayes’ Theorem
  7. Selfish people should listen to advice to be more selfless, selfless people should listen to advice to be more selfish. This applies to many things. Whenever you receive advice, consider its opposite as well. You might be filtering out the advice you need most.
  8. Common systems and tools have been designed so everybody can handle them. So don’t worry that you’re the only one who can’t! You can figure out doing laundry, baking, and driving on a highway.

7.2.10 Relationships

  1. In relationships look for somebody you can enjoy just hanging out near. Long-term relationships are mostly spent just chilling.
  2. Sometimes things last a long time because they’re good (jambalaya). But that doesn’t mean that because something has lasted a long time that it is good (penile subincisions). Apply this to relationships, careers, and beliefs as appropriate.
  3. Don’t complain about your partner to coworkers or online. The benefits are negligible and the cost is destroying a bit of your soul.
  4. After a breakup, cease all contact as soon as practical. The potential for drama is endless, and the potential for a good friendship is negligible. Wait a year before trying to be friends again.
  5. If you haven’t figured things out sexually, remember that there isn’t a deadline. If somebody is making you feel like there is, consider the possibility that they aren’t your pal.
  6. If you have trouble talking during dates, try saying whatever comes into your head. At worst you’ll ruin some dates (which weren’t going well anyways), at best you’ll have some great conversations. Alcohol can help.
  7. When dating, de-emphasizing your quirks will lead to 90% of people thinking you’re kind of alright. Emphasizing your quirks will lead to 10% of people thinking you’re fascinating and fun. Those are the people interested in dating you. Aim for them.
  8. Relationships need novelty. It’s hard to have novelty during Covid–but have you planned your post-Covid adventure yet?
  9. People can be the wrong fit for you without being bad. Being a person is complicated and hard.

7.2.11 Self

  1. Deficiencies do not make you special. The older you get, the more your inability to cook will be a red flag for people.
  2. There is no interpersonal situation that can’t be improved by knowing more about your desires, goals, and structure. ‘Know thyself!’
  3. If you’re under 90, try things.
  4. Things that aren’t your fault can still be your responsibility.
  5. Defining yourself by your suffering is an effective way to keep suffering forever (ex. incels, trauma).
  6. Keep your identity small. “I’m not the kind of person who does things like that” is not an explanation, it’s a trap. It prevents nerds from working out and men from dancing.
  7. Don’t confuse ‘doing a thing because I like it’ with ‘doing a thing because I want to be seen as the sort of person who does such things’
  8. Remember that you are dying.
  9. Events can hurt us, not just our perceptions of them. It’s good to build resilience, but sometimes it isn’t your fault if something really gets to you.
  10. If you want to become funny, try just saying stupid shit (in the right company!) until something sticks.
  11. To start defining your problems, say (out loud) “everything in my life is completely fine.” Notice what objections arise.
  12. Procrastination comes naturally, so apply it to bad things. “I want to hurt myself right now. I’ll do it in an hour.” “I want a smoke now, so in half an hour I’ll go have a smoke.” Then repeat. Much like our good plans fall apart while we delay them, so can our bad plans.
  13. Personal epiphanies feel great, but they fade within weeks. Upon having an epiphany, make a plan and start actually changing behavior.
  14. Sometimes unsolvable questions like “what is my purpose?” and “why should I exist?” lose their force upon lifestyle fixes. In other words, seeing friends regularly and getting enough sleep can go a long way to solving existentialism.

7.2.12 Success

  1. History remembers those who got to market first. Getting your creation out into the world is more important than getting it perfect.
  2. Are you on the fence about breaking up or leaving your job? You should probably go ahead and do it. People, on average, end up happier when they take the plunge.
  3. Discipline is superior to motivation. The former can be trained, the latter is fleeting. You won’t be able to accomplish great things if you’re only relying on motivation.
  4. You can improve your communication skills with practice much more effectively than you can improve your intelligence with practice. If you’re not that smart but can communicate ideas clearly, you have a great advantage over everybody who can’t communicate clearly.
  5. You do not live in a video game. There are no pop-up warnings if you’re about to do something foolish, or if you’ve been going in the wrong direction for too long. You have to create your own warnings.
  6. If you listen to successful people talk about their methods, remember that all the people who used the same methods and failed did not make videos about it.
  7. The best advice is personal and comes from somebody who knows you well. Take broad-spectrum advice like this as needed, but the best way to get help is to ask honest friends who love you.
  8. Make accomplishing things as easy as possible. Find the easiest way to start exercising. Find the easiest way to start writing. People make things harder than they have to be and get frustrated when they can’t succeed. Try not to.
  9. Cultivate a reputation for being dependable. Good reputations are valuable because they’re rare (easily destroyed and hard to rebuild). You don’t have to brew the most amazing coffee if your customers know the coffee will always be hot.
  10. How you spend every day is how you spend your life.

7.3 100 Tips to improve your life

  1. Exercise on a Monday night (nothing fun happens on a Monday night).
  2. On the fence about a purchase? Wait 72 hours before you buy it.
  3. Tip: the quickest supermarket queue is always behind the fullest trolley (greeting, paying and packing take longer than you think).
  4. Bring fruit to work. Bring fruit to bed!
  5. Consider going down to four days a week. It’s likely a disproportionate amount of your fifth day’s work is taxed anyway, so you’ll lose way less than a fifth of your take-home pay.
  6. Everyone has an emotional blind spot when they fight. Work out what yours is, and remember it.
  7. Plant spring bulbs, even if they’re just in a pot.
  8. Send a voice note instead of a text; they sound like personal mini podcasts.
  9. Keep a bird feeder by a window, ideally the kitchen. It’ll pass the time when you’re washing up.
  10. Always bring ice to house parties (there’s never enough).
  11. Get the lighting right: turn off the overhead one, turn on lots of lamps (but turn off when you leave the room).
  12. Sharpen your knives.
  13. Feeling sluggish at work? Try the Pomodoro technique: 25 minutes on, five-minute break, and repeat.
  14. Buy a cheap blender and use it to finely chop onions (it saves on time and tears).
  15. Keep your children’s drawings and paintings. Put the best ones in frames.
  16. Set aside 10 minutes a day to do something you really enjoy – be it reading a book or playing Halo.
  17. Don’t be weird about how to stack the dishwasher.
  18. Reuse all plastic bags – even bread bags. Much of the packaging you can’t reuse can be taken to larger branches of supermarkets for recycling.
  19. Take a photo of the tag you are given when leaving your coat in a cloakroom.
  20. Can’t sleep? Try a relaxing soak with lavender bath oil before bed.
  21. Add the milk at least one minute after the tea has brewed.
  22. Laugh shamelessly at your own jokes.
  23. It might sound obvious, but a pint of water before bed after a big night avoids a clanger of a hanger.
  24. Start a Saturday morning with some classical music – it sets the tone for a calm weekend.
  25. Look closely.
  26. Set time limits for your apps. Just go to the settings on your smartphone and add a limit – for example, if you have an iPhone turn on Screen Time.
  27. If possible, take the stairs.
  28. Always be willing to miss the next train.
  29. Eat meat once a week, max. Ideally less.
  30. Be polite to rude strangers – it’s oddly thrilling.
  31. Ask questions, and listen to the answers.
  32. Connect with nature: stand outside barefoot for a few minutes – even when it’s cold.
  33. Join your local library – and use it. Find yours here.
  34. Go for a walk without your phone.
  35. Eat salted butter (life’s too short for unsalted).
  36. Stretch in the morning. And maybe in the evening.
  37. If you’re going less than a mile, walk or cycle. About half of car journeys are under two miles, yet these create more pollution than longer journeys as the engine isn’t warmed up yet.
  38. Sleep with your phone in a different room (and buy an alarm clock).
  39. Send postcards from your holidays. Send them even if you’re not on holiday.
  40. Instead of buying new shoes, get old ones resoled and buy new laces.
  41. Buy a plant. Think you’ll kill it? Buy a fake one.
  42. Don’t have Twitter on your phone.
  43. If you find an item of clothing you love and are certain you will wear for ever, buy three.
  44. Try taking a cold shower (30 seconds to two minutes) before your hot one. It’s good for your health – both physical and mental.
  45. Text to say thank you.
  46. Read a poem every day. Keep a compendium, such as A Poem for Every Day of the Year, by your bed.
  47. Take out your headphones when walking – listen to the world.
  48. Buy secondhand.
  49. Buy in person!
  50. Learn how to floss properly.
  51. If something in the world is making you angry, write (politely) to your MP – they will read it.
  52. Say hello to your neighbours.
  53. Learn the basics of repairing your clothes.
  54. Always bring something – wine, flowers – to a dinner/birthday party, even if they say not to.
  55. Learn the names of 10 trees.
  56. Call an old friend out of the blue.
  57. Every so often, search your email for the word “unsubscribe” and then use it on as many as you can.
  58. Buy a newspaper. (Ideally this one.)
  59. Always have dessert.
  60. Drop your shoulders.
  61. Make something from scratch. Works best if it’s something you’d normally buy, such as a dress or a bag.
  62. Go to bed earlier – but don’t take your phone with you.
  63. Volunteer. ​​Go to for ideas.
  64. Dry your cutlery with a cloth (it keeps it shiny).
  65. Instead of buying a morning coffee, set up a daily transfer of £2 from a current into a savings account and forget about it. Use it to treat yourself to something different later.
  66. Don’t save things for “best”. Wear them – enjoy them.
  67. Sing!
  68. Think about your posture: don’t slouch, and don’t cross your legs.
  69. Hang your clothes up. Ideally on non-wire hangers (it’s better for them).
  70. Skinny-dip with friends.
  71. Switch your phone off on holiday (or at least delete your work email app).
  72. Always use freshly ground pepper.
  73. Thank a teacher who changed your life.
  74. Respect your youngers.
  75. Keep your keys in the same place.
  76. Ditch the plastic cartons and find a milkman – The Modern Milkman has a comprehensive list.
  77. Rent rather than buy a suit/dress for that forthcoming wedding (even if it’s your own).
  78. Always book an extra day off after a holiday.
  79. Ignore the algorithm – listen to music outside your usual taste.
  80. Mute or leave a WhatsApp group chat.
  81. Learn a TikTok dance (but don’t post it on TikTok).
  82. Cook something you’ve never attempted before.
  83. Join a local litter-picking group.
  84. Handwash that thing you’ve never cleaned.
  85. Don’t get a pet/do get a pet.
  86. Nap.
  87. Learn how to breathe deeply: in through the nose, out through the mouth, making the exhale longer than the inhale.
  88. Buy a bike and use it. Learn how to fix it, too.
  89. Politely decline invitations if you don’t want to go.
  90. If you do go, have an exit strategy (can we recommend a French exit, where you slip out unseen).
  91. If in doubt, add cheese.
  92. Don’t look at your phone at dinner.
  93. Do that one thing you’ve been putting off.
  94. Give compliments widely and freely.
  95. Set up an affordable standing order to a charity. RNLI and Greenpeace spring to mind …
  96. Keep a book in your bag to avoid the temptation to doomscroll.
  97. Listen to the albums you loved as a teenager.
  98. Make a friend from a different generation.
  99. Staying over at a friend’s place? Strip the bed in the morning.
  100. For instant cheer, wear yellow.


7.4 15 Useful Activities That Are Worth Your Time

  1. Working out — I especially like strength training because being strong is one of the most useful things in life. Sitting behind your desk for hours, going shopping, traveling — your life will be a lot easier when you’re physically strong.
  2. Spending time with people you love — It doesn’t really matter what you do. It’s more about being around people you genuinely care about. That will lift your spirits and give you energy.
  3. Learning how your body works — Everybody should know how their body functions. I also like to read about the latest scientific research about health and fitness.
  4. Journaling — It’s always nice to sit down at the end of a day and reflect. What did I do today? What did I learn? What am I going to do tomorrow? Answering those questions is the best time you’ll spend every day.
  5. Learning a skill — Always be learning a new skill. I started practicing Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu a while back. I go to class every week and I constantly learn from YouTube videos. I always want to learn a new skill because it reminds me that I’m always a student.
  6. Making a financial strategy — I like to read and hear about investing strategies of different people. Even though I consider myself a value investor, I still look at what day traders do. I’m interested in finance because I don’t want to waste my hard-earned money.
  7. Watching good movies/tv shows — I sometimes make fun of people who binge watch tv shows. I think that’s a waste of your day. But I love movies and good shows. They can give you inspiration too.
  8. Listening to music — I listen to music a lot. It gives me inspiration and energy. The best thing is to listen music that fits your mood.
  9. Reading — I start and close my day with reading. And I never miss a day.
  10. Talking about life — It’s nice to have a good conversation with someone who has the same mindset as you. I’ve grown to hate shallow conversations. So I don’t waste my time anymore on people who I don’t have a deep connection with.
  11. Going to the sauna — I do this twice a week. It’s apparently good for you. But that’s not why I go. I love the heat and quiet. The time I spend in the sauna is like meditation to me.
  12. Discovering new books — I can spend hours browsing books that I want to read. But I try to not overdo it. Otherwise, you’re reading more ABOUT books than reading actual books.
  13. Watching sports — I used to play basketball and I still enjoy watching it. But I only follow the NBA, not all professional sports.
  14. Laughing — I love some good banter. Life is hard and if you don’t laugh about yourself, you only make it harder.
  15. Working on your goals — Every minute you spend on advancing your life is time you don’t regret spending.

7.5 2 secrets of the good life from ancient Chinese philosophers

  1. It's the little things.
    • Rituals are key. You are your habits. Lose bad ones, gain good ones
  2. Don't make life plans.
    • Cultivate opportunities. The master plan may fail. Your goals will change. So guarantee that new possibilities will keep coming your way by making "small bets"

7.6 2019 Big Plans   2020

7.6.1 Personal:

  1. TODO Write My Books [1/8]
    • [X] Obesity book
    • [ ] Florida Wildlife book
    • [ ] OTC Book
    • [ ] Adulting with ADHD Book
    • [ ] Successful Living with Depression/Anxiety Book
    • [ ] Running Book
    • [ ] Exercise physiology for the layman
    • [ ] Fictional love story
  2. Ride motorcycles more
  3. Finish Harley
  4. Stop chewing nails
  5. Boat lessons?

7.6.2 Fitness:

  1. Resistance Exercise 2-3/7
    • Body weight exercise
    • Lift at home
    • Pullup setup?
  2. Aerobic Exercise 3/7
    • Run more often - 4-7 mi each time (12-20mi/wk)
  3. Skate more
  4. Races [0/2]
    • [ ] Step race (May)

7.6.3 Home:

  1. TODO Clean/Organize Home
  2. TODO Start Sunday Night Pow Wow with Wife
    • [ ] Set up in calendar
    • [ ] Make agenda
      • Next week
      • Look back
      • Finances
      • Vacations
      • etc
  3. TODO Start a weekly date night - Friday's - ok, just plan it
  4. TODO Family/Kids

    Plan 2019 schedule for kids:

    1. Jan
      • 1-6
    2. Feb
    3. Mar
    4. Apr
    5. May
    6. Jun
    7. Jul
    8. Aug
    9. Sep
    10. Oct
    11. Nov
    12. Dec
  5. TODO Replace House Siding

7.6.4 Animals:

  1. Dogs
    • [ ] Joring with Rita
    • [ ] Work to bring dogs back together
  2. Bees
    • [X] Build second hive box
    • [X] Catch a swarm or trap a feral hive
  3. Shrimp/guppies/Ants
    • [X] Build small, simple enclosed environment

7.7 5 Steps to train your brain to become more positive.

Achor's technique is so simple, a sixth-grader can do it. We can actually rewire our brain, allowing it to actually work more optimistically and more successfully. Here's the magic formula:

  1. Three acts of gratitude. Spend two minutes a day writing down three new things you are grateful for. Do this for 21 days in a row. (Note: The reason this is so powerful is you're training your mind to scan for positives, instead of threats. It's the fastest way of teaching optimism.)
  2. Journal one positive experience. For two minutes a day, write in detail about one positive experience you've had during the last 24 hours. (This allows your brain to relive it, and teaches your brain that the behavior matters.)
  3. Exercise. If you hate exercise, here's the good news: All it takes is just 15 minutes of fun cardio activity. (Achor says this is the equivalent of taking an anti-depressant for the first six months, but with a 30 percent lower relapse rate over the next two years. And the reason why exercise is valuable is it trains your brain to believe, "My behavior matters," which is optimism.)
  4. Breathe. Stop what you're doing, hands off the laptop. Now breathe and watch your breath go in and out for two minutes. Do this every day. This allows your brain to focus on one thing at a time. (Achor says it will "raise accuracy rates, improve levels of happiness, and drop stress levels.")
  5. Express kindness through a text or email. The most important of the five: For two minutes per day, write a positive email or text praising or thanking someone you know. And do it for a different person each day. (Achor says people who do this become known as positive leaders with strong social connections–the greatest predictor of long-term happiness.)

7.8 6 Fundamental Habits

  1. Exercise
  2. Cooking
  3. Meditation
  4. Reading
  5. Writing
  6. Socializing

The six fundamental habits above provide a nice foundation for a healthy life in all domains: physically, emotionally, psychologically and socially. They overlap and buttress one another. And amazingly, they’re all actually quite simple to achieve, requiring far less initial effort than most people realize.

7.9 7 Daily Habits for a Clutter-Free Home   2020

  1. Handle physical mail immediately.
  2. Clean dishes after meals.
  3. Make your bed each morning.
  4. Store things off the kitchen counter.
  5. Return items nightly.
  6. Complete 1-2 minute jobs immediately.
  7. Minimize overfilled spaces right away.


7.10 ABC: Always be carrying

Before you leave a room: Check if there’s something that belongs somewhere else so you can grab it and move it.

7.11 Accomplish Priorities

Tim Ferriss's Approach to Accomplishing Your Most Important Priority Is Brilliant (It Takes Only 1 Hour a Day)

  1. Prioritize your most important things.
  2. Create dedicated time to work them.
  3. Make progress.
  4. Make it a habit.

7.12 Daily Journaling Simple Template

  • What happened to you that day (events).
  • Outcomes, tasks, questions. Outcomes are the big things you want to achieve for the day. Tasks are the smaller steps to achieving outcomes.
  • Write down 3 accomplishments.
  • Questions (all optional, pick as you please):
    • What did I read?
    • What did I learn?
    • What did I do to help my future?
    • How did I help someone today?
    • Who do I love?
    • What am I grateful for?


7.13 Daily Time   2020

  • 0600 Wake-up/Run/Shower
  • 0700 Dogs - walk/feed
  • 0800 Morning clean-up and breakfast
    • 0830 Anchor-DPC Open
  • 0900 Start work
  • 1000
  • 1100
  • 1200 Lunch
  • 1300 Let dogs out
  • 1400
  • 1500
  • 1600
  • 1700 End work
  • 1800 Yoga, Earn a skill, Read
  • 1830 Dinner
  • 1900
  • 2000 Evening clean up
  • 2100
    • 2130 Get ready for bed
  • 2200 Go to Sleep

7.14 Drink bad coffee

Bad coffee is the best coffee.

  • Or less cryptically: The lower you can set your standard for acceptable coffee, the happier you’ll be.
  • Saving time or money on coffee isn’t going to change your life or give millennials the money to buy a house. But once you’ve downgraded coffee, you’ll be ready to downgrade anything. Mass production has improved cheap beer, cheap clothes, cheap furniture. You can even do fine with a crappy smartphone. But even if you just downgrade the little things—do you really care about expensive toilet paper?—you’ll be practicing resistance to the default “upgrade” model. You’ll build willpower.

Instead of living like garbage, you’ll find the opposite:

  • The more things you stop caring about, the more room there is to splurge when you do care. No one has good taste in everything, and no one should aspire to that. Because unless you’re filthy rich, you’d constantly be settling, and that would be the saddest life of all. So go on, try the bad coffee.

7.15 General Life Guidelines   2020

  • Be on time - keep priorities
  • No Pronouns
  • FRAGO all
  • Make and maintain a personal battle rhythm
  • Who else needs to know - appropriate use of CC line (copy in your boss, copy in the person you need something from's boss)
  • Learn to let go - give space for people to grow after giving them a direction to grow into
  • Never brief "hope" - i.e. We hope it will …
  • Keep lists of what needs to get done, review often, revise often
  • Stay uncluttered
  • Aid bag needs trauma AND sick call stuff
  • Communicate - most issues arise due to misunderstandings
  • Keep a reflex hammer - just for fun
  • Sleep on emails/calls when you might say something you will regret
  • Drink coffee proudly
  • Be confident but not too confident - look at people's eyes
  • Make a Memory Palace
  • Don't ask why, ask how high
  • Make yourself indispensable
  • Be able to always leave it behind

7.16 Habits to Improve Your Critical Thinking

  1. Question assumptions
  2. Reason through logic
  3. Seek out diversity of thought and collaboration

7.17 How to (Actually) Manage Your Time

  1. Record Your Time
    • Automate the tracking with RescueTime. (Note: This only works well if you spend most of your day at your computer.)
    • Semi-automate using a digital time-tracker like Toggl
    • Outsource it to your secretary or VA.
    • Track manually with a spreadsheet or good ‘ol pen and paper
  2. Diagnose Your Time
    • The goal during this step is to figure out where time is being wasted. To help figure it out, Drucker gives two questions we can ask.
      1. Question One: “What would happen if this were not done at all?”
      2. Question Two: “What activities could someone else do better?”
    • Things to try:
      1. Automate repeated tasks using apps like Zapier or IFTTT.
      2. Optimize work done repeatedly by creating an “Operations Checklist.” (See Marshall’s Progression for more on how to do this.)
      3. Outsource by hiring a freelancer to do things that you are less good at (scheduling, babysit, web design, walk the dog, outreach, marketing, etc.)
  3. Consolidate Your Time
    • Reorganize time


  • The Essential Drucker by Peter Drucker

7.18 Instead of excessively worrying over a decision, decide what you're going to do, then do things to make it the right decision afterward.   work

Most people will excessively worry and over-analyze a decision, but then do very little about it after the decision is made.

We spend 95% of our energy pre-decision, then 5% after.

However, very often there isn't a "right" decision, but there are things we can do afterwards that will make it right.

For example, don't feel like there's a right/wrong decision to make when considering a job offer out of state.

  • If you do decide to take it, once you're there, do things to "make it" the right decision, like go out and make friends, work hard but keep a good work/life balance, etc.

Change that 95/5 split to more like 50/50.

7.19 Invest in Life

How to invest in your own life:

  1. Write a list of 100 things to do in life
  2. Divide the list into 3 categories:
    1. Things I needs skills for
    2. Things I can no immediately
    3. Things I need time for
  3. Make a skills chart
    1. Column for skills to learn
    2. Column for research on the skill
    3. Column for action on the skill
    4. Column for progress on the skill
  4. Take Action! Do the things you can do immediately
  5. Plan for time to do stuff that needs time

7.20 Ivy League Daily ToDo List

  1. At the end of each work day, write down 6 most important things to accomplish the next day
  2. Prioritize these 6 items
  3. The next day, concentrate only on the first one. Work until it is done before moving to the second
  4. Work through the list. Move any unfinished items to the 6 for the next day.
  5. Repeat everyday

7.21 Lose bad habits

How to get rid of bad habits

  • One at a time. Beat one bad habit per month and in a year you’ll be awesome.
  • Don’t stop. Just count. Don’t eliminate the bad behavior just yet. First, be consistent in your awfulness.
  • Don’t change you. Change your world. 20 second rule. Make it harder to engage in bad habits.
  • Chill, dude. Stress makes the bad stuff tempting. Relax and you’ll behave better.
  • Don’t eliminate. Replace. You can’t kill bad habits but you can swap them out for new ones.
  • “If” and “Then.” A simple plan for how you’ll beat temptation helps you beat temptation.
  • Forgive yourself. Beating yourself up makes you behave worse. Self-compassion keeps you going.
  • Peer pressure is a good thing — when you use it strategically.

7.22 LPT - Stop buying yourself small non-essentials, and start making a Christmas list.

To know what to say when people ask what you want for Christmas:

Start making a list of little stuff you want instead of going and buying it, and it made things way easier.

People like not having to guess at gifts and being able to get you things you actually want.

This is the time of year to start!

7.23 LPT - When buying something, take into account cost per use, not just initial price.   finances

LPT When buying something, take into account cost per use, not just initial price.

It's a simple concept, but we often forget about it when desperate to save money or when there's a good sale. This tip especially applies when it comes to long-term, investment things like tools, jackets, shoes, etc.

For instance, that pair of shoes may only be $20, but you may only get 20 uses out of it, so that's $1 per wear. On the other hand, a more expensive pair of shoes may be $60, but you'll get 300 uses out of it, so it's only $0.20 per wear.

Plus the more expensive shoes might bring you more enjoyment, be more aesthetically pleasing, and could be healthier for your feet. And throwing away less stuff is better for the environment.

7.24 Make phones less addictive

  1. Only allow notifications when a human wants to interact
  2. Make colors less bright
  3. Restrict home screen to everyday tools
    • Think tools - maps, lyft, calendar…
    • Avoid apps that use infinite scrolling on home screen
  4. Tristan Harris - Google’s former design ethicist.

7.25 Play the short or long game?

In everything you do, you’re either playing a short term or long term game. You can’t opt out and you can’t play a long-term game in everything, you need to pick what matters to you. But in everything you do time amplifies the difference between long and short-term games. The question you need to think about is when and where to play a long-term game. A good place to start is with things that compound: knowledge, relationships, and finances.

Long game looks pretty boring:

  • Saving money and investing it for tomorrow
  • Leaving the party early to go get some sleep
  • Investing time in your relationship today so you have a foundation when something happens
  • Doing your homework before you go out to play
  • Going to the gym rather than watching Netflix

The short game is seductive. The effects of the short game multiply the longer you play.

  • Why do your homework when you can go out and play?
  • Why wait to pay for a phone in cash, when you can put it on your credit card?
  • Why go to the gym when you can go drinking with your friends?
  • Why invest in your relationship with your partner today when you can work a little bit extra in the office?
  • Why learn something boring that doesn’t change when you can learn something sexy that impresses people?
  • Why bust your butt at work to do the work before the meeting when you can read the executive summary and pretend like everyone else?

7.26 Regain control of screen time

7 rules to help you retain control over your screen time, without having to leave social media for good, ordered from most important to least important.

  1. Rule #1: Avoid non-chronological feeds
    • On most online platforms, the order of content is determined by an algorithm designed to maximize user engagement, i.e. addict you and keep you looking at ads for as long as possible. Examples: Facebook news feed, Twitter “top tweets”, Instagram explore tab, Tiktok.
  2. Rule #2: No feeds or social media apps on the phone
    • Your phone is always within your reach. Access feeds only on your laptop, in order not to condition yourself to constantly check it. Don’t install social media or video apps on your phone.
  3. Rule #3: Follow with purpose
    • Your digital experience changes with each new person/source you follow. Be mindful about the utility of the information you would obtain before following a new source.
  4. Rule #4: Limit the number of people/things you follow
    • The amount of content you will have to go through increases roughly linearly with the number of sources you follow. You probably won’t see everything your 500 followees share—maybe it’s time to unfollow some of them.
  5. Rule #5: Schedule and limit your exposure
    • Your brain has a limited capacity to process and hold information. Schedule a certain hour of the day to receive it, and don’t surpass it. Example: No more than 30 minutes of social media, restricted to 10–11 am.
  6. Rule #6: Block generously and ruthlessly
    • If you don’t like what you’re seeing, block or unfollow immediately. This is the hardest when someone posts content that is sometimes useful, but otherwise annoying too. Generally, we put up with it for too long until we block someone.
  7. Rule #7: Mute words
    • Avoid toxic memes by muting related words, e.g. Trump, ISIS. This will filter out any post that contains that word. Click here to do it on Twitter now—it’s easy.

Follow these simple set of rules, and restore your control over social media and your digital experience in no time.

7.27 RISE UP

Remember what you should do every morning to start your day off right.

  • The “R” means Refrain from hitting the snooze button.
  • The “I” stands for Increase your activity in the first hour. Meaning exercise right after you wake up, or just do something small like a quick walk.
  • The “S” stands for Shower.
  • The “E” stands for Expose yourself to sunlight.
  • The “U” is so you listen to “Upbeat” music.
  • The “P” stands for Phone a friend…because talking to someone forces you to be more alert.

7.28 Rules for Getting Organized & Decluttered

Get yourself organized at the start and end of a day. As you start your work day, write down your 3 Most Important Tasks (MITs). Write down a handful of other things you’d like to do today as well. Clear your desk, get things in order. At the end of each day, tidy things up, check off your list, maybe even get things ready for tomorrow.

  1. When you get up from your desk, put one thing away. Whenever you get up for a glass of water, to go to the bathroom, to take a break … pick up something off your desk and put it away. If your desk is clear, look for something nearby.
  2. When you’re done eating, wash your bowl. This is self-explanatory. Mindfully wash your dishes instead of leaving them in the sink. If there are other dishes in the sink, wash a few of them too.
  3. Wipe down the sink when you use it. Whenever you wash your hands or brush your teeth in the bathroom, wipe down the sink so it’s clean. Do the same in the kitchen sink. Clear away a few things around the sink too if you can.
  4. When you walk through a room, find one thing to put away. If you’re going from your bedroom to the living room, find one thing during that trip to put away. You don’t have to get stuck in putting everything away, just one thing.
  5. When you take off a piece of clothing, put it away. When you shower or change clothes, instead of leaving them on the floor or on a piece of furniture, put the clothes away or in a hamper. Look for a few other clothes to put away too if there are more lying around.
  6. Keep flat surfaces clear. Your tables, counters, desks, floors … keep them clear. If there’s a ton of clutter there now, see the rule below about decluttering on Saturdays. But if it’s doable, just start clearing whatever is on the floor (except furniture and the like). When you walk by the kitchen counter, look for things other than oft-used appliances to put away.
  7. At the end of the work day, file stuff. If you still use papers, file them at the end of the day. If you are all digital, clear your computer desktop and put files where they belong.
  8. Deal with an email instead of putting it off. When you open an email, give it the space to deal with it immediately. Read it, reply, take action, or archive it. Or put it on your to-do list for later if it’s a big task. Don’t just constantly open emails without handling them.
  9. Work to only having 3 emails in your inbox. Slowly clear away the hundreds or thousands of emails in your inbox. Archive or delete them, put a handful in a to-do folder, file others into informational folders, unsubscribe from newsletters.
  10. Put non-essential items you want to buy on a 30-day list. Create a 30-day list, and whenever you want to buy something that’s not absolutely essential (other than groceries, cleaning supplies, toiletries), put it on the list with the date you added it. Then don’t allow yourself to buy anything until it’s been on the list for 30 days. At the end of the 30 days, see if you still want it before buying.
  11. Put your clothes in a different closet or box, and only take out what you need. Move all your clothes to a closet in an unused room if you have one, or put them in a box or two. Only remove the clothes you really need to wear. After a month of doing this, you’ll see what clothes you can consider donating.
  12. Declutter on Saturdays. Every Saturday morning, spend an hour or two (or half a day) decluttering one area.
  13. One in, two out. When you bring something new in your life (buy something online, get a gift), get rid of two other similar things. For example, if you buy a pair of shoes, donate two other pairs. In this way, you’ll 1) think more about each thing you buy, and 2) slowly have fewer and fewer possessions. Eventually you’ll want to switch to a “one in, one out” rule when you think your possessions are at a good level.
  14. Limit how many things you have. Consider limiting yourself to 30 pieces of clothing, or 30 books, or something like that. Get rid of everything else, don’t allow yourself to go beyond the limit. The individual limit you set is up to you, whatever feels slightly uncomfortable is good.
  15. At the end of each month, clear out computer clutter. Self-explanatory. Back things up!
  16. Every three months, purge. Also self-explanatory. Spend a weekend purging all your unneeded belongings.

Of course, these are just suggested rules … you should modify them to suit your life.

7.29 Simplicity (Occam's Razor)

Be Simple.

It's not interesting. It’s not sexy. But, it works. And likewise, the simple solution:

  • To problems with weight loss is to eat healthy meals consisting of fruits and vegetables, exercise regularly, drink plenty of water and sleep at least 8 hours a day.
  • To problems with relationships is to express gratitude often, listen more than you speak and set aside time for intimacy.
  • To problems with personal finances is to save money for an emergency fund, minimize expenses, invest in assets and stick to a fixed budget.
  • To problems with productivity is to build the habit of finishing, focus on the most important things early in the day and create a distraction free environment.
  • To problems with leadership is to practice empathy, celebrate small achievements and reinforce the vision through leading by example.

7.30 Successful People Make Little Choices

  • Stop Watching TV
  • Stop Drinking Alcohol
  • Start Lifting Weights
  • Stop Smoking
  • Take Risks
  • Stop Blaming Others (or Fate) For Your Situation

7.31 Tim Ferriss Tips on Simplicity

  1. Do an 80/20 analysis of how you spend your time and create a "not-to-do" list
  2. Experiment with a low-cost virtual assistant (VA)
    • (US based)
  3. Don't check email until 1100
  4. Learn to let the small bad things happen
    • Think of small, reversible bad things as a productivity tax
    • The answer to being overwhelmed is not spinning more plates, it's defining the few things that can fundamentally change your business and life. Then allowing the small things to slide.

8 House References

8.1 Freezer

8.1.1 Freezer Foods

  1. Red Beans and Rice With Chicken (Gluten-Free)

    Quantity: 4 meals, 4 servings per meal Cook Time: 4 to 8 hours in slow cooker (chicken must be thoroughly cooked) Total Cost: $26.02 per batch, $6.51 per meal, $1.63 per serving

    I’m not sure what to call this exactly. A rice stew? A pilaf? A weird take on arroz con pollo? Whatever it is, it’s good. The finished product mixes tasty pulled chicken morsels with juicy red beans against a puffy backdrop of tender yet crunchy wild rice. It’s thicker than most stews, but more watery than stovetop arroz con pollo.

    This red beans and rice dish can be made vegetarian with more rice, tomatoes, and beans, though you might want to toss in other veggies not listed here for texture. If you follow this recipe exactly, it’s gluten-free.

    Ingredients and Supplies for Prep – To Be Frozen: Prep Time: 5 minutes (not including bean soak) Containers: 1 per meal, quart or larger

    4 pounds boneless chicken breast @ $2.99/pound = $11.96 1 pound wild rice @ $7.80/pound = $7.80 1.5 pounds dry small red beans @ $1.99/pound = $2.98 56 ounces canned diced tomatoes @ $1.50/28-ounce can = $3.00

    Ingredients for Cooking – To Be Added on Cook Day:

    4 cubes bouillon (chicken or vegetarian) @ $1.58/24 cubes = $0.28

    Optional Ingredients – To Be Added on Cook Day:

    2 to 5 pinches salt (to taste) 0 to 5 pinches black pepper (to taste) 1 to 2 teaspoons cayenne pepper (to taste) 1 to 2 dashes of soy sauce (for salt and savory flavor) 1 to 2 dashes of Worcestershire sauce (for salt and savory flavor) 1 teaspoon cumin Other spices to taste

    Instructions: Wash the beans and set them to soak overnight into prep day, either on your counter or in the fridge. On prep day, drain the beans thoroughly, wash to remove any build-up, and set aside. Separate the chicken breast pieces and drop them whole into the containers, making sure each gets a roughly equal amount of chicken. Pour 4 ounces of wild rice and 6 ounces of soaked beans around the breasts, holding them upright to mix grains and legumes evenly. Seal each container, label (name, prep date, and special dietary notes), and freeze. Add 14 ounces of canned diced tomatoes each to four resealable bags, label each bag so that it’s clear which containers they go with, seal upright, and lay flat to freeze.

    On cook day, add the contents of the freezer meal container to a low-set slow cooker. Add 16 ounces of water and one bouillon cube. Season to taste with a few pinches of salt and pepper, along with your preferred savory spices (such as soy sauce, Worcestershire sauce, and cumin). Stir everything together thoroughly. If you’ll be gone for longer than 8 hours, add a few more ounces of water and stir again before leaving. Your rice will be puffier, but at least the dish won’t dry out.

    Before serving, pull the chicken – which at this point should yield effortlessly – with a fork. Mix everything thoroughly and serve on a plate or in a bowl. Sides and toppings are optional.

  2. Sausage and White Bean Soup

    Quantity: 4 meals, 4 servings per meal Cook Time: 4 to 8 hours in slow cooker Total Cost: $30.94 per batch, $7.74 per meal; $1.93 per serving

    This is a soupier creation that’s easy to customize and goes great with the suggested sides. If you’re vegetarian, you can substitute a grain or soy-based vegetable or vegan sausage in place of meat sausage. If you’re gluten-sensitive, use certified gluten-free sausage – regular sausage can have traces of gluten in the casing.

    Ingredients and Supplies: Prep Time: 5 to 10 minutes, depending on meal size (not including bean soak) Containers: 1 per meal, two-quart (half-gallon) or larger

    4 pounds medium sausage @ $3.99/pound = $15.96 4 pounds dry white beans (cannellini) @ $2.25/pound = $10.00 1 pound celery @ $0.99/ bunch (roughly one pound) = $0.99 1 pound carrots @ $0.99/pound = $0.99 56 ounces canned diced tomatoes @ $1.50/28-ounce can = $3.00

    Optional Ingredients – To Be Added on Cook Day:

    2 to 5 pinches salt (may not be necessary if sausage is pre-salted) 0 to 7 pinches black pepper (may not be necessary if sausage is spicy) 1 to 2 teaspoons cayenne pepper (may not be necessary if sausage is spicy) 2 to 4 dashes of soy sauce 2 to 4 dashes of Worcestershire sauce Other spices to taste

    Instructions: Soak your beans overnight into prep day, either on the counter or in the fridge. On prep day, drain thoroughly, wash, and set aside. Dice the celery and carrots. Add them, along with the sausage and white beans, to your containers. Label and freeze the containers. Add 14 ounces of canned diced tomatoes each to four resealable plastic bags, label to clearly pair with containers, seal upright, and lay flat to freeze.

    This meal is best made in a slow cooker. Dump the contents of the container into a low-set slow cooker and add 16 ounces of water, bouillon optional. Go heavy on the water if you plan to cook for longer than 8 hours or if you prefer watery soup. Before you leave, season to taste with salt, pepper, and spices (if desired), though keep in mind that the sausage may be salted already. Savory flavorings such as soy sauce and Worcestershire sauce can complement this dish nicely as well.

    Serve in a bowl. Sides are optional, though cheese topping is highly recommended.

  3. Beef Fajitas (Gluten-Free)

    Quantity: 4 meals, 4 servings per meal Cook Time: 15 to 25 minutes, depending on meal size and meat temperature Total Cost: $33.26 per batch, $8.32 per meal, $2.08 per serving

    Tired of boring ground beef tacos? This is an upscale alternative that won’t leave you much lighter in the wallet. Meat quality matters in this dish, particularly if you plan on preparing in a slow cooker – though stovetop preparation is definitely preferable if you have the time and energy. If you follow this recipe exactly, your meal will be gluten-free.

    Ingredients and Supplies for Prep – To Be Frozen: Prep Time: 15 to 20 minutes, depending on meal size Containers: One per meal, quart or larger

    4 pounds chuck steak @ $5.49/pound = $21.96 6 green peppers @ $0.99/each = $5.94 2 red peppers @ $1.79/each = $3.58 2 large yellow onions @ $0.89/each = $1.78

    Peppers can be whichever color you want, but green tend to be cheaper.

    Optional Ingredients – To Be Added on Cook Day:

    2 to 5 pinches salt 2 to 3 teaspoons cayenne pepper (may not be necessary if sausage is spicy) 2 to 4 dashes Worcestershire sauce 2 to 3 teaspoons paprika 1 to 2 teaspoons garlic powder 1 to 2 teaspoons cumin

    Instructions: This meal requires a bit more prep time upfront. On prep day, slice the meat and peppers into 1.5″ x 0.5″ strips (approximately). You can chop the onions a bit finer if desired. Add the ingredients evenly to each container, label, and freeze.

    This meal is best made on the stovetop, provided you have some time before dinner. Start by defrosting the beef fajitas in the fridge overnight or during the workday. Before cooking, drain most of the excess liquid, leaving some for flavor and moisture. Then add the contents of the container to a large pan (ideally cast iron) over medium-high heat. Cook until everything is nicely seared, then cook on medium or medium-low heat, covering periodically, until the meat reaches your desired level of “doneness” (for safety, at least medium rare is recommended).

    Serve plain or with one (or more) of the suggested sides.

  4. Chicken & Veggies in the Microwave (Gluten-Free)

    Quantity: 1 meal, 4 to 8 servings (leftovers possible) Cook Time: 30 to 60 minutes, depending on chicken size and meat temperature Total Cost: $13.92 per meal, $1.74 to $3.48 per serving

    My mom used to fall back on this one when she’d had a rough day at work. As a kid, I was so fascinated by the concept of cooking a whole chicken in the microwave that I didn’t stop to think about just how little work it requires. And, prepared as-is, it’s gluten-free – though your choice of sides may change that.

    Basically, you’re cooking a whole chicken with frozen vegetable sides. With the basic recipe, there’s virtually no prep time, as everything comes in store packaging. If you’re using fresh veggies from a grocery store or CSA, you may need a few minutes to put them in freezer-safe containers.

    Ingredients and Supplies for Prep – To Be Frozen: Prep Time: Minimal Containers: Store packaging and quart containers (if freezing fresh veggies)

    1 four-pound whole chicken @ $1.99/pound = $7.96 1 pound mixed frozen vegetables @ $5.98/five-pound bag = $1.19

    Optional Ingredients for Cooking – To Be Added on Cook Day: The fresh vegetables listed here are examples – I personally like asparagus, carrots, and potatoes, but you can mix and match broccoli, cauliflower, or anything else your heart desires. Unlike the three meals above, salt and pepper are virtually essential seasonings here, as store-bought whole chicken can be practically tasteless.

    1 bunch asparagus @ $1.99/each = $1.99 1 pound carrots @ $0.99/each = $0.99 1 pound red potatoes @ $1.79/pound = $1.79 4 to 8 pinches salt 3 to 6 pinches black pepper

    Instructions: Buy a whole, packaged frozen chicken and a big bag of mixed frozen vegetables at your local grocery store or warehouse club. Freeze them in the packaging you bought them in.

    On or soon before cook day, collect and refrigerate fresh veggies (if desired) to supplement your chicken and frozen veggies. The very night before, defrost your chicken in the fridge.

    When it’s time to cook, place the chicken in a large, microwave-safe bowl or pan and add salt and pepper to taste. Heat at approximately 70% power (ovens vary) for 10 minutes per pound – that’s 20 minutes for a tiny two-pounder, or 50 minutes for a hefty five-pounder. (Most grocery store chickens weight less than five pounds.) Stop cooking about halfway through and spread collected juices (if any) over the chicken’s surface, using a baster if one is handy.

    Once the chicken is done, remove it from the microwave and let it sit for 10 minutes. You can carve it up at any time after that. While the chicken is resting, place the frozen vegetables in a microwave-safe container. Add salt, pepper, and any desired spices (such as paprika, cayenne, or cumin). Heat until they’re steaming hot.

    If you want to cook fresh veggies to go with your chicken, do so in your conventional or toaster oven while the chicken cooks. Fresh veggie cook times vary by type – potatoes can take as long, or nearly so, as the chicken itself.

    Before serving, carve the chicken into manageable pieces. Serve everything on a large plate with optional sides.

  5. Ground Sausage Lasagna

    Quantity: 1 meal, 8-plus servings per meal (leftovers likely) Cook Time: 60 minutes Total Cost: $19.10 per meal, $2.39 or less per serving

    This sounds like an ambitious project – and it is, in some ways. However, if you incorporate its admittedly laborious assembly process into a big freezer meal prep party, you’ll barely notice. And, in pulling it off, you’ll add a pretty impressive feather to your culinary cap. Not everyone can truthfully say they’ve made lasagna from scratch, after all. You can just leave out the part about prepping and cooking on different days.

    Unfortunately, one thing this meal definitely is not is gluten-free. Wiggle out of the gluten trap by switching to a gluten-free sausage and using vegetable-based lasagna noodles, either bought in-store or made from scratch.

    I borrowed this recipe from Must Have Mom! and made a few modifications for simplicity’s sake.

    Ingredients and Supplies – All for Prep: Containers: One per meal, 9″ x 13″ foil or reusable baking pan Prep Time: 30 minutes

    1 pound ground sausage (sweet or Italian) @ $3.99/pound = $3.99 1/2 cup chopped onion (approximately 1/2 small yellow onion) @ $0.89/each = $0.44 1 clove garlic @ $0.50/bulb = $0.10 3 tablespoons fresh parsley @ $0.89/bunch = $0.20 1 tablespoon fresh basil @ $1.99/bunch = $0.10 14 ounces diced tomatoes @ $1.50/14-ounce can = $1.50 15 ounces tomato sauce @ $2.49/16-ounce jar = $2.30 16 lasagna noodles @ $1.99/pack = $1.99 2 cups cottage or ricotta cheese @ $3.49/16-ounce container = $3.49 1/2 cup Parmesan cheese @ $4.99/hunk = $1.50 2 cups shredded mozzarella cheese @ $3.49/pack = $3.49 Salt to taste

    Instructions: This meal requires some cooking on prep day, and takes longer to cook on actual cook day. Use the extra cook day time to catch up on household chores, work emails, or family time.

    Start out on prep day by cooking your ground sausage, chopped onion, and garlic in a medium pan over medium heat. Stir occasionally until sausage is browned, but not cooked through. Drain excess sausage grease.

    Once the pan is clean, stir in 2/3 of the parsley (two tablespoons), basil, tomatoes, and tomato sauce. Cook to a boil, stirring occasionally. In a separate bowl, mix cottage cheese, half the Parmesan (1/4 cup), and the rest of the parsley.

    Take out a 9″ x 13″ foil pan or reusable baking dish and spread half the cooked sausage mixture along the bottom. Cover with a full layer of uncooked noodles. Spread half the cottage cheese mix over the noodles, then sprinkle with half the mozzarella cheese (one cup). Add another layer of uncooked noodles and top with the remaining sausage mixture. Add a final layer of uncooked noodles, top with the rest of the cottage cheese, and add the rest of the mozzarella and Parmesan cheese.

    Wrap the pan tightly in plastic wrap, pushing down to keep the cheese from expanding. Cover this with a layer of tin foil, label with the prep date and dish name, and freeze.

    On the night before cook day, thaw the pan in the fridge. Cook covered for 45 minutes in an oven preheated to 350 degrees Fahrenheit, then uncover and cook for another 15 minutes, until the top layer of cheese bubbles freely. Serve on a plate or in a bowl with one of the suggested sides. Top with more Parmesan or mozzarella if you desire.

8.1.2 Freezer Food Technique

  • allow pre-cooked foods to cool down
  • all prepared foods should be stored in a freezer that is 0 degrees Fahrenheit or colder
  • containers to be as airtight as possible
  • All frozen foods should be marked with the name of the meal, the date it was prepared, and detailed instructions for reheating before being stowed away
  • When freezing prepared meats, vegetables, grains, and pastas, it’s wise to slightly undercook to just tender before freezing
  • food should always be thawed in the refrigerator rather than at room temperature
  • foods shouldn’t be refrozen, unless they’re completely cooked before heading back into the freezer
  • Soup
    • If you’d prefer to store your soup in individual portions, rather than as a big batch, utilize a large muffin tin. Freeze the muffin-sized soup portions until solid before popping them out and transferring to a freezer safe bag. Smaller portions can also be stored in quart-size freezer bags—compared to gallon-sized bags for larger batches.
    • pre-boiled pasta won’t hold up well to freezing and reheating. Instead, make your soup separate from the noodles, and boil fresh pasta to be added to the dish when reheated. The same rule of thumb applies to grains, like rice and quinoa.
    • For vegetable and potato-heavy soups, like Chunky Vegetable and Hearty Potato Soup, slightly undercook the veggies before freezing to prevent them from getting mushy when reheated. They will finish cooking during the reheating, resulting in tender vegetables every time.

8.2 Handymen in Central Florida

Mike (407) 928-8337

Kitchen Remodeling Wood Work Flooring Bathroom Remodeling Minor Electrical House Painting

8.3 Volvo Maintenance

2/6/2019 - at 128,558mi

  • [X] Oil Change
  • [X] Oil filter changed
  • [ ] Air Filter
  • Transmission/Transaxle - sealed
  • [X] Power steering fluid - full
  • [X] Serpentine belt - ok
  • [X] Wiper blades - ok
  • [X] Windshield washer fluid
  • [X] Tire pressure
  • [X] Radiator overflow reservoir - ok
  • [X] Lights - ok

General Maintenance Reference:

  • Oil Change:
    • 5w-30
    • JiffyLube: $67.95 (with coupon: -$20)
    • Oil filter: #CF5692/CH10415
    • Walmart: $42+$15 filter
  • Tires:
    • Inflate to F:35 R:35
  • Air Filter:
    • SA10500 STP
    • Autozone: $29.99
  • Spark Plugs:
    • XP5325 Autolike XP Iridium Spark Plug
    • Autozone: 6 for $43.14
  • Cabin Air Filter:
    • CAF1840C STP
    • Autozone: $8.59

Reset the light:

  • Put the key in the slot and push it in. With one hand press and hold the odometer reset button on the instrument cluster. With the other hand press the start button one time. Pause for one second and then push and hold the start button (with your foot off of the brake pedal) until all of the dash lights come on. Continue to hold the odometer reset button until the yellow triangle flashes. It will flash four times, release the button before the end of the fourth flash. Then turn the car off and remove the key. Reinsert the key and start the car. The light should now be off.

9 How To

9.1 101 Style Tips for Men

  1. Throw out or give away anything you haven’t worn in over a year.
    • You get two “beloved old favorite” exemptions here, as well as formalwear. Ruthlessly pitch or donate the rest.
  2. Get everything adjusted.
    • Well, okay, not everything. But most things: nice pants, shirts, and jackets should all go to the tailor for adjustments, unless they came custom-tailored already.
  3. Spend more money on less pieces of clothing.
    • Quality lasts longer than quantity, and you look better in it.
  4. Shop for a suit in person.
    • Even if you don’t need one. Just get the experience of comparing jacket styles, fabrics, and cuts.
    • Make sure fit is your number one consideration.
  5. There are more shoe colors than brown and black.
    • Colored leather and suede are fantastic shoe options. Get a little crazy with reds, blues, and grays. Don’t worry about matching a belt to each one — a black belt with gray shoes or a brown one with oxblood red is fine.
  6. Trouser cuffs should “break” on the tops of your shoes.
    • That means they rest very lightly on the leather itself. You shouldn’t have a gap between your pants and your shoes.
  7. Wear a pocket square.
    • Any time you’re wearing a jacket. No exceptions.
  8. Buy something in a pattern that occurs nowhere else in your wardrobe.
  9. Next time you go to put on jeans, grab a pair of slacks or chinos instead.
    • Then make the rest of the outfit work with them.
  10. Belts or suspenders — pick one.
    • Never both at the same time.
  11. Wear a necktie when you don’t have to.
    • Just for fun.
  12. Watch any movie starring Cary Grant.
    • Now ask yourself: “What can I do to dress a little more like that?”
  13. Gym shoes are for the gym.
    • Ditto athletic socks.
  14. Wear a lightweight sweater under a sports jacket with some jeans.
    • Doesn’t that look good?
  15. Get a pair of colored trousers.
    • Something funky. Red, green, yellow, orange, whatever.
  16. Go read a book on style.
    • Or a magazine. Or an article. Something about fashion. Old and out-of-date is okay, and even fun sometimes. Just get exposed to something new.
  17. Match the color of your socks to the color of your trousers.
    • Most of the time. When you want to be daring, wear a bright, contrasting color instead.
  18. Have a removable top layer.
    • In the dog days of summer, you can go with one shirt. The rest of the time, have at least two presentable layers on top. You never know when you’ll want to loan a lady your jacket/shirt/whatever.
  19. Invest in a really nice suitcase and day bag.
    • Your luggage is part of your style.
  20. Shop with a friend.
    • Sales people are paid to sell you things whether they look good or not. Take a friend who’ll tell you to your face when you look like an idiot.
  21. Own a watch you can wear with a good business suit.
    • Handsome. Functional. Classic. It’s amazing how such a small accessory can greatly enhance how you look and feel.
  22. Understand contrast.
    • It will help you get the right amount in your outfits. If you don’t know what that is, read an article like this one.
  23. Own more shoes.
    • How many pairs do you own? Get some more. Vary the styles. Shoes are the most underrated tools in a guy’s style arsenal.
  24. Traditional light blue denim is a great color for jeans…
    • if you’re building houses or ranching cattle. Otherwise, get a dark indigo instead of light blue, or go with a different color entirely.
  25. Take your measurements.
    • Write them down and tuck them in your underwear drawer or something. They always come in handy when you’re shopping.
  26. Check the size of your favorite pieces of clothing.
    • Those numbers are worth writing down too. If a shirt fits perfectly, you probably want your other shirts in about that size as well.
  27. Always dress like you might decide to drop by a restaurant or nightclub with a dress code.
    • Because you might. And even if you don’t, you might as well look like a guy who’s got plans.
  28. Practice rolling up your shirtsleeves a bunch of different ways.
    • Do you like a fat roll? A thin one? Tall, short, rumpled, crisp? Play around with it.
  29. Flip through a slideshow of images from a men’s fashion show.
    • Nine-tenths of the things you see will be way over the top and useless to you. Use the other 10% for inspiration.
  30. Head to a thrift store and buy every sports jacket that fits you
    1. and costs less than $20. Okay, maybe not every single one, but at least four or five. Even the weird ones. You’ll use them.
  31. Button-down collars aren’t business dress.
    1. Yeah, you’ll see guys wearing them with suits. Don’t be those guys. A business suit deserves a business collar, and that means no buttons at the tips.
  32. Shine your shoes more often than you think you need to.
    1. About once a month is good.
  33. Wear a boutonnière in your lapel.
    1. Not for a wedding, and not with a tux. Just for fun some day. Any old suit or sports jacket will do.
  34. Put some product in your hair.
    1. If you already use product, try a different kind of product.
  35. Iron your own shirts.
    1. It’s a useful skill for traveling, and it’ll save you money at home.
  36. Get some dress slacks without belt loops. Then wear ’em with suspenders.
  37. Don’t wear T-shirts with graphics on them…
    1. …for anything that isn’t housework, a workout, or a rock concert. Upgrade to a solid-color tee, or another lightweight option like a henley or polo.
  38. Try a decorative lining.
    1. Suit and sports jackets sometimes come with them; as do some dress shirt cuffs.
  39. Wear jewelry.
    1. Not every day, and not always the same piece. But a ring here or a necklace there is great.
  40. Have two nice white dress shirts.
    1. Be sure they’re free of stains and wrinkles, ready to go at all times. They go with everything.
  41. Try wearing cologne.
    1. You can get small testers from most department stores. Try a few and see what goes well with your natural scent.
  42. Clean your wallet out regularly.
    1. The slimmer it is, the less wear and tear on both the wallet and the pocket it’s shoved into. It’ll also look nicer when you pull it out to pay for things.
  43. Wear a scarf.
    1. Not just because it’s cold outside, but also as a fashion accessory.
  44. Expand your belt collection.
    1. The easiest way is to own belts that can snap open for interchangeable buckles, and then to hit the internet looking for vintage buckles — that way you’re only buying two or three pieces of leather for dozens of looks.
  45. Own at least one dark business suit.
    1. Then, if you can afford it, own one lighter social suit as well.
  46. Use patterns to flatter your body type.
    1. Grab broad checks to add a little weight and breadth, or use light vertical stripes to add height and slim down your appearance.
  47. Live it up a little.
    1. Wear that Hawaiian shirt or those bright red pants once in a while. Nobody needs to be the textbook timeless gentlemen every day of his life.
  48. Get your jackets pressed.
    1. Light, unstructured ones are particularly prone to wrinkling, so press ’em early and often. Rumpled backs ruin the whole look.
  49. Gold or silver metals — pick one.
    1. Your wedding band is an exception. But other than that, keep it to one kind of metal.
  50. Clean your clothes regularly.
    1. Launder the things that can be; take what can’t to the dry cleaners. Brush wools off to keep them from pilling and gathering fuzz.
  51. Your necktie and pocket square can share a color family, but they shouldn’t be a perfect match.
    1. They don’t even have to share colors — the square could complement a color from the shirt or jacket instead.
  52. Sometimes less is more.
    1. A couple plain, dark solid pieces with one bright accent can do more than a flashy, patterned suit or shirt.
  53. Then again, sometimes more is more.
    1. Go over the top with color and pattern once in a while — maybe when you have something to celebrate, or just when you’re in a really bouncy mood. But don’t make a habit of it.
  54. Keep the top and bottom balanced.
    1. If you’ve got a sleek, streamlined jacket and a simple shirt, don’t wear big, fuzzy pants with lots of texture. Similarly, don’t pair a cable-knit sweater with ultra-fine wool slacks. Stay consistent all the way up and down.
  55. Wear seasonal colors.
    1. Dark earth tones and shades in autumn, grays and blues in winter, colorful pastels in spring — you get the point.
  56. Find an outdoors jacket that you really love.
    1. Leather, wool, denim — doesn’t matter. Something battered and beloved that you can wear from the first cool days of fall on up to winter parka season, and again in the spring.
  57. Brown or black leather — pick one.
    1. They don’t all have to be identical shades, but you shouldn’t be rocking a black watchband with a brown belt or anything like that.
  58. If you wear suits in the winter, wear a long wool overcoat.
    1. Anything short enough that you can see the bottom of the suit jacket poking out beneath the hem of the coat doesn’t make the, ahem, cut.
  59. Don’t believe in absolute rules.
    1. White trousers after Labor Day. Plaids with stripes. You’re told not to do ’em, but there’s always a reason to break a rule once in a while. Don’t be afraid to. But remember that the “rules” are usually there for a reason, too, and use some common sense.
  60. Overdress.
    1. There’s nothing wrong with being the best-dressed guy in the room. Be aware of social norms — don’t wear a three-piece suit to serve meals at a soup kitchen or something — but in general, plan on looking nicer than other guys in your social group at any given gathering.
  61. Learn a new necktie knot.
    1. Heck, learn a dozen. Some are convenient, some are fancy, and a few are both. Know your favorites.
  62. Laugh at trends.
    1. They’re a way to separate style illiterates from their money. Keep your look timeless. Trends can be a fun inspiration if they appeal to your existing sense of style, but don’t pursue them just because they’re “in.”
  63. If the designer’s logo is visible, it’s not as stylish as you think.
    1. See previous point about trends, and add some emphasis. You’re nobody’s billboard. No visible brand names.
  64. Pamper your skin.
    1. Get some good skin cream and use it. Find the product that solves your particular problems, whether that’s oily skin, dry skin, or something else entirely.
  65. Pair a nice suit with some colored canvas sneakers.
    1. Rockstar.
  66. Own accent pieces.
    1. Scarves, hats, jewelry, funky shoes, weird belts. Get some unique items and use them whenever an outfit looks okay, but boring. Thrift stores, eBay, and Etsy are all great sources for these.
  67. Backpacks are for school kids.
    1. If you’re not going to class right this minute, trade up to a messenger bag or a briefcase. For that matter, trade up even if you are in school.
  68. Sunglasses are part of your look as soon as you put them on.
    1. Own a couple pairs in a couple different styles — you’ll end up needing them as you vary your look.
  69. Keep your jacket buttoned except when you sit.
    1. The taper toward the waist is half the point of a jacket. Don’t lose the effect by going unbuttoned.
  70. On that note, the bottom jacket button always stays undone.
    1. Close the top button on a two-button coat, and either the middle button only or the top two buttons on a three-button coat. There are other looks, and someone’s always trying them out, but these will always be right.
  71. Your outfit is only as good as the clothes in it.
    1. At the end of the day, you can’t look like a runway model in clothes from Walmart. Be prepared to spend at least a little money if you want to look really good.
  72. Fix damages sooner, rather than later.
    1. Missing buttons, fraying edges, torn seams — get ’em into a tailor and get ’em fixed. No excuses. Wear and tear looks terrible in public.
  73. Casual leather shoes make any everyday outfit look more stylish.
    1. Have some good brogues, saddle shoes, or loafers for your day-to-day get-ups.
  74. Don’t overthink it.
    1. If everything fits and the colors aren’t an obvious clash, your outfit is probably presentable at the very least. The rest is just details.
  75. Keep yourself well-groomed.
    1. Trim your nails, shave regularly and with care, brush your teeth. A raggedy body under nice clothes jars the eye (and looks gross).
  76. Shirt cuffs should be visible past the ends of your jacket sleeves.
    1. “A half inch of linen” is the old-fashioned rule of thumb. Don’t obsess about it too much, but show at least a little shirt cuff.
  77. Ties can be fun.
    1. Paisleys, variegated stripes, figure patterns, knits — mix it up. Look for textures beyond basic glossy silk (or synthetic) and for varied colors.
  78. Pinstriped suits always look best with plain white pinstripes.
    1. There are other options out there, but none are as timeless and sublime as the plain white pinstripe on a dark charcoal or navy suit.
  79. Your cell phone is part of your style these days.
    1. Get a case, and make that case something that works with your basic tastes. Funky is good; so is slim. The less of a bulge in your pockets, the better.
  80. Yes, you can wear a double-breasted jacket.
    1. It can even be a blazer, rather than a suit jacket, so long as you keep the trousers and shirt conservative. But don’t you dare wear that double-breasted jacket unbuttoned.
  81. Wear the lightest fabrics in the summer.
    1. If you don’t own at least a few pieces in lightweight linen or seersucker, you’re torturing yourself needlessly.
  82. Visit a menswear store you’ve never been to before.
    1. See what you like. You never know.
  83. The man purse is never going to catch on.
    1. If you’ve been waiting for everyone to wake up and realize how stylish yours is, stop.
  84. Jeans can sit on your hips. Everything else gets worn at the natural waist.
    1. The shinier your shoe is, the dressier it is.
  85. Assuming we’re talking about leather dress shoes, a higher gloss is dressier, while a softer texture is more casual.
    1. Bow ties don’t just come in black.
  86. Wear a patterned one in place of a regular necktie some time.
    1. Tie your necktie so that the tip touches the top of your belt.
    2. A little longer is okay; shorter is not.
  87. Your off-duty clothes still get looked at.
    1. Swimwear, pajamas, workout clothes — someone’s going to see you in them eventually. Buy ones you look good in, and replace them before they wear out.
  88. Facial hair needs to look deliberate.
    1. You can have a full beard if you really want one, but shape the edges with a razor so that it doesn’t look like you’ve just let it grow. You want people to think you’re making a statement, not being lazy.
  89. You want people to notice your face.
    1. Wear clothes that guide the eye upward toward your chin and mouth. There’s a reason classic menswear tends to open upward (think about collared shirts and suit jackets).
  90. If you mix patterns, vary the scale of the patterns.
    1. Small checks with wide-spaced stripes — no problem. Big checks with big stripes — problem.
  91. Dress the body you have, not the body you want.
    1. It’s great to be working towards a fitter physique, but don’t look like a total schlump until you get there.
  92. Have one or two big, soft flannels or cardigans for cool nights.
    1. Half the time you’ll end up giving these to a girl to wear when she gets cold — and that’s just fine.
  93. Organize your wardrobe.
    1. Make it easy to reach in, grab any couple of items, and have an outfit that works. That means finding a home for the less-stylish utility pieces that’s far away from your good clothes.
  94. Never let a woman plan your outfits.
    1. Even fashionable women are working with a different stylistic language from you. Unless one or both of you are cross-dressers, don’t make a habit of taking regular style advice from a woman.
  95. Pants beat shorts, even in hot weather.
    1. Shorts cut the leg in two; a pair of lightweight linen, seersucker, or cotton pants will create a sleeker, more put-together silhouette, and always look better than shorts, while only being slightly warmer to wear.
  96. If you like a store, subscribe to their e-mail list.
    1. Yeah, you’ll get advertisements that you don’t want. But you’ll also get sales and coupons that you will want, and that they don’t offer anywhere else. If you limit yourself to two or three of your top favorite brands, it’s well worth the inbox clutter.
  97. Really good dress shoes make a bit of noise when you walk.
    1. Don’t be shy about it. Embrace the authoritative tap-tap-tap of stacked leather heels.
  98. Resist the urge to correct other people’s style.
    • Even when you know they’re doing something wrong. They’re not going to take it as a kindness no matter how sweetly you say it.
  99. There are worse fates in life than dressing like someone’s dad.
    • Or even someone’s grandfather. The generations before us knew a thing or two about looking sharp.
  100. Never wear a bad fit!
    • Ever. If it isn’t a close, flattering fit with no pinching or sagging, don’t wear it. This is the ultimate rule for looking good. Seriously. If you’re going to take one thing away today, take this one. NEVER WEAR A BAD FIT.

9.2 Decluttering Strategies


  • Make sure you have proper lighting
  • Tackle everything that’s on the floor – make a commitment to handle all that stuff first
  • Pull out empty hangers
  • Install some hooks
  • Pull out the stuff you really don’t love or don’t wear

Personal Closet Valet System

  • One of my favorite things to do with my friends and clients is have them create a Personal Closet Valet System. Rather than organizing the clothes in your closet, lets organize the outfits in the closet. A Personal Closet Valet System is not about organizing short sleeves with short sleeves, it's all about trying on outfits, deciding what you like, and taking a photograph of yourself in the outfit – that way when you're on the run and ready to go – your "Valet" has already pulled your outfit together.

Make pact to create at least seven to ten outfits with the clothes that are in your closet.

  • Open your closet door.
  • Create an outfit from what you've got and do it in no more than 5 minutes.
  • Use your scarves and jewelry to accessorize.
  • Snap a photo of you in the outfit.
  • Capture the look and keep it on a bulletin board in or near your closet.
  • This is as time-efficient and as ready-to-go as you can get. Once the pictures are posted, there is no more thinking required.

The Clutter Scale

  • 5 — Important items whose place in your home is non-negotiable. For me, this included my green-stained Depression glass, photos, business files, office equipment, and my car.
  • 4 — Items that are difficult to replace and items you use every day. This pile included most of my clothes, CDs, some furniture, a favorite sheet set, towels, and jewelry.
  • 3 — Items you use occasionally but haven’t used within the last six months, like seasonal items, specialized tools, or kitchen gadgets.
  • 2 — Items you rarely use but feel hesitant to toss.
  • 1 — Items you never use.

For most of us items ranked 5 & 4 are to keep and anything ranked as a 1 is to toss. To help you figure out items you rated as 2 or 3 on this scale, ask yourself the following questions:

  • Do I love it?
  • What’s the special story behind it?
  • Do I have the space for it?
  • Can I replace it?
  • Can I easily borrow it or rent it if I need it again?
  • Does it support my goals and values?
  • Does it compare to the items I ranked as a 5?

9.3 How to Pack a Suitcase

Follow these basic tips to pack efficiently and effectively for any trip.

  1. The bigger your suitcase, the more you will put into it:
    • The simplest way to avoid bringing too many things is to buy a hard-sided suitcase, no more than 22 inches tall (so it can work as a carry-on) with a structured shell so you can’t squeeze in any extras.
  2. Do the clothing countdown:
    • If you need a mantra to help streamline your wardrobe, use the 5, 4, 3, 2, 1 rule for a weeklong trip:
      • Limit yourself to no more than five sets of socks and underwear
      • four tops
      • three bottoms
      • two pairs of shoes
      • one hat
      • The list should be adjusted to suit your needs. Throw in a swimsuit and exercise gear or a suit jacket and dress if you’ll need them.
  3. Lay out what you think you’ll need, then edit ruthlessly:
    • “Think twice about everything you want to put in your bag,” said Ben Nickel-D’Andrea, who writes about flying first-class with his husband, Jon Nickel-D’Andrea, at No Mas Coach!, part of the BoardingArea blogger network. The jet-setting couple once flew to Morocco for nine days with only carry-on bags and backpacks. “Fully get rid of the ‘just in case I need it’ category,” he said. “If and when you need it, you can buy it.”
  4. Think Tetris:
    • The best way to fit everything into one bag: Fill every inch of space. For example, footwear should be stuffed with socks. Then lay your shoes together heel to toe at the bottom of your suitcase in a plastic shopping bag to protect clothes from dirt.
    • Here are some popular strategies:
      • Roll your clothes. This helps to maximize space and minimize wrinkles.
      • Use packing cubes. These smaller bags help you keep your clothes compact and your outfits ordered.
      • Try the bundle technique. Carefully wrap each article of clothing around a central core, with underwear and T-shirts at the center, and large tailored items like blazers and dresses as the outer layer.
  5. Keep liquids in easy reach:
    • “Toiletries should always be placed on top of your suitcase in a clear bag since you never know when T.S.A. might be interested in looking,” said Matthew Klint, a frequent flier and the award expert at Live and Let’s Fly.
  6. Never unpack your toiletries:
    • “I recommend keeping a separate toiletry kit for traveling,” said Marie Kondo, author of “The Life-Changing Magic of Tidying Up: The Japanese Art of Decluttering and Organizing.” Keeping a set of bathroom products already packed also ensures that you don’t forget a toothbrush or contact lens case that you might use the morning of takeoff, she said. “Keep these items in a small pouch or box in the corner of a cabinet or drawer for easy access when packing for a trip.” To streamline what you need, consider all-in-one options like BB creams, which combine foundation, moisturizer and sunblock. To prevent leakage, double up that plastic bag.

9.4 Make Friends

Don’t dismiss the humble acquaintance. Even interacting with people with whom one has weak social ties has a meaningful influence on well-being.

Beyond that, building deeper friendships may be largely a matter of putting in time.

  • It takes about 50 hours of socializing to go from acquaintance to casual friend
  • An additional 40 hours to become a “real” friend
  • A total of 200 hours to become a close friend


  • Sandstrom and Dunn, “Social Interactions and Well-Being” (Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, July 2014)
  • Hall, “How Many Hours Does It Take to Make a Friend?” (Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, March 2018)

9.5 The Simplified Start-up (Business) Plan

  1. Do a mission statement. Answer these questions: Why should this business exist? Who will be its customers, and how will it benefit them? Why will they be better off?
  2. Consider your keys to success. Name three or four critical factors that will be essential to this new business' survival. Be tough about it. If you want the business to work, don't underestimate the importance of critical elements. For example, don't start a normal retail business in suburbs without parking.
  3. Do a simple market analysis. Estimate how many potential customers the business will have. Define the traits that will make somebody a potential customer. Where do those customers now purchase, if at all? Are there enough potential customers?
  4. Do a simple break-even analysis. How many units of sales will you need to cover costs? Are you being realistic? Add up costs for rent, overhead, payroll, advertising, etc., then figure out how much money you'll make for each unit you sell, after its specific costs, and calculate how many units you need to break even. For example, if your shoe store's regular running costs are $6,000 per month and you make $2 on average (after the cost of the shoes) on every pair of shoes, then you need 3,000 pairs of shoes in a month to break even.
  5. Now think about it. Do you really have a potential business? If you do, then you need a real business plan. If you don't, then save yourself the time and trouble.

10 Learning

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ECONOMY Planet Money * — The global economy, explained FT Alphachat * — Conversational podcast about business and economics EconTalk * — Economics podcast for daily life with interviews with guests ranging from small business owners to Nobel Laureates London School of Economics Podcast * — Audio recordings from LSE’s programme of public lectures and events

SCIENCE StarTalk * — Science, pop culture & comedy collide on StarTalk w/ astrophysicist Neil deGrasse Tyson The Naked Scientist * — A one-hour audience-interactive science radio talk show The Infinite Monkey Cage * — Witty, irreverent look at the world through scientists’ eyes The Skeptics’ Guide to the Universe * — A weekly, 80-minute science podcast Astronomy Cast * — Discussions on astronomical topics ranging from planets to cosmology Science@NASA * — Feature Stories Podcasts Rationally Speaking Podcast* — Exploring the Borderland between Reason and Nonsense Distillations Podcast * — Explores the human stories behind science and technology Space Rocket History Podcast * — From ancient times to the present, a history of space exploration Best of Natural History Radio Podcast * — The BBC Natural History Unit produces a wide range of audio programs Instant Anatomy Podcast * — Aiding learning in human anatomy

PHILOSOPHY History of Philosophy without Any Gaps * — Looks at the ideas, lives and historical context of the major philosophers as well as the lesser-known figures of the tradition Philosophy 24/7 * — A Podcast That Interviews Leading Philosophers Waking Up with Sam Harris* — Sam Harris explores questions about the human mind, society, and current events Intelligence Squared * — Debates, talks, and discussions Philosophize This! * — An educational podcast about philosophy Philosophy Bites * — Top philosophers interviewed on bite-sized topics The Partially Examined Life* — A philosophy podcast In Our Time * — From Altruism to Wittgenstein, philosophers, theories and key themes Oxford Lectures * — Philosophy podcasts at Oxford University

COURSES CourseBuffet * — Organized Online Course Catalog Degreed * — Lifelong Learning Platform Coursera * — Online Courses From Top Universities edX * — Free online courses from the world’s best universities HighBrow * — Email-based learning service with bite-sized courses Khan Academy * — Free Online Courses, Lessons & Practice FutureLearn * — Free online courses from top universities and specialist organizations Iversity * — Free online courses from inspiring professors Alison * — 750+ free online courses from top publishers Ed2Go * — Online classes, career training programs, and certification prep courses Cosmo Learning * — Your free online school * — Open- source, peer-to-peer teaching and learning platform The Big Know * — Free online courses from the world’s brightest brands and experts Saylor Academy * — Free, open online courses for people everywhere Open Culture * — Free online courses, audio books, textbooks, eBooks, language lessons, movies and more Big Data University * — Free Data Science and Big Data Courses University of the People * — Non-profit, tuition-free, accredited, online, American university Open Learn * — Free Learning from the Open University Open Education Database * — Online education directory for both free and for-credit learning options Class Central * — Discover thousands of free online courses and MOOCs from top universities and companies Academic Earth * — Free Online Courses From Top Colleges Canvas Network * — Free online courses and classes from the world’s leading universities Open University * — Distance Learning Courses and Adult Education Udacity * — Free Online Classes & Nanodegrees Open 2 Study * — Free and specialized short courses, entirely online

FROM UNIVERSITIES MIT OpenCourseWare * — A web-based publication of virtually all MIT course content Stanford Online * — Stanford University courses available anywhere, anytime , and on demand Open Learning at Harvard * — Open learning opportunities, including online courses and modules Open Yale Courses * — Free and open access to a selection of introductory courses UMass Boston Open Courseware * — A free and open educational resource Utah State OpenCourseWare* — A collection of educational material used in formal campus courses JHSPHOpen * — Open public health courses and materials Open UW * — A large selection of online courses each quarter University of Michigan Open * — Open Educational Resources TU Delft OpenCourseWare * — Free and open educational resources of high-quality university‐level

ARTS Creative Live * — Free live online classes taught by the world’s most inspiring instructors Instructables * — Explore, document, and share DIY creations

SCIENCE Citizen Maths * — Free online Level 2 maths course for adults

PROGRAMMING Codecademy * — Learn to code interactively, for free

LANGUAGES Memrise * — Learning, made joyful Duolingo * — Learn Spanish, French and other languages for free Lernu * — A multilingual site for learning the international language Esperanto

10.2 Brain Rules: 12 Things We Know About How The Brain Works

  1. Rule #1 Exercise boosts brain power
    • Just about every mental test possible was tried. No matter how it was measured, the answer was consistently yes: A lifetime of exercise can result in a sometimes astonishing elevation in cognitive performance, compared with those who are sedentary. Exercisers outperform couch potatoes in tests that measure long-term memory, reasoning, attention, problem-solving, even so-called fluid-intelligence tasks. These tasks test the ability to reason quickly and think abstractly, improvising off previously learned material in order to solve a new problem. Essentially, exercise improves a whole host of abilities prized in the classroom and at work.
  2. Rule #2 Survival
    • The brain is a survival organ. It is designed to solve problems related to surviving in an unstable outdoor environment and to do so in nearly constant motion (to keep you alive long enough to pass your genes on). We were not the strongest on the planet but we developed the strongest brains, the key to our survival. … The strongest brains survive, not the strongest bodies. … Our ability to understand each other is our chief survival tool. Relationships helped us survive in the jungle and are critical to surviving at work and school today. … If someone does not feel safe with a teacher or boss, he or she may not perform as well. … There is no greater anti-brain environment than the classroom and cubicle.
  3. Rule #3: Every brain is wired differently
    • What you do and learn in life physically changes what your brain looks like – it literally rewires it. … Regions of the brain develop at different rates in different people. The brains of school children are just as unevenly developed as their bodies. Our school system ignores the fact that every brain is wired differently. We wrongly assume every brain is the same.
  4. Rule #4: We don't pay attention to boring things
    • The brain is not capable of multi-tasking. We can talk and breathe, but when it comes to higher level tasks, we just can’t do it. … Workplaces and schools actually encourage this type of multi-tasking. Walk into any office and you’ll see people sending e-mail, answering their phones, Instant Messaging, and on MySpace—all at the same time. Research shows your error rate goes up 50% and it takes you twice as long to do things. When you’re always online you’re always distracted. So the always online organization is the always unproductive organization.
    • We must do something emotionally relevant every 10 minutes to reset our attention.
  5. Rule #5: Repeat to remember
    • Improve your memory by elaborately encoding it during its initial moments. Many of us have trouble remembering names. If at a party you need help remembering Mary, it helps to repeat internally more information about her. “Mary is wearing a blue dress and my favorite color is blue.” It may seem counterintuitive at first but study after study shows it improves your memory.
  6. Rule #6: Remember to repeat
    • How do you remember better? Repeated exposure to information / in specifically timed intervals / provides the most powerful way to fix memory into the brain. … Deliberately re-expose yourself to the information more elaborately if you want the retrieval to be of higher quality. Deliberately re-expose yourself to the information more elaborately, and in fixed, spaced intervals, if you want the retrieval to be the most vivid it can be. Learning occurs best when new information is incorporated gradually into the memory store rather than when it is jammed in all at once. … Memory is enhanced by creating associations between concepts. This experiment has been done hundreds of times, always achieving the same result: Words presented in a logically organized, hierarchical structure are much better remembered than words placed randomly—typically 40 percent better.
  7. Rule #7: Sleep well, think well
    • The bottom line is that sleep loss means mind loss. Sleep loss cripples thinking, in just about every way you can measure thinking. Sleep loss hurts attention, executive function, immediate memory, working memory, mood, quantitative skills, logical reasoning ability, general math knowledge.
    • Napping is normal. Ever feel tired in the afternoon? That’s because your brain really wants to take a nap. There's a battle raging in your head between two armies. Each army is made of legions of brain cells and biochemicals –- one desperately trying to keep you awake, the other desperately trying to force you to sleep. Around 3 p.m., 12 hours after the midpoint of your sleep, all your brain wants to do is nap.
    • One more tip, “[d]on’t schedule important meetings at 3 p.m. It just doesn’t make sense.”
  8. Rule #8: Stressed brains don't learn the same way
    • Your brain is built to deal with stress that lasts about 30 seconds. The brain is not designed for long term stress when you feel like you have no control. The saber-toothed tiger ate you or you ran away but it was all over in less than a minute. If you have a bad boss, the saber-toothed tiger can be at your door for years, and you begin to deregulate. If you are in a bad marriage, the saber-toothed tiger can be in your bed for years, and the same thing occurs. You can actually watch the brain shrink.
  9. Rule #9: Stimulate more of the senses
    • Our senses work together so it is important to stimulate them! Your head crackles with the perceptions of the whole world, sight, sound, taste, smell, touch, energetic as a frat party. … Smell is unusually effective at evoking memory. If you're tested on the details of a movie while the smell of popcorn is wafted into the air, you'll remember 10-50% more. … Those in multisensory environments always do better than those in unisensory environments. They have more recall with better resolution that lasts longer, evident even 20 years later.
  10. Rule #10: Vision trumps all other senses
    • We are incredible at remembering pictures. Hear a piece of information, and three days later you'll remember 10% of it. Add a picture and you'll remember 65%. … Pictures beat text as well, in part because reading is so inefficient for us. Our brain sees words as lots of tiny pictures, and we have to identify certain features in the letters to be able to read them. That takes time. … Why is vision such a big deal to us? Perhaps because it's how we've always apprehended major threats, food supplies and reproductive opportunity.
  11. Rule #11: Male and female brains are different
    • What’s different? Mental health professionals have known for years about sex-based differences in the type and severity of psychiatric disorders. Males are more severely afflicted by schizophrenia than females. By more than 2 to 1, women are more likely to get depressed than men, a figure that shows up just after puberty and remains stable for the next 50 years. Males exhibit more antisocial behavior. Females have more anxiety. Most alcoholics and drug addicts are male. Most anorexics are female. … Men and women process certain emotions differently. Emotions are useful. They make the brain pay attention. These differences are a product of complex interactions between nature and nurture.
  12. Rule #12: We are powerful and natural explorers
    • The desire to explore never leaves us despite the classrooms and cubicles we are stuffed into. Babies are the model of how we learn—not by passive reaction to the environment but by active testing through observation, hypothesis, experiment, and conclusion. Babies methodically do experiments on objects, for example, to see what they will do.


10.3 PEG Memory System

  • Rules to remember things
    • Out of proportion
    • Action
    • Exaggeration
    • Substitution

10.3.1 Number sounds


  1. t,d
  2. n
  3. m
  4. r
  5. l
  6. j, sh, ch, g
  7. k, c, g
  8. f, v
  9. p, b
  10. z, s

10.3.2 Number pegs

  1. tie
  2. knee (Noah)
  3. ma
  4. rye
  5. law
  6. shoe
  7. cow
  8. ivy
  9. bee
  10. toes
  11. tot
  12. tin
  13. tomb
  14. tire
  15. tail
  16. dish
  17. tack
  18. dove
  19. tub
  20. nose
  21. net
  22. nun
  23. name
  24. Nero
  25. nail
  26. notch
  27. neck
  28. knife
  29. knob
  30. mouse
  31. mat
  32. moon
  33. mummy
  34. mower
  35. mule
  36. match
  37. mug
  38. movie
  39. map
  40. rose
  41. road
  42. rain
  43. rum
  44. rower
  45. roll
  46. roach
  47. rock
  48. roof
  49. rope
  50. lace
  51. lot
  52. lion
  53. lime
  54. lure
  55. lily
  56. leech
  57. leg
  58. lava
  59. lip
  60. cheese
  61. sheet
  62. chain
  63. chum
  64. cherry
  65. jail
  66. choo-choo
  67. chalk
  68. chef
  69. ship
  70. case
  71. cat
  72. coin
  73. comb
  74. car
  75. coal
  76. cage
  77. cake
  78. cave
  79. cube
  80. vase
  81. fit
  82. phone
  83. foam
  84. fur
  85. file
  86. fish
  87. fog
  88. fife
  89. fob
  90. bus
  91. bat
  92. bone
  93. bum
  94. bear
  95. bell
  96. beach
  97. book
  98. beef
  99. pipe
  100. disease

10.4 Remember what you read

Give yourself a little time to reflect on what you just read.

  • Mentally identify the main points or concepts
  • Jot down some notes (you can't write everything, so this forces your brain to choose what's most important)
  • Consider the ramifications or implications of the content
  • Think about how the content connects to your personal preferences, personality, and experiences

To really get the most out of your reading and reading reflection, there are a few other add-on tricks you can try. You might want to

  • Read some of the content aloud or draw images for the main ideas.
    • The brain doesn't process the different types of sensory information in isolation from each other, so honing in on auditory or visual information might help you process the content.
  • Read when you are more rested.
    • Fatigue can negatively influence your ability to focus, so pick a reading time where you feel energized.
  • Eliminate distractions.
    • While turning off phone alerts or shutting your door are obvious distraction points, don't forget about other factors, such as room temperature, hunger, and your position in your chair.
  • Be clear about your goal.
    • Knowing the purpose behind what you're reading can make it easier to feel motivated and engaged with the content.
  • Go for a hard copy.
    • Researchers from the University of Oregon found that online content is harder to recall. One theory is that the disappear-reappear nature of online content is distracting, but the loss of tactile information, such as the feeling of the page, might contribute, too.


10.5 Strategy to Remember Names

  • Be sure to hear the name in the first place
  • Spell it or have them spell it if you're not sure of it
  • If there is an odd fact about the name, or if it is similar to a name you know, mention it
  • Repeat the name as often as you can during the conversation
  • Use the name when you say good night or good-bye

10.6 The Feynman Technique: The Best Way to Learn Anything

Step 1: Teach it to a Toddler

  • Take out a blank sheet of paper and write the subject you want to learn at the top.
  • Write out what you know about the subject as if you were teaching it to a child.
  • Where you struggle, you gain a clear understanding of where you have some gaps.

Step 2: Review

  • Go back to the source material and re-learn it until you can explain it in basic terms.
  • Identifying the boundaries of your understanding also limits the mistakes you're liable to make and increases your chance of success when applying knowledge.

Step 3: Organize and Simplify

  • Now you have a set of hand-crafted notes.
  • Organize them into a simple story that flows.
  • Read them out loud.
  • If the explanation isn't simple or sounds confusing that's a good indication that your understanding in that area still needs some work.

Step 4 (optional): Transmit

  • If you really want to be sure of your understanding, run it past someone.

11 Marketing

11.1 5 Elements of a Brilliant Sales Narrative

  1. Name a Big, Relevant Change in the World
  2. Show There'll Be Winners and Losers
    • To combat loss aversion, you must demonstrate how the change you cited above will create big winners and big losers. In other words, you have to show both of the following:
      • That adapting to the change you cited will likely result in a highly positive future for the prospect
      • That not doing so will likely result in an unacceptably negative future for the prospect
  3. Tease the Promised Land
    • Your Promised Land should be both desirable (obviously) and difficult for the prospect to achieve without outside help.
    • Note that the Promised Land is a new future state, not your product or service.
  4. Introduce Features as "Magic Gifts" for Overcoming Obstacles to the Promised Land
    • When you introduce your product or service, do so by positioning its capabilities like the lightsaber, wizardry and spells-as "magic gifts" for helping your main character (prospect) reach that much-desired Promised Land.
  5. Present Evidence that You Can Make the Story Come True
    • If they go with you, you'll get them to the Promised Land.
    • By far, the most effective type of evidence is a success story about how you've already helped someone else (who is similar to the prospect) reach the Promised Land.


11.2 27 Amazing Online Marketing Tactics for Small Businesses With Low Budgets

  1. Set goals and plan
    • Decide exactly what you want to achieve in the next three to six months with your online marketing plan and write it down.
  2. Build an email list
  3. Start blogging
  4. Promote your content on Reddit
    • You can verify your email for a special badge, which is Reddit’s way of proving that you’re not a spammer, troll, or electronic bot.
    • Go to SnoopSnoo and search for your general topic.
    • Find a few subreddits that are relevant to your industry
  5. List your business on Google
    • Solve this problem by going to Google Businesses and selecting Start Now. Follow the prompts and register.
  6. Create a video channel
  7. Boost your best Facebook posts
  8. StumbleUpon advertising
  9. Start a podcast
    • But with a basic microphone and free audio editing software like Audacity, you can get set up quickly and easily. A simple podcast now is better than a professional one in a year.
  10. DIY infographics
    • Just use Canva’s free tool to get started with your first infographic. Pull in a template and adjust it based on the numbers you have.
  11. Slideshare
  12. Run a giveaway
  13. Quora
  14. Influencer outreach
    • Start by contacting movers and shakers in your industry with a message that introduces yourself. It’s best to do this via email, through social media can work if you don’t have another option.
  15. Ask for reviews
  16. Create a Facebook Group
  17. Host a webinar
  18. Create and promote coupons to your ecommerce site
  19. Publish an ebook
    • This book doesn’t have to be long. Many Kindle books are only 20,000-30,000 words, which is about the length of 25 blog posts.
    • As soon as you finish the content, you can submit it to the Kindle store and start promoting it. As the book grows in popularity, you can drive more traffic and customers to your business.
  20. Guest post on other sites
  21. Set up an online referral program
  22. Host a Twitter Chat
  23. Optimize your website for mobile
  24. Include testimonials on your website
  25. Fix Google’s issues with your site speed
    • Google has its own tool to let you know any issues your site has. It’s called PageSpeed. You can easily track and repair any issues that might push you further down the search results.
  26. Test your site design

11.3 Show Up on the First Page of Google

  1. Start by dominating long-tail keywords
    • "Head" keyword = "SEO guide"
    • "Long-tail" keyword = "SEO guide for small businesses 2017"
  2. Pay to reach the top of the AdWords search network
  3. Write more blog posts than your competition
  4. Get reviewed and featured in round-ups

12 Me

12.1 On Cussing

Obscenities are the linguistic equivalent of an trashy emaciated person entirely decked in tattoos, smoking cigarettes and wearing a shirt with nudity on it. They'll defend what they do on the idea that it's someone "their right," or "expression," as if they do what they do for some lofty philosophical reason. What everyone else sees is a person who is not in control of themselves or their vices, in fact, someone who views their vices as a good thing.

There's the atomistic and nihilistic tendency to give an "intellectual" argument for obscenities: "What's so special," the argument goes, "about obscenities in English? They're just a combination of arbitrary sounds! They don't have some objective magical harm in them."

But the "arbitrary sounds" in an obscenity do indeed have a special place in human psychology. Obscenities are produced and processed in the brain quite differently from non-obscene language, involving the more animalistic/reptilian parts of the brain. When assembling a well-thought out case, there is really never a temptation to litter it with curses.

When a person curses, it's a direct indication that they are thinking on a lower, more reactive, more emotional level.

12.2 Haircut

Option 1:

  • Sides: 3
  • Blend: 4
  • Top: 6
  • Bottom: straight

Option 2:

  • Everywhere: 3
  • Bottom: straight

12.3 About Erica

12.3.1 Erica Restaurant Orders

  • Starbucks cold: Iced grande half-calf Americano with light cream and one pump of vanilla syrup
  • Starbucks hot: Grande half-calf Americano with light cream and one raw sugar
  • Panera:
    • Pick 2: Autumn Squash Soup
    • Ancient Grain & Arugula salad with chicken
    • Apple for my side

12.3.2 Erica's Preferences

  • Cheese: manchego ("one of my favorite cheeses") and Havarti
  • Color: Royal purple, sometimes blues
  • Lip balm: Carmex
  • Flower: Gardenia

12.3.3 How Erica wants to spend her time

  • Enjoying loved ones (2 & 4-legged)
  • Exercise & Wellness
  • Personal Enrichment (learning a new skill, reading, creating, etc.)
  • Sleeping enough (7-8 hrs nightly)
  • Volunteering for causes that are important to me

12.4 Moonlight Ideas

  • ER/Urgent Care Moonlight
    • Contacts:
      • Alex Fishberg
      • Glen

12.4.1 TODO VA ER

12.4.2 Occupational Medicine

State based workers’ compensation insurance plans are administered in an entirely independent fashion from other standard third party health insurance operations.

12.4.3 Correctional Medicine

Inmates have an 8th Amendment right to medical care. DPC physicians can seek employment in prisons or jails, whether operated at the federal or state level, without needing to worry about ever billing Medicare or any private insurance. Whether you are employed directly by the state, or by a private entity that has contracted with the state to provide care to inmates (this is the case in about half of the states), this is a great option as you grow your practice.

12.4.4 Urgent Care / Emergency Care exception

opted out providers that treat Medicare patients in the urgent care or emergency setting may still bill Medicare patients. This is described in the Medicare Benefit Policy Manual, Chapter 15, Chapters 40.6 and 40.28. “Payment may be made to a [Medicare] beneficiary for services of an opt out physician/practitioner” if “the services are emergency or urgent care services furnished by an opt-out physician/practitioner to a beneficiary with whom he/she has not previously entered into a private contract.” If you would like to work on a part time basis in a hospital emergency department or urgent care, you should mention this rule and ask the hospital/urgent care to permit you to treat patients at their facility in this manner – you must be careful not bill for any of your membership patients that you treat in this setting. An opted‐out provider can see and bill Medicare patients for the only if no other provider (that has not opted‐out of Medicare) is available to treat the Medicare beneficiary, and in those instances the opted-out provider could bill using GJ=Opt‐out Physician/practitioner EMERGENCY OR URGENT SERVICES modifier on claims submitted to Medicare for these services. These claims will be reimbursed at the Medicare "nonparticipating" physician rate (typically 95% of the regular rate), but the office would be permitted to balance bill an additional charge if desired (see this helpful AAFP summary).

12.4.5 Addiction Medicine

These programs are often offered on a cash pay basis. Organizations like "Groups" do not take Medicare, and thus also represent moonlighting options for DPC physicians. Since you would routinely be prescribing suboxone you would need to obtain a DEA(X) number and you would need to be "signed up" with Medicaid so that your prescriptions are filled.

12.4.6 Administrative Hospice exception

While Hospice programs often work with Medicare for payment of provider services, if you are the hospice medical director and your role is 100% administrative, then it should be safe for you to "opt out" of Medicare. For those looking for more information about this exception, more detail can be found on this Medicare contractor FAQs page and also on this page which covers the billing of Hospice provider services. Note the discussion under "administrative."

12.5 My Preferences   QuickRef

12.5.1 My Hair cut


  • Top of head: 6
  • Sides of head: 4
  • Beard: 3-4

Erica cut:

  • Top of head: scissors
  • Sides of head: 5

12.5.2 My Products

12.5.3 My Charities




12.5.4 My Favorite Bible Verses

  • Let love be genuine. Abhor what is evil; hold fast to what is good. Love one another with brotherly affection. Outdo one another in showing honor. Do not be slothful in zeal, be fervent in spirit, serve the Lord. Rejoice in hope, be patient in tribulation, be constant in prayer. Contribute to the needs of the saints and seek to show hospitality. Bless those who persecute you; bless and do not curse them. Rejoice with those who rejoice, weep with those who weep. Live in harmony with one another. Do not be haughty, but associate with the lowly. Never be wise in your own sight. Repay no one evil for evil, but give thought to do what is honorable in the sight of all. If possible, so far as it depends on you, live peaceably with all. Beloved, never avenge yourselves, but leave it to the wrath of God, for it is written, "Vengeance is mine, I will repay, says the Lord." To the contrary, "if your enemy is hungry, feed him; if he is thirsty, give him something to drink; for by so doing you will heap burning coals on his head." Do not be overcome by evil, but overcome evil with good.
  • Let no one despise you for your youth, but set the believers an example in speech, in conduct, in love, in faith, in purity.

12.5.5 My Life Advice

  1. Read books - 1 hr a day (52 books a year)
  2. Recognize and take opportunities
  3. Look for ways to simplify and add redundancy to systems (Occam's Razor)
  4. Diversify everything (Avoid monoculture)
  5. Don't read newspapers (If it is important, you will hear about it)
  6. Don't text and drive
  7. Budget time, money, and calories
  8. Mison plas - Everything in its place

12.5.6 My Restaurant Meals

– Boston Market – Roasted Turkey Breast Market Bowl Sides: Green beans, Corn Calories:

– Burger King – Hamburger and Apple Slices (260cal)

– Candy bar – York Peppermint Pattie (140cal) $0.78 Goodness Knows (150cal) $1.28

– Chick fil A Grilled nuggets (140 cal) BBQ Sauce (45 cal) Medium Fruit Cup (50 cal)

– Chipotle Grilled Chiptole BBQ Snack Wrap and Side Salad With Low-Fat Balsamic (315cal)

– Dunkin Donuts Egg White Turkey Sausage Wake-Up Wrap (310cal) or Bacon egg and cheese wrap (? cal)

– Jason's Deli ($12.50) Bowl Fire Roasted Tortilla Soup (200 cal) Mediterranean wrap with vegetables (360 cal)

– Jimmy Hula's Voodoo fish taco (120 cal) Roasted avocado (170 cal)

– McDonald's Hamburger (250cal) Small fry (230cal) Coffee

– Panda Express Broccoli Beef with Mixed Veggies (190cal)

– Panera Power Almond Quinoa Oatmeal (290cal)

– Pollo Tropical Lite Tropichop (340cal) - grilled chicken, 1/2 brown rice, 1/2 lettuce, onions, peppers, tomatoes

– QDoba

– Red Robin

– Starbucks: Reduced Fat Turkey Bacon Breakfast Sandwich (230cal) Americano

– Subway 6" BLT on 9-Grain Bread With Lettuce, Tomatoes, Onions, Green Peppers (mustard no mayo) (320cal)

– Taco Bell Fresco Chicken Soft Tacos (280cal)

– Wendy's: Small chili (170cal) Caesar side salad (250cal)

Sources: Individual restaurant sites

12.6 My Stuff

12.6.1 Garage

12x16 or so

12.6.2 My Work Uniform

Shirt Size:


12.6.3 Ski stuff notes


  • Boots size: 14
    • (@ Keystone) 29.5 V / 350mm V
  • Ski size 163 cm
    • (@ Keystone) 177 cm


  • Boots size: 6.5
  • Ski size:
  • Snow board size: ???

12.6.4 LocoCycles - The Explorer Bike - Green Loco Fixed Gear


  • Frameset: Handcrafted 4130 Chromoly (Full tubing)
  • Headset: 1 1/8" Neco Threadless Alloy
  • Handlebars: Zoom Alloy - 25.4mm clamp size
  • Stem: Zoom Forged Alloy 7-/+ degree
  • Grips: High Performance Lock-On grips.
  • Grips: High Performance Lock-On grips.
  • Saddle: Classic Sport Stitched
  • Seatpost: 27.2mm
  • Brakes: PROMAX Front & Rear Brake Calipers
  • Crankset: Lasco 46T- Forged 6061 Alloy
  • Pedal: Wellgo Platform Pedals 9/16"
  • Hubs: KT Quando (Flip Flop) 16T Freewheel / 16T Fixed
  • Chain: KMC Z510 Heavy Duty
  • Tubes/Tires: Freedom ThickSlick Sport 700x25 (Can use up to 32) - presta - front 25 back 28 I think
  • Wheelset : Deep Profile 43mm - CNC Machined Brake Strip
  • Gear Ratio: 46:16 (Freewheel) / 46:16 (Fixed)
  • Weight : 21-22 lbs
  • Max load limit: 330 lbs

Chain ratios:

  • Current ratio = 46:16
    • On bike (cheaper)
    • Faster
  • Other option = 46:17
    • Easier skids
    • Slower
    • Easier to climb hills

12.7 Things about me

12.7.1 My Leadership

Appeal to greatness, not guilt, for motivation!

  1. My leadership strengths and weaknesses   edit

    Academic Performance S: Curiosity and Spontaneity blend to yield erratic achievement covering a wide area of interests. L: While this primary academic style results in well-rounded persons who can relate broadly, often grade or achievement levels limit career choices. — Work Habits S: A Spontaneous, outgoing temperament is associated with personal indulgence, emphasizing pleasure in work and personal life. L: Will require flexibility and latitude both on and off the job. — Attitudes S: Curiosity and tough-mindedness blend to create a temperament that challenges traditional beliefs. L: While crucial to progress, this temperament makes many enemies, intentionally or unintentionally. — Character S: A blend of spontaneity and tough-mindedness, this character is true to his/her own values and heedless of those who disagree.� L: If support is needed, it is often hard to come by - and is�dependednt�on the fiercely loyal and those with similar values — Emotional Temperament S: High tolerance for sensory stimulation and low reactivity is experienced by others as a "feel good" person to be around. L: Tends to minimize�risk�to self and others through abundant optimism. — Learning Style S: Preference for high sensory stimulation and a low need for an instructional leader, describe a student cut out for independent study. L: May�have�unrealistic notions of what can be achieved on one's own. — Probleming�Solving S: The curious and undisciplined problem-solver will tinker like the�troubleshooter,�but will look outside the immediate problem situation for possible explanations. L: May waste time and resources on unrealistic solutions. — Conflict S: Low self-discipline and tough-mindedness blend to form a style that tends to ignore�conflict�and skirt around issues - "I lose, you�lose" L: Excessive avoidance of conflict has been shown to have negative health consequences. — Relationships S: Assertiveness and hear-headedness blend to form a style that typically take the initiative. L: Two of the same style will experience frequent confrontations. Leaders respect those confrontations and often think less of people who don't put up resistance. — My Leadership Style:

    1. Visionary (Progressive; Change Agent)
    2. Catalyst (Consensus/Team Builder)
    3. Troubleshooter (Negotiator)

    — Things that should come naturally to me: Adaptability (9/10) �- Embraces change and�adjusts�readily to new situations and people �- Expresses "can do" attitude � -Balances multiple and competing demands Brings out the best in people (6/10) �- Cultivates others' talents and inspires their engagement �- Believes in the strengths of others �- Values collaboration and unites others towards common goals Conceptual Thinking (9/10) �- Demonstrates expansive thinking to resolve problems �- Sees issues from�new�perspective and thinks in broad conceptual terms �- Understands how components come together Learning ability (9/10) �- Committed to being a lifelong learner �- Possesses intellectual curiosity and a wide range of interests �- Learns from experience and assimilates new information Navigates Ambiguity (8/10) �- Sees in "shades of�grey" �- Simplifies the complex �- Maintains confidence and responds effectively in unclear, ambitious situations

    Things that require more energy for me: Authenticity (4/10) �- Speaks the truth and self-discloses when appropriate �- Is confident while also�abel�to admit mistakes �- Acts with integrity and engenders trust�among�others� Cultural fit (4/10) �- Exemplifies the highest levels of ethical behavior �- Understands the core value of Christian service �- Exhibits compassion and empathy in the context of cultural diversity Motivation to lead (3/10) �- Displays an ambition to influence others within the organization �- Pursues formal and informal leadership opportunities �- Can make the tough decisions when necessary Passion for results (4/10) �- Demonstrates perseverance and "iron will" in the face of challenge �- Gets things done and overcomes obstacles �- Strives for excellence Receptivity to feedback �- Seeks and uses feedback �- Displays humility and accepts constructive criticism �- Demonstrates high expectations for oneself

  2. My values

    Top Values:

    • Poise/Presence
    • Consistency
    • Efficiency
    • Balance
    • Commitment

    Other Values:

    • Awareness
    • Calmness
    • Courtesy
    • Curiosity
    • Enthusiasm
    • Fitness
    • Fun
    • Simplicity
    • Duty
    • Enjoyment
    • Professionalism
  3. FH Values


    • Integrity
    • Compassion
    • Balance
    • Excellence
    • Stewardship
    • Teamwork
  4. Army values

    LDRSHIP: Seven basic values of the United States Army.

    • Loyalty - Bear true faith and allegiance to the U.S. Constitution, the Army, your unit and other Soldiers [sic].
    • Duty - Fulfill your obligations.
    • Respect - Treat people as they should be treated.
    • Selfless Service - Put the welfare of the nation, the Army, and your subordinates before your own.
    • Honor - Live up to all the Army values.
    • Integrity - Do what’s right, legally and morally.
    • Personal Courage - Face fear, danger, or adversity [physical or moral].

12.7.2 2014 Life Philosophy Collection of Personal Lists (LPCPL)

Life Philosophy - 2014

How I want to be:

  1. Patient Listener
  2. Valuer of Quality - enjoying the good things
  3. Avid and voracious reader
  4. Organized
  5. Doer of things for the joy (because I can)
  6. Appreciative of time

My Personal Goals:

  1. Stop biting fingers (almost beat that this past year)
  2. Bring back my Spanish
  3. Start playing classical guitar again
  4. Unplug from the phone in social contexts

Daily Goals:

  1. Exercise
  2. Sleep 7-8 hrs a night
  3. Stay neat and organized (keep a clean desk)
  4. Make 3 priorities every morning for the day
  5. Use only 10 min for email using Inbox-0 (Action, Hold, Archive) (Do, Wait, Save)
  6. Keep meetings to 20 min
  7. Be early (30 min)
  8. Use 40min for debrief/relaxation after the day
  9. Review a medical journal

How I want to use my money:

  1. Invest in experiences not things; others > myself
  2. Focus on time; not getting more money
  3. A mansion will not bring happiness
  4. Do not have too much of a good/fun thing

My desired style (ie: be a man):

  1. Dog (Peaches)
  2. Motorcycle (Vulcan 2000)
  3. Clean/modern style small home (my apt)
  4. Classical guitar
  5. Handkerchief
  6. Good pen
  7. Promptness
  8. Hairy chest
  9. Holding your fire
  10. Taking the heat
  11. Knowing when to say nothing
  12. Loyalty
  13. Berry free beer
  14. Monogamy
  15. Bourbon
  16. Use semicolons appropriately
  17. Safety razor

Words to live by:

  1. Do it; Do it right; Do it right now
  2. Exemplify excellence.
  3. Live here, now; Be free, let loose
  4. Life is all about perspective
  5. A clever person solves problems; A wise person avoids problems
  6. Choose 2: Good, Fast, Cheap
  7. Time and distance => shield
  8. Done > Perfect

Lifestyle Tips:

  1. Stay on the highest floor possible in hotels
  2. Order meat medium without sauce
  3. Note the details
  4. Don't order chicken - except sometimes
  5. Life can be lonely - learn to live solo
  6. Listen
  7. Take the stairs
  8. Drink a small coffee.

Hobbies (my "R's")

  1. Running
  2. Reading
  3. Recording (photography)
  4. Roller Derby
  5. Riding (motorcycle)

This dynamic list started in 2011 and edited every New Year

12.7.3 Other Stuff   edit


  • People love confidence so much that we sometimes prefer those who talk a good game overthose who produce quantifiable results.
    • So be moderately overconfident. See the world accurately but have belief in your abilities.
    • Work hard and become an expert at your job. Competence breeds real confidence. A feeling of control kills fear.
    • But be warm.
    • This is what we can learn from the nice guys. And don’t fake it.
    • You can learn to be more compassionate. Karma works and kindness scales.
    • by Eric Barker


  • He tries not to ask what they do for a living, but if it comes to that, he responds to their job description—whatever it is—with, “Wow. That sounds hard.”
    • Paul Ford on his secret to his politeness


  • Don't live through your inbox - that's allowing others to set your agenda
  • Be brief, be positive.
    • The #1 tip for never boring anyone from Scott Adams


  • If you’re always to the point and stay upbeat, it’s extremely hard for anyone to accuse you of being poor company.
  • People love to talk about themselves and there are a dearth of good listeners.
  • Let the other person talk.
  • Ask people what they’ve been up to or what their hobbies are. Then talk about that. You’re now 80% of the way there.


  • Always have three good stories on hand that reliably entertain, inform or engage.
  • People are generally more interested in stories about people rather than things.
    • From Scott Adams
  • When you’re speaking emotionally, the words only account for 7% of what get conveyed.
  • Voice tone and body language are far more important.
  • Remember the theme of Don Quixote: If you want to be a knight, act like a knight.
  • If you don’t read, watch and think about generic things, generic things are less likely to come out of your mouth.

Send 5 emails:

    • Every morning send a friend, family member or co-worker an email to say thanks for something.
  2. JOB
    • At the end of the week, send your boss an email and sum up what you’ve accomplished.
    • They probably have no idea what you’re doing with your time. They’re busy. They have their own problems.
    • Once a week email a potential mentor.
    • Doesn’t have to be related to your job. Who do you admire that you could learn from?
    • Email a good friend and make plans.
    • Research shows the best use of electronic communication is to facilitate face-to-face interaction:
    • The results were unequivocal. “The greater the proportion of face-to-face interactions, the less lonely you are,” he says. “The greater the proportion of online interactions, the lonelier you are.” 
    • Send an email to someone you know (but don’t know very well) and check in.

– Eric Barker How To Make Your Life Better By Sending Five Simple Emails

Get up earlier?

Be Curious Take Risks (Even Small Ones) Go for walks without purpose

12.7.4 General Principles to live by   edit

  • Limit email replies to 1 per min
  • Don't answer emails you don't understand
  • Tune out the news - Nothing important happens most of the time
  • Start before you feel ready
  • Do hardest first - eat the frog
  • Prioritize one thing every day
  • Done is better than perfect
  • Focus on important - Suppress the urgent
  • Learn to ignore
  • Treat time as money
  • Leave the phone
  • Wear minimalist clothes
  • Empty inbox -> Inbox 0

12.8 Things I do

12.8.1 2020 - Daily Activities

  • Mind
    • Rest
      • Sleep 7hrs 44 min (5 sleep cycles)
      • Wake up earlier in the morning
    • 7 hours per week to learn
      • 1 hour daily to read
    • Write
      • Books
      • Programming
  • Body
    • Shave
    • Spend time outside
    • Exercise
      • Pushups daily (2 more each week)
      • Run 3 times a week
      • Squats/planks/situps/pullups??
  • Soul
    • 2 min - Breathly
    • Pray
  • Evening planning
    • Todo for next day
      • 1-3-5 List
    • Check email once a day - in the evening

12.8.2 2 minute mini meditation   2020

2-minute mini-meditation from Goldberg is an easy go-to anytime you need to get a handle on an out-of-control mind:

  1. First look around and notice where you are.
  2. Then close your eyes and notice the sounds around you, whether that’s a baby crying, horns honking, or your coworkers banging away on their keyboards. “Allow yourself to be there with the sounds,” Goldberg said.
  3. Take one deep breath to settle yourself.
  4. Then follow your breath, from the moment the air touches your nostrils as you inhale, feeling it fill up your chest and belly, and as it leaves your body as you exhale, noticing if the air feels warmer or colder.
  5. Repeat this for five deep breaths.

12.8.3 7 Hour Rule   2020

Spend seven hours per week (one hour per day) focused on learning, just like Ben Franklin did.

  • Make it a core habit, just like exercise.

"This library afforded me the means of improvement by constant study, for which I set apart an hour or two each day, and thus repaired in some degree the loss of the learned education my father once intended for me." – Ben Franklin

  • Given that it takes about seven hours to read a book, if you spend an hour a day reading, you'll read 52 more books per year. Just one book can change your life if it's the right book at the right time. So, imagine the power of 52?

12.8.4 EDC - Medical   edit

  • Antihistamine
  • Band aid
  • Mosquito head net
  • Water bottle

12.8.5 My Morning routine (Goal) 2016   edit 2020


  1. Wake up - 7-9 good of sleep
  2. Get in the zone - Prayer and Meditation
  3. Get inspired - Read 25 pages daily
  4. Get moving - Do some pushups, planks, situps, or pullups
  5. Get ready - Choose joy
  6. Put the right food in your body
    • Consume 30 Grams of Protein
      • Eat at least 40% of breakfast calories as protein
      • Do it with two or three whole eggs (each egg has about 6g protein)
      • Or a protein shake with water

12.8.6 My Evening routine 2016   edit 2020


  1. Write down unfinished things to do for tomorrow
  2. Run 10-60min
  3. Read another 25 pages
  4. Get Ready for bed

12.8.7 My Wardrobe Plan   edit

To maintain the 40 piece limit I have a rule of “one in, one out”: any new clothing purchase requires an existing piece goes.

Minimalist, streamlined approach to personal style. Like many of the great things in life, the capsule wardrobe is more about quality than quantity.


  • Work
    • Work shirts:
    • Work pants:
    • Work shoes: 1 pair
  • Run
    • Run shorts: 4 running shorts
    • Run shirts: 4 running shirts
    • Run shoes: 1 pair
  • Underwear
    • Boxers: 7
    • Run socks (white): 7 pairs
    • Work socks (black): 7 pairs
  • Daily
    • Jeans: 3 pants
    • Nice T-shirts: 4 shirts
    • Nice button shirts: 4 shits
  • Other
    • Hats: 3
    • Coats: 3


  • Clothing:
    • Pants
      • Again, neutrals are your friend. Dark jeans, sandy chinos, blue shorts and dress pants for the evening or office are likely to be all you need. Usually, pants are the biggest block of colour in your look, so choose patterns very sparingly, if at all, as they don’t tend to stay in style the way solid colours do.
    • Shirts
      • Keep only a couple of t-shirts, including a classic white with no print. There is no space in your life for the ones you never wear. Choose several button down shirts, both long and short sleeved, and a couple of long sleeved tops as well.
      • Neutrals are straightforward to match, and pinks and blues bring warmth and colour, so pick out ones that appeal to you. Loss of men like the option of a simple checked pattern too. Keep in mind the simpler it is, the more versatile it is likely to be.
    • Shoes
      • Having a choice between boots, dress shoes, deck shoes and casuals will see you through all occasions.
    • Other
      • A backpack and a sturdy pair of headphones are also on the list of essential accessories because if chosen wisely they will last years without needing a direct replacement.
  • Example:
    1. Breathable Polo Shirts: Banana Republic Luxe-Touch Polo
    2. Casual T-shirts: American Apparel Poly-Cotton T-shirts
    3. Oxford Cloth Button Downs (OCBD): Old Navy Slim-Fit Oxford Shirt
    4. Swim Trunks: J. Crew 7″ Board Short in Navy
    5. Shorts: Target Merona Club Shorts
    6. Lightweight Chinos: GAP Lived-in Slim or Straight
    7. Canvas Sneakers: PF Flyers Center Lo Sneakers in Natural
    8. A Woven Belt: Jomers Madaket Belt
    9. Boat Shoes: Sperry Top Sider Authentic Original Boat Shoe in Brown
    10. Do Anything Sunglasses: Ray-Ban New Wayfarer in Tortoise
  • Example:
    • 12 Long Sleeve Shirts
    • 5 T-shirts
    • 5 Polo Shirts
    • 4 Sweaters
    • 3 Cardigans (I have a problem.)
    • 8 Pants
    • 3 Shorts


  1. Maintain a 37 piece wardrobe
    • 15 tops
    • 9 bottoms
    • 9 pairs of shoes
    • 2 dresses
    • 2 jackets

13 Medical

13.1 Anxiety

How To Make Fear Less Scary

There are a number of specific techniques for reducing those awful anxious emotions:

  • Mindfulness recommends noting troublesome thoughts like fear. Recognize and accept them to let them go.
  • Neuroscience advocates labeling. (Frankly, this is a lot like noting but backed by some PhDs and an fMRI.)
  • Stoicism has premeditation. That’s when you ask, “What’s the worst that could happen?” and realize it’s not that bad.
  • Neuroscience also recommends reappraisal. This is reinterpreting your feelings with a new story that makes them less scary.

13.2 Avoid choking under pressure


  • Under pressure
  • With focus
  • With the end goal in mind

13.3 Behavioral Economics in Medicine

Contributions of Behavioral Economics to Quality Improvement in Health Care

  • Opt-Out – An opt-out approach may improve results; practice guidelines would automatically appear when clinicians perform tasks that are already part of their ordinary routines
    • This concept is exemplified through setting a default option for a provider, but one they would need to override if they want something different.
  • Accountable justifications – Asking clinicians to document rationales that are accessable to others
    • This is the concept of requesting physicians describe their thought process on a potentially questionable decision. This is expected in the assessment/plan section of physician SOAP notes.
  • IKEA effect – the idea of front line clinicians who make small adjustments to guidelines, giving them ownership of the guidelines and improved adoption rates of the guidelines
  • Overconfidence bias – Exaggerating the liklihood that optimal clinical care was provided
    • This is the concept that errors in probability judgements happen regularly.
  • Salience – Increasing the vividness/distinctness of important material so that the information would be noticed by clinicians
    • This idea centers around drawing attention to important information so physicians can respond appropriately. This occurs in my hospital with out of rane lab values in red color instead of default blue.
  • Framing – Changing the wording of physical presentation of an idea to maximize clinicians' receptivity
    • This is the idea that changing wording when presenting information can improve clinician receptivity.
  • Descriptive norms – Highlighting that many other physicians already engage in target behavior
    • This concept adjusts physician behavior when they realize they are behaving outside the normal behavior of their peers.
  • Fairness – Appealing to the clinician's sense of equity
    • This concept of behavioral economics is one where a nudge attempts to appeal to the clinicians sense of fairness.
  • Reciprocity – Assisting on eanother
    • This idea is one of teamwork, where a physician’s behavior might be adjusted as a way to help another teammember who has helped them


  • Stevens, J. (2017). The Promising Contributions of Behavioral Economics to Quality Improvement in Health Care. Pediatric Quality & Safety, 2(3), e023

13.4 Cognitive Biases

  1. Present bias, which is the tendency people have, when considering a trade-off between two future moments, to more heavily weight the one closer to the present.
  2. Gambler’s fallacy makes us absolutely certain that, if a coin has landed heads up five times in a row, it’s more likely to land tails up the sixth time. In fact, the odds are still 50-50.
  3. Optimism bias leads us to consistently underestimate the costs and the duration of basically every project we undertake.
  4. Availability bias makes us think that, say, traveling by plane is more dangerous than traveling by car.
  5. The anchoring effect is our tendency to rely too heavily on the first piece of information offered, particularly if that information is presented in numeric form, when making decisions, estimates, or predictions.
  6. Sunk-cost thinking tells us to stick with a bad investment because of the money we have already lost on it
  7. Confirmation bias. That’s the effect that leads us to look for evidence confirming what we already think or suspect, to view facts and ideas we encounter as further confirmation, and to discount or ignore any piece of evidence that seems to support an alternate view.
  8. Endowment effect, which leads us to place an irrationally high value on our possessions.
  9. conjunction fallacy (the assumption that multiple specific conditions are more probable than a single general one)

13.5 Regain Focus - take an SSLS Break

Whenever overwhelmed:

  • Stop what you are doing.
  • Look around.
  • Listen to your surroundings.
  • Smell your environment.

This helps you regain focus and be more aware of and present in your environment so you can focus on the task at hand.

13.6 SLICERS for anxiety (like a firefighter)

SLICERS is a protocol to follow so that you always know the next step to take.

  • Size up all scenes
  • Locate the fire
  • Identify & control the flow path (if possible)
  • Cool the heated space from a safe location
  • Extinguish the fire
  • Rescue
  • Salvage are actions of opportunity that may occur at any time

13.7 Worry Less

Don’t ask yourself if your worries are rational, focus on what actions you can take.

  • Don’t Own Your Thoughts
  • Get Off Social Media.
  • Identify Your Acute Anxieties, Face Them Head-On.
  • Stop Trying to Solve It.

Ask if a Worry is Actionable, Not Rational!

14 Nature

14.1 JK Classes

[2020-12-06 Sun 10:02]

Chicken Classes:



14.2 15 Surprising Uses for Beeswax   edit

You use honey to whip up delicious recipes (honey mustard sheet-pan chicken with Brussels sprouts, anyone?) and DIY face masks, but did you know that those busy bees produce another sticky substance that you can use in a myriad of ways? We’re talking about beeswax—the magical material bees create in order to make honeycomb.

When beekeepers harvest honey, a byproduct from the extraction process is leftover beeswax. This is then melted into blocks that you can purchase online or at your local farmers market if you so choose—and we think you should. Here’s why: Beeswax is a natural substance that can be used in your home, beauty routine and even in your cooking. It has a long shelf life (it’s been found undisturbed in the tombs of ancient pharaohs), burns well and has protective qualities. But what should you do with this all-natural and long-lasting product? Here, 15 uses for beeswax to get you started.

RELATED: Here Are 5 Benefits of Using Honey on Your Face

  1. Make Candles Sure, you could spend $10 on a ready-to-go votive…or you could, um, spend $10 to make your own. Alright, we’re not going to lie—picking up a candle at the store is infinitely easier than DIY. But the nice thing about getting in touch with your inner Martha Stewart is that you can control exactly what goes into your candle—including its scent. (FYI: We’re fans of these adorable homemade lemon candles that smell divine and repel mosquitos.)
  2. Lubricate Wood You were thrilled when you inherited your great aunt’s mahogany dresser. Until you realized how much it creaks every time you so much as touch one of the drawers. Enter—you guessed it—beeswax. Rub some of this natural lubricant on squeaky drawers, doors and windows and be amazed at the results.
  3. Make Your Own Beeswax Wrap Newsflash: Plastic is terrible for the planet. But when it comes to keeping your food fresh, there is a more sustainable alternative to your usual plastic wrap. Enter beeswax wrap—a washable, reusable and compostable product that’s made with cotton, beeswax and a few other natural ingredients like jojoba oil and tree resin. Learn how to make your own reusable food wrap here or buy them online—we like Bee’s Wrap Sandwich Wrap ($11) and Bee's Wrap Assorted 3 Pack ($18).
  4. Whip Up a Batch of Canelés These French pastries are crunchy on the outside, custardy on the inside and delicious all-around. Traditionally, the special molds are coated in beeswax and butter and then frozen before the batter is added and baked, which helps give the treats their special shape and crisp exterior. (Beeswax is totally edible so this is perfectly safe.) Could you skip all that work and just use non-stick cooking spray? Sure, but where’s the fun in that? Here’s a recipe for how to make canelés using beeswax
  5. Polish Furniture Are your dining room chairs looking a little worse for wear? Spruce them up with a lick of all-natural, homemade furniture polish. All you need are two ingredients and some elbow grease. Here’s how: Add one parts beeswax to three parts olive or coconut oil and gently heat over a double boiler until melted. Allow to cool and harden, then gently rub onto wooden furniture using a clean cloth. Follow up with another cloth to buff furniture until all the residue is gone and that’s it—good as new.
  6. Make Crayons Get your kids to help out with this family-friendly project. Mix equal parts beeswax and soap shavings and melt in a double boiler. Once melted, pour into molds and add a few drops of food coloring to each one to make different shades, stirring until mixed. Allow the crayons to harden (this will take a couple of hours) and they’re ready to use.
  7. Make Your Own Lip Balm Beeswax is frequently used in cosmetics thanks to its ability to lock in moisture all day. This makes it ideal for keeping your chapped lips nice and moisturized. And although it may sound intimidating, trust us on this one—if you can make your own face mask, then you can make your own lip balm. There are plenty of DIY recipes to choose from, but we like the sound of this lip balm made with peppermint oil, shea oil and coconut oil.
  8. …Or Body Butter Skip the chemicals and keep your skin nice and supple with homemade beeswax body butter. This DIY body butter recipe can be made straight in the jar and incorporates coconut oil and your favorite essential oil. Easy peasy.
  9. Waterproof Your Shoes Got a pair of canvas shoes that you want to wear this season and next? No problem. First, clean the shoes to remove any dirt. Next, rub some beeswax directly on the shoes with a cloth and then use a blow-dryer to melt it. Rub away any excess wax with a towel and admire your handiwork.
  10. Make Bronze Items Sparkle Help prevent your candle holders from getting tarnished by creating a solution of ⅓ pound beeswax melted in one quart turpentine. Use a clean towel to buff and add a thin coat to your item.
  11. Condition a Wood Chopping Board You use it on the daily so make sure your chopping board stays fresh by melting a half-teaspoon beeswax with a cup of mineral oil and applying to the board with a clean cloth. This mixture will also moisturize and protect other wooden surfaces like spatulas, spoons and salad bowls.
  12. Prevent Tools from Rusting Coat your tools (like your garden fork and shovel) with beeswax to protect them from rusting and from the elements. Simply take a bar of wax and rub it on the metal parts, making sure to use a clean cloth after to buff off any excess.
  13. Rub on Baking Pans Keep your baking pans and sheets looking good as new by buffing beeswax onto them before using. Simply use a clean cloth to rub beeswax onto the surface and cook with the pans as normal. Over time, your pan will develop a permanent layer of wax, meaning you don’t have to oil or grease it every time.
  14. Unstick Zippers When temperatures drop, it’s time to get your winter coat out of the closet. Except that after months of not being used, the zipper is being particularly stubborn. Here’s a quick fix—just rub a small piece of beeswax along the teeth of the zipper.
  15. Tame Flyaways Frizzy hair getting you down? Just rub a little beeswax between your fingertips and smooth over strands for a sleek style that won’t turn greasy. You can even use this miracle ingredient to make your own pomade that will keep your ’do in place without looking stiff. Here’s an easy tutorial for beeswax pomade using jojoba oil and essential oils.

15 Numbers, Statistics, and Rules

15.1 Base Rates

Table 2: Newsy Base Rates
Event Base Rate Reference
Police Conviction for Murder 4% 2019 Study from Bowling Green
Police Conviction for Manslaughter 18% 2019 Study from Bowling Green
Table 3: Weather Base Rates
  Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Reference
Average high in ºF 71.8 74.9 78.9 83.6 88.4 90.8 92.0 91.6 89.6 84.7 78.3 73.8 1991-2020 Normals
Average low in ºF 49.5 52.4 55.8 60.7 66.3 71.6 73.2 73.7 72.4 66.2 58.2 52.9 1991-2020 Normals
Av. mo precip in inch 2.48 2.04 3.03 2.58 4.02 8.05 7.46 7.69 6.37 3.46 1.79 2.48 1991-2020 Normals
Orlando Chance of precipitation (>0.1") 0.116 0.1525 0.1475 0.1 0.1925 0.3125 0.348 0.33 0.295 0.162 0.095 0.11 Florida Climate Center
Table 4: Medical Related
  Rate Reference
Americans who meet physical activity guidelines 24.3% CDC (2019)
Avg time driving/day (Americans) 51 min AAA
Millennials (1981-1991) Adequately saving for retirement 4.8% Nat Inst on Retirement Security
Millennials with nothing saved for retirement 66% Nat Inst on Retirement Security
American High Schoolers using e-cigs 20% CDC
Odds of dying from contact with hornets, wasps, or bees 1 in 63,225 (<0.001%) National Safety Council
Americans who don't get enough sleep 1 in 3 CDC
Table 5: Odds of Dying (2019)
Cause of Death Odds of Dying Nat Safecty Council
Heart disease 1 in 6
Cancer 1 in 7
All preventable causes of death 1 in 24
Chronic lower respiratory disease 1 in 27
Suicide 1 in 88
Opioid overdose 1 in 92
Fall 1 in 106
MVA 1 in 107
Gun assault 1 in 289
Pedestrian incident 1 in 543
Motorcyclist 1 in 899
Drowning 1 in 1,128
Fire or Smoke 1 in 1,547
Choking on food 1 in 2,535
Bicyclist 1 in 3,825
Sunstroke 1 in 8,248
Accidental gun discharge 1 in 8,571
Electrocution, radiation, extreme temperatures, and pressure 1 in 13,394
Sharp objects 1 in 29,334
Cataclysmic storm 1 in 58,669
Hornet, wasp, and bee stings 1 in 59,507
Hot surfaces and substances 1 in 63,113
Dog attack 1 in 86,781
Lightning 1 in 138,849

15.2 Frequentist vs Bayesian Statistics

The primary difference between the two methodologies is how they define what probability expresses

Frequentist Methodology

In a frequentist model, probability is the limit of the relative frequency of an event after many trials. In other words, this method calculates the probability that the experiment would have the same outcomes if you were to replicate the same conditions again. This model only uses data from the current experiment when evaluating outcomes.

When applying frequentist statistics or using a tool that uses a frequentist model, you will likely hear the term p-value. A p-value is the calculated probability of obtaining an effect at least as extreme as the one in your sample data, assuming the truth of the null hypothesis. For example, a small p-value means that there is a small chance that your results could be completely random. A large p-value means that your results have a high probability of being random and not due to anything you did in the experiment. In short, remember that the smaller the p-value, the more statistically significant your results.

Unfortunately, people often misinterpret what p-value represents. P-value is essentially the probability of a false positive based on the data in the experiment. It does not tell you the probability of a specific event actually happening and it does not tell you the probability that a variant is better than the control. P-values are probability statements about the data sample not about the hypothesis itself. So if you ran an A/B test where the conversion rate of the variant was 10% higher than the conversion rate of the control, and this experiment had a p-value of 0.01 it would mean that the observed result is statistically significant.

Bayesian Methodology

Bayesian statistics are named after philosopher Thomas Bayes who believed that “probability is orderly opinion, and that inference from data is nothing other than the revision of such opinion in the light of relevant new information.” Updating your beliefs in light of new evidence? What a wonderful concept.

With Bayesian statistics, probability simply expresses a degree of belief in an event. This method is different from the frequentist methodology in a number of ways. One of the big differences is that probability actually expresses the chance of an event happening. Although the calculation can be extremely complex, this method seems to be a simpler and more intuitive approach for A/B testing. Quite simply, a Bayesian methodology will tell you the probability that a variant is better than an original or vice versa.

The Bayesian concept of probability is also more conditional. It uses prior and posterior knowledge as well as current experiment data to predict outcomes. Since life doesn’t happen in a vacuum, we often have to make assumptions when running experiments. But the Bayesian approach attempts to account for previous learnings and data that could influence the end results.

If you have a favorite statistical model, that’s awesome! If you don’t, there’s good news. You don’t really have to pick a side. At this point, many experimentation platforms are using proprietary, hybrid models that combine a traditional statistical model (Bayesian or frequentist) with some other technology such as machine learning. It certainly doesn’t hurt to have at least a basic understanding of the methodologies that analysts have gotten into heated debates about for years.

When it comes down to it, what really matters is how well you understand the results you are given in your experimentation platform of choice. This understanding leads to a more data-driven approach to assessing risk, how much your organization is willing to accept, and what the predicted improvement to business outcomes could be.

There are some analysts who get really passionate about debating the pros and cons of Bayesian and Frequentist statistical methodologies. But in the real world, you may have experimentation stakeholders from multiple departments simply wanting a decision, often with no regard for the statistical methodology used. Don’t let analysis paralysis keep you from running a successful experimentation strategy.

But just in case you get into a statistical methodology battle at a bar or in a boardroom, feel free to reference this quick summary. Hopefully, this has been a concise, easy to understand explanation and I kept my word that you can grasp it in 5 minutes.


15.2.1 More

4 main definitions of probability:

  1. Long-term frequencies
  2. Physical tendencies/propensities
  3. Degrees of belief
  4. Degrees of logical support

Frequentist inference is based on the first definition, whereas Bayesian inference is rooted in definitions 3 and 4.

In short, according to the frequentist definition of probability, only repeatable random events (like the result of flipping a coin) have probabilities. These probabilities are equal to the long-term frequency of occurrence of the events in question.

Frequentists don’t attach probabilities to hypotheses or to any fixed but unknown values in general. This is a very important point that you should carefully examine. Ignoring it often leads to misinterpretations of frequentist analyses.

In contrast, Bayesians view probabilities as a more general concept. As a Bayesian, you can use probabilities to represent the uncertainty in any event or hypothesis. Here, it’s perfectly acceptable to assign probabilities to non-repeatable events, such as Hillary Clinton winning the US presidential race in 2016. Orthodox frequentists would claim that such probabilities don’t make sense because the event is not repeatable. That is, you can’t run the election cycle an infinite number of times and calculate the proportion of them that Hillary Clinton won.

Example Problem: We want to estimate the average height of adult females. First, we assume that height has a normal distribution. Second, we assume that the standard deviation is available and we don’t need to estimate it. Therefore, the only thing we need to estimate is the mean of the distribution.

The Frequentist way: I don’t know what the mean female height is. However, I know that its value is fixed (not a random one). Therefore, I cannot assign probabilities to the mean being equal to a certain value, or being less/greater than some other value. The most I can do is collect data from a sample of the population and estimate its mean as the value which is most consistent with the data.

  • The value mentioned in the end is known as the maximum likelihood estimate. It depends on the distribution of the data and I won’t go into details on its calculation. However, for normally distributed data, it’s quite straightforward: the maximum likelihood estimate of the population mean is equal to the sample mean.

The Bayesian way: I agree that the mean is a fixed and unknown value, but I see no problem in representing the uncertainty probabilistically. I will do so by defining a probability distribution over the possible values of the mean and use sample data to update this distribution.

  • In a Bayesian setting, the newly collected data makes the probability distribution over the parameter narrower. More specifically, narrower around the parameter’s true (unknown) value. You do the updating process by applying Bayes’ theorem:
    • P(Parameter|Data) = P(Data|Parameter)*P(Parameter)/P(Data)
    • (Posterior Probability) = Likelihood *(Prior Probability)/Evidence

Frequentists’ main objection to the Bayesian approach is the use of prior probabilities. Their criticism is that there is always a subjective element in assigning them. Paradoxically, Bayesians consider not using prior probabilities one of the biggest weaknesses of the frequentist approach.


15.3 Odds Ratio Vs Relative Risk

Relative risk (RR) is simply the probability or relationship of two events. Let’s say A is event 1 and B is event 2. One can get the RR by dividing B from A or A/B. This is exactly how experts come up with popular lines like ‘Habitual alcoholic beverage drinkers are 2-4 times more at risk of developing liver problems than non-alcoholic beverage drinkers!’ This means that the likelihood of variable A which is the risk of developing liver disease for habitual alcoholic beverage drinkers is relative to the same exact risk being talked about for variable B which includes the non-alcoholic beverage drinkers. In this regard, if you belong to group B and that you are only 10% at risk for dying then it must be true that those from group A are 20-40% more at risk of dying.

The other measure ‘“ odds ratio (OR) is a term that already speaks of what it describes. Instead of using pure percentages (like in RR), OR uses ratio of odds. Take note, OR explains ‘odds’ not in its colloquial definition (i.e. chance) but rather on its statistical definition which is the probability of an event over (divided by) the probability of a certain event not happening.

In written formula, with A being the likelihood for group 1 while B being the likelihood for group 2, the formula to get the OR is [A/(1-A)]/[B/(1-B)].

So if the probability of having liver disease among habitual alcoholic beverage drinkers is 20% and among non-alcoholic beverage drinkers is 2% the OR will be = [20%/(1-20%)] / [2%/(1-2%)]=12.25 and the RR of having liver disease when drinking alcoholic beverages will be = 20%/2%=10.

  1. The RR is much simpler to interpret and is most likely consistent with everyone’s intuition. It is the risk of a situation relative (in relation) to exposure. The formula is A/B.
  2. OR is a bit more complicated and uses the formula [A/(1-A)]/[B/(1-B)].

15.4 Probability Errors to Avoid

  1. Assuming events are independent when they are not
    • "The probability of flipping heads with a fair coin is 1/2. The probability of flipping two heads in a row is (1/2)2 or 1.4 since the likelihood of two independent events both happening is the product of their individual probabilities."
    • When an event is interconnected with another event, the former happening increases or decreases the probability of the latter happening.
    • Think insurance changes after an MVA
    • Any time you think about the probability of sequences of events, be sure to identify whether they're independent or not
  2. Not understanding when events are independent
    • "A different kind of mistake occurs when events that are independent are not treated as such . . . If you flip a fair coin 1,000,000 times and get 1,000,000 heads in a row, the probability of getting heads on the next flip is still 1/2. The very definition of statistical independence between two events is that the outcome of one has no effect on the outcome of another."
    • The most important thing to remember here is that the probability of conjunctive events happening is never higher than the probability of each occurring.
  3. Clusters happen
    • "You've likely read the story in the newspaper or perhaps seen the news expose: Some statistically unlikely number of people in a particular area have contracted a rare form of cancer. It must be the water, or the local power plant, or the cell phone tower. …But this cluster of cases may also be the product of pure chance, even when the number of cases appears highly improbable. Yes, the probability that five people in the same school or church or workplace will contract the same rare form of leukemia may be one in a million, but there are millions of schools and churches and workplaces. It's not highly improbable that five people might get the same rare form of leukemia in one of those places"
    • An important lesson of probability is that while particular improbable events are, well, improbable, the chance of any improbable event happening at all is highly probable.
    • We find randomness hard to process and look for meaning in chaotic events
    • It might be jarring to be involved in three car crashes in a year or to run into two college roommates at the same conference. Is it all that improbable that it would happen to someone, though?
  4. The prosecutor's fallacy
    • "The prosecutor's fallacy occurs when the context surrounding statistical evidence is neglected . . . the chances of finding a coincidental one in a million match are relatively high if you run the same through a database with samples from a million people."
    • It's important to look at the context surrounding statistics
    • Statistics give us a simple snapshot, but if we want a finer-grained picture, we need to think about context.
  5. Reversion to the mean (or regression to the mean)
    • "Probability tells us that any outlier observation that is particularly far from the mean in one direction or the other is likely to be followed by outcomes that are most consistent with the long-term average. …One way to think about this mean reversion is that performance both mental and physical consists of underlying talent-related effort plus an element of luck, good or bad. (Statisticians would call this random error.) In any case, those individuals who perform far above the mean for some stretch are likely to have had luck on their side; those who perform far below the mean are likely to have had bad luck. . . . When a spell of very good luck or very bad luck ends as it inevitably will the resulting performance will be closer to the mean."
    • Moderate events tend to follow extreme ones.
    • Regression to the mean teaches us that the way to differentiate between skill and luck is to look at someone's track record

15.5 Risk

A percentage simply tells us the number of times something happens out of every 100 chances, and allows risks to be compared more easily. In this case, 20 per cent compared to 30 per cent.

15.6 Rules

  1. The person who tells the most compelling story wins. Not the best idea. Just the story that catches people’s attention and gets them to nod their heads.
  2. Something can be factually true but contextually nonsense. Bad ideas often have at least some seed of truth that gives their followers confidence.
  3. Tell people what they want to hear and you can be wrong indefinitely without penalty.
  4. Woodrow Wilson said government "is accountable to Darwin, not to Newton.” It’s a useful idea. Everything is accountable to one of the two, and you have to know whether something adapts and changes over time or perpetually stays the same.
  5. Behavior is hard to fix. When people say they’ve learned their lesson they underestimate how much of their previous mistake was caused by emotions that will return when faced with the same circumstances.
  6. "Logic is an invention of man and may be ignored by the universe," historian Will Durant says. That’s why forecasting is hard.
  7. Being good at something doesn’t promise rewards. It doesn’t even promise a compliment. What’s rewarded in the world is scarcity, so what matters is what you can do that other people are bad at.
  8. The world is governed by probability, but people think in black and white, right or wrong – did it happen or did it not? – because it’s easier.
  9. Henry Luce said, “Show me a man who thinks he’s objective and I’ll show you a man who’s deceiving himself.” People see what they want to see, hear what they want to hear, and view the world through the lens of their own unique life experiences.
  10. People learn when they’re surprised. Not when they read the right answer, or are told they’re doing it wrong, but when their jaw hits the floor.
  11. Most fields have only a few laws. Lots of theories, hunches, observations, ideas, trends, and rules. But laws – things that are always true, all the time – are rare.
  12. The only thing worse than thinking everyone who disagrees with you is wrong is the opposite: being persuaded by the advice of those who need or want something you don’t.
  13. Simple explanations are appealing even when they’re wrong. “It’s complicated” isn’t persuasive even when it’s right.
  14. Self-interest is the most powerful force in the world. Which can be great, because situations where everyone’s interests align are unstoppable; bad because people’s willingness to benefit themselves at the expense of others is so seductive.
  15. History is deep. Almost everything has been done before. The characters and scenes change, but the behaviors and outcomes rarely do. “Everything feels unprecedented when you haven’t engaged with history.”
  16. Don’t expect balance from very talented people. People who are exceptionally good at one thing tend to be exceptionally bad at another, due to overconfidence and mental bandwidth taken up by the exceptional skill. Skills also have two sides: No one should be shocked when people who think about the world in unique ways you like also think about the world in unique ways you don’t like.
  17. Progress happens too slowly to notice, setbacks happen too fast to ignore. There are lots of overnight tragedies, but no overnight miracles. Growth is driven by compounding, which always takes time. Destruction is driven by single points of failure, which can happen in seconds, and loss of confidence, which can happen in an instant.
  18. It is way easier to spot other people’s mistakes than your own. We judge others based solely on their actions, but when judging ourselves we have an internal dialogue that justifies our mistakes and bad decisions.
  19. Reputations have momentum in both directions, because people want to associate with winners and avoid losers.
  20. History is driven by surprising events, forecasting is driven by predictable ones. It’s not an easy problem to solve.


15.7 The Bayesian Trap (statistics)


  • Disease affects 0.1% of population (Pre-test probability)
  • Test correctly identifies people with the disease 99% of the time (Sensitivity)
  • Test incorrectly identifies people without the disease 1% of the time (Specificity=99% - Correctly identifies people without the disease 99% of the time)

If the test is Positive, what are the chances you have the disease?

Bayes Theorem:

  • Probability that the hypothesis is true (true positive) given the event is positive (test is positive) = Probability of event if hypothesis is true times Prior probability of having the disease divided by the probability of the event occuring
    • P(H|E) = (P(E|H) * P(H)) / P(E)
  • Probability of the event is Probability of the hypothesis times probability of event given hypothesis is true plus probability of null hypothesis (not having the disease) times probability of falsely identifying a person as having the disease
    • P(E) = P(H) * P(E|H) + P(-H) * P(E|-H)

Example with the numbers included:

  • P(H|E) = (0.99 * 0.001)/((0.01*0.99)+(0.999*0.01)) = 9.1%
  • If the test is positive, there is a 9% chance of actually having the disease!

A different way:

  • Think if 0.1% of population has the disease, that is 1:1000 people.
  • 1% are incorrectly identified = 10:999
  • A real (true) positive test is 1 out of 11 or 9%

If the test is repeated, change the pre-test probability from 0.1% to 9.1%

  • P(H|E) = (0.99 * 0.09)/((0.09*0.99)+(0.91*0.01)) = 91%

15.8 The Three Laws of Probability

  1. The probability that two events will both occur can never be greater than the probability that each will occur individually.
    • This is the conjunction fallacy.
      • Simple arithmetic: the chances that event A will occur = the chances that events A and B will occur + the chance that event A will occur and event B will not occur.
    • As Kahneman and Tversky put it, A good story is often less probable than a less satisfactory…
  2. If two possible events, A and B, are independent, then the probability that both A and B will occur is equal to the product of their individual probabilities.
    • These occur when we want to know the chances of either one event or another occurring, as opposed to the earlier situation, in which we wanted to know the chance of one event and another event happening.
  3. If an event can have a number of different and distinct possible outcomes, A, B, C, and so on, then the probability that either A or B will occur is equal to the sum of the individual probabilities of A and B, and the sum of the probabilities of all the possible outcomes (A, B, C, and so on) is 1 (that is, 100 percent).
    • When you want to know the chances that two independent events, A and B, will both occur, you multiply; if you want to know the chances that either of two mutually exclusive events, A or B, will occur, you add.

15.9 Vehicle crashes

Top 6 reasons why accidents occur:

  1. The Rolling Right Turn on Red
    • 6 percent of all pedestrian fatalities, and the number is on the rise. Worse still, 21 percent of the deaths happen to kids.
  2. Falling Asleep
  3. Loss of Control
    • 11 percent of all crashes.
    • Aggressive maneuvering and taking a sharp curve too fast account for about 5 percent of all crashes. Another 2 percent happen when we don’t slow down for water on the road.
  4. Into the Blind
  5. The Rear-Ender
    • Hitting the car in front of us accounts for between 23 percent and 30 percent of all crashes.
  6. Distracted Lane or Road Departure

16 Paranoia

16.1 4 Reasons To Add A Pellet Air Gun To Your Survival Arsenal

  1. Excellent Small Game Hunter
  2. Cheap ammo with forever shelf life
  3. Silent Shooter
  4. Powered By Air

16.2 CIA travel safety tips

  • Maintain a low profile.
    • CIA employees don't want to draw attention to themselves.
  • Research your destination before you go.
    • Part of keeping a low profile is knowing the local customs and blending in. Act like you have been there before.
  • Plan your ground transportation and hotel arrangements in advance.
    • We never leave home without contact details for every stage of our itinerary.
  • Stay aware of your surroundings.
    • [Do] the research to know what fits in the location where you are.
  • Have a plan before you go out.
    • Know where you will meet if separated from your group following a terrorist attack, violent protest or other incident.
  • Make sure someone knows where you're going and when you should be back.
    • They should know who to call if you don't check in.
  • For natural disasters, plan ahead to avoid hurricanes and wildfires.
    • If in an earthquake zone, have a plan for what to do in case of an earthquake.
  • The CIA has a heavy influence on planning because in a crisis situation, you don't have time to plan.
    • You can execute what you have planned, but if you don't plan ahead, you won't know what to do.
  • Cary a doorstop.
    • When you lock yourself into your hotel room at night, slip the doorstop under the door to keep intruders from being able to force the door open. The doorstop is effective even when the chain or other external locks give way.

16.3 Facebook

Facebook uses personal data it collects on members using their on-site activity, location settings and internet connection to target its ads.

The firm uses 98 data points to create 'complete consumer profiles'. Some of this data is taken from your Faebook profile information, but the social network watches online activity for the rest. It can 'see' virtually every website you visit if you are logged into Facebook. The 98 data points it tracks are:

  1. Location
  2. Age
  3. Generation
  4. Gender
  5. Language
  6. Education level
  7. Field of study
  8. School
  9. Ethnic affinity
  10. Income and net worth
  11. Home ownership and type
  12. Home value
  13. Property size
  14. Square footage of home
  15. Year home was built
  16. Household composition
  17. Users who have an anniversary within 30 days
  18. Users who are away from family or hometown
  19. Users who are friends with someone who has an anniversary, is newly married or engaged, recently moved, or has an upcoming birthday
  20. Users in long-distance relationships
  21. Users in new relationships
  22. Users who have new jobs
  23. Users who are newly engaged
  24. Users who are newly married
  25. Users who have recently moved
  26. Users who have birthdays soon
  27. Parents
  28. Expectant parents
  29. Mothers, divided by “type” (soccer, trendy, etc.)
  30. Users who are likely to engage in politics
  31. Conservatives and liberals
  32. Relationship status
  33. Employer
  34. Industry
  35. Job title
  36. Office type
  37. Interests
  38. Users who own motorcycles
  39. Users who plan to buy a car (and what kind/brand of car, and how soon)
  40. Users who bought auto parts or accessories recently
  41. Users who are likely to need auto parts or services
  42. Style and brand of car you drive
  43. Year car was bought
  44. Age of car
  45. How much money user is likely to spend on next car
  46. Where user is likely to buy next car
  47. How many employees your company has
  48. Users who own small businesses
  49. Users who work in management or are executives
  50. Users who have donated to charity (divided by type)
  51. Operating system
  52. Users who play canvas games
  53. Users who own a gaming console
  54. Users who have created a Facebook event
  55. Users who have used Facebook Payments
  56. Users who have spent more than average on Facebook Payments
  57. Users who administer a Facebook page
  58. Users who have recently uploaded photos to Facebook
  59. Internet browser
  60. Email service
  61. Early/late adopters of technology
  62. Expats (divided by what country they are from originally)
  63. Users who belong to a credit union, national bank or regional bank
  64. Users who investor (divided by investment type)
  65. Number of credit lines
  66. Users who are active credit card users
  67. Credit card type
  68. Users who have a debit card
  69. Users who carry a balance on their credit card
  70. Users who listen to the radio
  71. Preference in TV shows
  72. Users who use a mobile device (divided by what brand they use)
  73. Internet connection type
  74. Users who recently acquired a smartphone or tablet
  75. Users who access the Internet through a smartphone or tablet
  76. Users who use coupons
  77. Types of clothing user’s household buys
  78. Time of year user’s household shops most
  79. Users who are “heavy” buyers of beer, wine or spirits
  80. Users who buy groceries (and what kinds)
  81. Users who buy beauty products
  82. Users who buy allergy medications, cough/cold medications, pain relief products, and over-the-counter meds
  83. Users who spend money on household products
  84. Users who spend money on products for kids or pets, and what kinds of pets
  85. Users whose household makes more purchases than is average
  86. Users who tend to shop online (or off)
  87. Types of restaurants user eats at
  88. Kinds of stores user shops at
  89. Users who are “receptive” to offers from companies offering online auto insurance, higher education or mortgages, and prepaid debit cards/satellite TV
  90. Length of time user has lived in house
  91. Users who are likely to move soon
  92. Users who are interested in the Olympics, fall football, cricket or Ramadan
  93. Users who travel frequently, for work or pleasure
  94. Users who commute to work
  95. Types of vacations user tends to go on
  96. Users who recently returned from a trip
  97. Users who recently used a travel app
  98. Users who participate in a timeshare

16.4 Survival Tips

  • Your brain can't handle walking and using your phone at the same time — so look up.
  • Eliminate your car's blind spots by adjusting your mirrors properly.
  • Heat transfers faster through liquid than gas, so keep warm by staying dry.
  • If you're lost, walking downhill raises your chances of finding help.
  • You can perform the Heimlich maneuver on yourself.
  • Keep maximum-strength anti-histamines in your wallet or bag when you go somewhere new.
  • Chewing aspirin during a heart attack can delay blood clots.
  • The limits of the human body tend to follow a "rule of three."
    • People can generally go three minutes without air, three hours without shelter in extreme weather environments, three days without water, and three weeks without food.
  • If you get hurt in a public place, single out one person for help to avoid the bystander effect.
  • A bright flashlight could be a good weapon against an attacker.
  • Super glue can temporarily seal a wound during an emergency.
  • If you get lost on a hike, try to find a fence or stream.
  • You can use condoms as makeshift water storage.
  • Picking out exits ahead of time will cut through your "normalcy bias."
  • Gray rings around the iris can signal high levels of cholesterol in the blood.

17 Photography

17.1 Editing

17.1.1 Fake 3D effect

To fake it:

  • Colors -> Components -> Decompose, RGB
  • move the red layer so it's slightly offset.
  • Layer -> Layer to Image Size
  • Colors -> Components -> Recompose

To make a real anaglyph 3d image:

Take two pictures next to each other. Set their image mode to greyscale. Use colors -> compose RGB and use the left image for the red channel and the right image for the green and blue channels.

17.1.2 GIMP Techniques

Soft light:

  1. Duplicate layer
  2. Gausian blur 30ish
  3. Screen mode blurred layer
  4. Mask paint as desired


  1. Base image (EV 0)
  2. Add dark layer image (EV -1)
  3. Add Greyscale layer mask
  4. Add light layer image (EV +1)
  5. Add Inverted Greyscale layer mask
  6. blend as desired

Check layer:

  1. Add Yellow layer - mode subtract
  2. Add White layer - mode Color
  3. Add Grey layer - mode Dodge
  4. Heal away

Isolate subject/hair:

  1. Select - Save to channel
  2. Copy layer and past into channel mask
  3. Edit channel mask with white for transparency
  4. Add layer mask to layer and use channel mask
  5. Final edits

Align images:

  1. Setting the blend mode of the top layer to “Difference” makes it much more obvious when image is perfectly aligned.
  2. This video from Scott Kelby shows how it’s done.

17.1.3 HDR's

  1. Still scenes work best. Since you are capturing different exposures of the same scene, any moving objects will appear "ghosted" in the merged image.
  2. Use a tripod to ensure image alignment between the different shots.
  3. Shoot at least 3 frames of the scene at different exposures – at least 2 E.V.s apart to cover a greater dynamic range – either with AutoExposure Bracketing, or by manually changing the shutter speed. If your "normal exposure" is 1/500 at f/5.6, shoot another one at 1/2000 at f/5.6 and the third at 1/125 at f/5.6 to get great detail in both the shadows and highlights.
  4. Change exposure by changing shutter speed, not ISO rating or aperture (f/stop), as both of these exposure-altering methods can have a negative impact on the final image quality.
  5. If you've got great detail in a single frame from your bracketed series – with detailed shadows and highlights – you may not need to merge the series. HDR really works best when it isn't possible to hold all the detail in a single frame.
  6. Have fun and share your results in our forum!


Light layer - > inverted grey scale Overlay light and dark layers

17.1.4 Photo sizes

General Strategies

  • Use 4:3 or 3:2 mostly
  • For a canvas print : 100px/in
  • Panorama: 2:1 or 3:1 ratio
  • Landscape portrait: 5:4 ratio
  • Use 1:1 ratio to emphasize minimalism


  • Facebook
    • Cover photo: 851x315
    • Profile photo: 180x180 (displays as 160x160)
    • Tab: 111x74
    • Link image: 1200x627
    • Image: 1200x1200
    • Highlighted/milestone image: 1200x77
  • Google+
    • Profile photo: 250x250
    • Cover photo: 2120x1192
    • Shared image: 800x600
  • Instagram max photo size is: 1080x1080
    • Profile photo: 161x161
    • Image viewed on desktop in lightbox as 612x612
    • Image feed: 510x510
    • Recommended posting: minimum size of 1080 wide by 566 to 1350 high
  • LinkedIn
    • Profile photo: 200x200
    • Cover photo: 646x220
  • Pinterest
    • Profile photo: 600x600
    • Pins: 600xinfinite
    • Board thumbnail: 222x150
  • Twitter
    • Header: 1500x500
    • Profile photo: 400x400
    • Image diplay size: 880x440 (recommended)
  • Youtube
    • Profile photo: 800x800
    • Channel art: 2560x1224
    • Custom video thumbnail: 1280x720


  • Vistaprint Standard Business Cards
    • Full Bleed Size (extend background colors to the edge to avoid unwanted white border)
      • 3.62" x 2.12"
      • 92 x 54 mm
      • 1085 x 635 pixels
    • Document Trim Size (finished size of document - keep important text inside this)
      • 3.50" x 2.00"
      • 89 x 51 mm
      • 1050 x 600 pixels

17.1.5 Post processing flow

Adjustment layers and masks let you fine-tune your JPEGs to make the most of your photos.

  1. Make Your First Adjustment Layer. Find your Layers palette and click on the New Adjustment Layer button to select your first adjustment. We’ll use Curves for all of these fixes. Elements users: you won’t be able to pick Curves, but try Levels to make your changes.
  2. The Sky Comes First. The sky comes first. Sample a point on the sky by clicking on it while holding down Ctrl (Command on a Mac) on your keyboard. Then hit the down arrow key to darken the sky until you like the result. Don’t worry about the rest of the image going dark. Click OK.
  3. When you create an Adjustment Layer, Photoshop automatically adds a mask (circled). This is great, because it saves you having to create one yourself. Paint on the mask to make sure only what you like is showing.
  4. Since you’re masking a smallish area, it’ll be much easier to cover up the whole Curves Adjustment Layer and then bring back what you like. To hide all the changes, type D to make sure the default colors are selected (that’s white as the foreground color, black as the background). Then hit Ctrl + Backspace (Command + Delete on a Mac) to fill the mask with black (circled).
  5. Get your paintbrush ready. Hit B to choose it. Slide the Hardness all the way down to zero. A really soft brush is key to saving time and letting you get pretty sloppy with your selections. Since it produces a feathered edge, you won’t have to be super precise, as you would with a Lasso or the Pen tool. A big size (600 pixels in this case) will reveal the fixed sky more quickly.
  6. Since the mask is filled in with black, painting with white (circled) will reveal what’s on the Adjustment Layer. Think of the mask as a window—the black is dirt and white is cleaning fluid, letting you see through it. Make sure your mask is selected (you can tell by the little black bars surrounding it), and paint with white onto the sky.
  7. Check out your Mask in the Layers Palette: As you paint with white, the icon shows a mini-map of your work. The beauty of masking is that if you uncover too much, you can easily cover it back up again. The trees went dark along with the sky, but that works. What doesn’t work so well is darkening of the woman’s head. So zoom in on it. Then type X to make the foreground color black. Shrink your brush (but keep it soft). Then paint to lighten her head up again.
  8. The dog in the foreground is the next issue: He’s blending in way too much and needs more contrast. Zoom in on him. Then make a new Curves Adjustment Layer. Sample his nose, then tap your down arrow key to darken. Now Sample a midtone area, like the part of his white fur that’s in shadow, and tap your up arrow key to brighten. Click OK.
  9. Once again, your whole image looks screwed up. But redo step 4 to cover your changes with black, then revisit steps 5, 6, and 7 to reveal the fixed dog. This time, choose a smaller brush, but keep it soft. The added contrast worked well on this dog, so zoom in and reveal it on the other three.
  10. One more problem: The bright green grass in the foreground draws the eye out of the picture. To tone it down, make a final Curves Adjustment Layer. Grab the top end of the curve and pull it down. Click OK, fill with black, get a big brush, and reveal the grass.


=============== Tone ===============

Follow these steps to achieve the ideal tone of your photos.

Curves was once one of Adobe Photoshop’s most complicated tools, but CS4’s version of the dialogue makes it a snap. Now anyone can use this powerful tool to improve a photo. Simply put, Curves graphs the tones in your image. Control the darkest ones by adjusting the left side of the graph, the brightest by adjusting the right: Pull down the curve on the left, and your darker tones will darken. Lift it on the right, and your brighter tones will brighten. Often, when you use Curves for contrast, your curve will be shaped like the letter S. Why use Curves when the less complex Levels tool or Brightness/Contrast slider seems to suffice? Because Curves makes nuanced adjustments to contrast that give you smoother results and more beautifully toned images.*Step 1* Your first step when editing or otherwise retouching a picture in Photoshop is to get the contrast right. With a boost in contrast, this flat image will start to sing. Adjustment Layers in CS4 are easier than in previous versions, so use them. Create a Curves Adjustment Layer by clicking on the Curves button in the Adjustments Panel (circled). When you choose that button, an Adjustment Layer automatically appears in the Layers Panel.

*Step 2 *As in Levels, it’s easy to add contrast when you use the histogram as a guide. Grab the black arrow (circled), and pull it to the right until it lines up with the beginning of the bumps on the left side of the histogram. This will ensure that the darkest tones in your photo are actually black. Then click on the white arrow, and drag it to the left until it lines up with the beginning of the lumps on the right (not shown), making the lightest tones in your photo close to true white.

Step 3 Now we have improved the image, but we can do more. The tacksharp pollen in this flower is the picture’s focal point. To make it really stand out, use it to determine the way you further refine the contrast. Zoom in. Then grab the little pointed finger in the top left corner of the Curves dialogue. Click on a bright point in your picture, and drag up. Watch as the whole image gets brighter, based on the tone you chose. Note, also, that the point on the Curve where your adjusted tone lies is now marked.

Step 4 Once you darken the shadows, you’ll really see your photo start to pop. With that little hand still selected, now click and drag down on a shadowy area of the pollen. Keep going until those tones are as dark as you like them.

Step 5 Finally, zoom out. Do you need further adjustments? Now that you added points to your curve, you can click on them directly and pull them up or down to refine your image. You can also adjust tones in your image, even if you don’t know where in the image they lie. In this case, the highlights and shadows are looking satisfactory, but it's clear the midtones could be a little brighter. These can be adjusted by working with the center of the curve. To make them brighter, click directly on the curve to add a point, and drag it upward until your photo is just the way you like it.*Quick Tip* Still confused by Curves? The best thing to do is experiment—pull up or down on different areas of the curve and watch what happens. If you’re not sure where to begin, try some presets, included for the first time in Photoshop CS4: Once in Curves, grab the Curves pulldown menu (initially set at Default). You’ll see a few options, some more aesthetically helpful than others. Choose Negative, and the curve line flips—now it goes from top left to bottom right, and all your picture’s tones are reversed. You probably won’t ever want that look, but watching it happen will help you understand how this tool really works.


=============== Make a normal background completely dark. ===============

Step 1 To darken the background but leave the subject alone, we’ll have to begin by making a selection of the bird. We’ll use the Quick Selection tool to do this. Type the A key to get the tool. Then start painting on the bird until it is nearly all selected. This first go-round is rough, so don’t worry about doing it perfectly.

Step 2 Now zoom in to the edges of the subject and start honing your selection. Stay in the Quick Selection tool, and hold down the Alt (Option on a Mac) key to get the Subtract from Selection tool. This time, paint in areas where you want to remove the selection. If you need a smaller brush, tap the left bracket key ([) on your keyboard. To make it bigger, tap the right bracket (]). In this case, the most difficult parts to get with the Quick Selection tool are the bird’s feet and wispy feathers. We’ll fix those later, so just do the best you can in this step.

Step 3 Now that you have a good selection, go to Select > Inverse, switching it from enclosing the subject to enclosing everything else—that is, the background. Create a Brightness/Contrast Adjustment Layer by going to Layer > New Adjustment Layer > Brightness/Contrast. This makes a mask in the shape of your selection, so your adjustments will apply only to the background. Then bring the Brightness down and Contrast up until the background goes black.

Step 4 You’ll immediately see where your selection looks good and where it doesn’t. Delicate feathers are hard to select with the blunt force of the Quick Selection tool. and since they should look as if they are against black, any color from the original background looks glaringly fake. To fix it, right-click on the Background Layer and choose Duplicate Layer. Then hit o on your keyboard to get the Sponge tool. In the options bar, choose Mode: Desaturate, and Flow: 100%. Zoom in, and with a large brush, paint away the distracting color.

Final Step Getting rid of errant color helps, but it doesn’t solve the problem of having a hard edge around soft feathers. So click on your mask again and hit B to get the Brush tool. In the options Bar, set the opacity to 50%. Set your foreground color to black (hit D, then X on your keyboard to do so), then paint on the feathery areas to bring them back in. If you go too far, hit X to switch to painting with white, and repaint to cover up your mistakes.

Note: When you’re making your final adjustments to the feathers, don’t spend too much time zoomed in beyond 100%. Sure, it’s easier to work very closely, but you may not be able to make out such fine details in your final print.


17.1.6 Steps for photo editing

  • Crop - Don't be afraid to crop - Content > Image quality
  • White balance
  • Selectively Dodge and Burn (change exposure) - Bring out the subject
  • Edit in 16bit/channel and convert back to 8 bit - Avoid color lines
  • Level and Straighten the photo
  • Take a break and come back before final save - Look at it with fresh eyes before saving.

17.2 Techniques

17.2.1 Landscape 3 different ways


  1. Lab mode can be your friend. Switch to it by going to Image>Mode>Lab Color.
  2. Make a curves adjustment layer. Then use the pull-down menu to switch to the "a" channel.
  3. Now Move the top point two notches in to the left, and the bottom point two notches in to the right.
  4. Change the "B" channel, and repeat Step 3. Click Ok. If the effect is too much, just lower the layer's opacity. Don't forget to switch back to RGB mode when you're finished.

Quick Tips: The quickest way to make an Adjustment Layer is to click the half-black, half-white circle at the bottom of your Layers palette, then pick the one you need.


  1. For creepy color, start by creating a Hue/Saturation Adjustment Layer.
  2. Check the colorize button on the bottom right. Set the Hue to 205 and the Saturation to 12. Click OK.
  3. Now change the blend mode of the Hue/Saturation layer from Normal to Color.
  4. Lower the layer opacity to about 65% to get that horror movie look.

Quick Tips: To see a grid with more boxes, Alt + Click the grid area when you're in the Curves Adjustment Layer, and more lines will show up. To get rid of them, Alt + Click again.


  1. Get started by again going to your Layers palette and making a Curves Adjustment Layer.
  2. Where it says channel, use the pull-down menu to select the Blue channel.
  3. Move the bottom left point to the right two notches, and the top right one down two notches.
  4. Then switch to the red channel and move the bottom left point up one notch and the top right point left one notch. Click OK. If you overdid it, just lower the opacity of your Adjustment Layer.

Quick Tips: When you're done adjusting and you like your picture, lose the Adjustment Layer by going to Layer > Flatten Image. Then save as usual.


17.2.2 Sunsets


Who doesn't love to take pictures of sunrises and sunsets? The tricky part is getting the right exposure: The extremes of the dark ground, the bright sun, and the variations in clouds can confound your camera's automatic metering system. A camera with exposure lock or manual aperture/ shutter control is invaluable. Here's how to use them:

  1. Expose for the sky. To record vibrant colors in the clouds and sky, meter only on the sky: Exclude the ground by pointing the camera up, lock in the exposure (or set it manually), then compose your image, and shoot. The clouds will wind up with rich medium tones in the picture, a good choice. Sometimes a sky 1 stop brighter than medium tone is a better choice, achieved by adjusting the exposure manually or by setting the exposure compensation dial to +1.
  2. Shut out the sun! If the sun is in the picture, set the exposure just as above, but absolutely keep the sun out of the frame when metering. If you meter with the sun in the frame, that supremely bright bad boy is going to fool your meter into saying "darker, please, darker," and your photo will be underexposed. This is where a spot- or limited-area meter comes in handy – aim it at a light-to-medium tone in the sky and proceed as above. For the sunrise at Glacier National Park's Lake McDonald, above, I spotmetered the yellow clouds just above the mountains and added 1 stop of exposure.
  3. Bracket, bracket, bracket! Bracketing means taking several otherwise identical shots at differing exposures. For sunrises/sunsets, bracket at least 1 stop on either side of your chosen exposure. One of them is bound to be good, and you can often get several different good images.


17.2.3 Posing guidelines

  1. Hands:
    • Girl’s fingers should be long and elegant.
    • Guys should have hands lightly fisted (like they are holding a small rock).
  2. Feet:
    • Feet hip width apart will give a look of strength
    • Feet at different angles or heights (on a step, chair etc) will give better “balance” to depth.
  3. Arms
    • Elbows bent express a comfortable casualness.
    • Arms straight give a feeling of formality and often stiffness (to be used with much caution)
  4. Head / Chin
    • Head tipped back slightly will generally give an attitude of “punk” (especially for guys, think, “bring it on”)
    • Head tipped back to the “high” shoulder will feel fun and flirty
    • Head down toward the “low” shoulder can express power or position (especially when shooting up at the subject).


  1. Legs
    • Legs spread hip width apart while standing will give an air of strength.
    • Generally while standing, one leg should hold the body weight; the other leg can be bent, or extended behind like a graceful dancer
  2. Shoulders
    • Should be on different “planes” (i.e. one slightly higher or lower than the other)
    • Shoulders square on will express a strong attitude.
  3. Joints
    • One rule: If it bends, bend it. This goes for elbows, knees, wrists, etc.
  4. Hips
    • Girls who stand with hips tilted forward will appear more slender


Here’s a quick posing tip if your subject is a little conscious of their waistline and want it to appear a little narrower than it really is (I’d put that at about 90% of us).

Get them to rotate their upper body slightly at the waist and you’ll find that it gives the impression of a thinner tummy area. It’s amazing what a simple twist can do! This is a popular technique with many red carpet celebs. Thighs

Another popular red carpet pose involves celebrities crossing one leg over in front of the other one. This has the effect of narrowing the thigh region a little (and/or making the celebrity look like they need a bathroom break).


Lastly, if you want to emphasize the bustline of your subject, get them to arch their shoulders back a little. This action naturally pushes the chest out a touch.

Of course combining these three techniques in the one shot can also leave your subject looking quite silly and needing a trip to the chiropractor! Use them with moderation or you’ll end up with a very unnatural looking pose.

Read more:

Read more:


‘Girl with a Pearl Earring’ by Vermeer

here’s the starting point that I use for most people.

  1. Sit people down in a chair or on a stool with their body facing to one side (not quite at right angles to you – but close to it).
  2. Set your camera up at eye level and start with a reasonably tight crop (I shoot with an 85mm lens)
  3. Get them to turn their head towards the camera – but not all the way
  4. Get them to turn their eyes the rest of the way to the camera
  5. Take the shot

Some of the variations to begin experimenting with include:

  • different facial expressions – serious, smiling, intense, laughing, sexy
  • changing the angle of the head - slightly tweaking the angling of their face can have a big impact
  • different framings – head shot, upper body shot and full length
  • different format – landscape/portrait
  • different shooting angle – raising the camera slightly and having them look up can add a feeling of vulnerability to a shot while lowering the camera can make the subject look more empowered and powerful
  • looking away from the camera - I prefer to take portraits with eye contact – but sometimes having the subject look away can dramatically impact the mood
  • light – I like to shoot with natural looking light but changing the direction and intensity of the light has a big impact
  • new positions – as the subject relaxes and I begin to see what suits them I start to try new poses. Rotating them to directly face the camera, moving hands into shots, looking over the back of a chair etc.
  • props – I don’t use many props but it’s generally only towards the end of a shoot that I’ll bring them in unless I’m shooting on location and they really add something.


How to Photograph Hands

  1. When posing a subject pay particular attention to their hands and encourage your model to keep them relaxed and their fingers separated.
  2. If your subject can’t seem to relax their hands – consider composing shots that don’t include the hands (head shots and upper body shots).
  3. Sometimes the best thing to do with hands is to give them something to hold or do. Consider using a prop (as long as it adds to and is relevant the shot and isn’t distracting) or have them rest upon some other element in the shot (a leg, a chair etc).
  4. Lastly – hands tend to look best when shot from the side. Front on shots of hands can often look quite blob like.

Read more:

17.2.4 Street Photography

103 Things I’ve Learned About Street Photography Published on August 31st, 2013 Written by: Eric Kim

  1. A good photo asks more questions than provides answers
  2. 35mm as a focal length is generally ideal for most street photographers. 28mm is too wide (most people don’t get close enough) and 50mm is too tight.
  3. My keeper ratio : one decent shot a month, one shot I am proud of in a year.
  4. “When in doubt, click.” – Charlie Kirk
  5. When in doubt, take a step closer.
  6. You will become a better photographer by asking people what they don’t like about your shots (rather than what they like).
  7. A harsh and constructive critique is better than a pat on the back.
  8. A good photo critique needs (at least) 4 sentences online. Preferably 8 sentences or more.
  9. It isn’t the quantity of social media followers you have that matters, rather then quality of followed you have that matters.
  10. Be consistent : stick with one camera, lens, film, or post processing approach to develop your style.
  11. Great photography projects generally take at least 5-10 years.
  12. Buy books, not gear.
  13. The only way money will make you happier in photography if you invest it into experiences (travel, workshops, teachers) rather than material things (cameras, lenses, gear).
  14. The best camera bag in street photography is no camera bag.
  15. “The decisive moment” is a myth. Even Henri Cartier-Bresson took at least 5 photos of scenes he found interesting and worked the scene to get the one memorable shot.
  16. Most famous photographers are only known for their 1-3 most popular images after they die. If you accomplish the same, you have done your job as a photographer.
  17. When shooting film, it is better to over expose than underexpose (film has more details in the highlights).
  18. When shooting digital, it is better to unexpose than overexpose (digital has more details in the shadows).
  19. Street photos of people just walking by billboards is boring.
  20. To become a great street photographer you must first understand what a great street photograph is. Study the masters.
  21. When shooting street photography with a DSLR, micro 4/3rds, or a compact and you don’t want to worry about technical considerations, just use “P” mode at ISO 1600.
  22. Projects are more meaningful than single images.
  23. Creating a photo book is the ultimate expression of a photographer.
  24. Shoot as if each day were your last.
  25. One camera, one lens is bliss.
  26. Grain is beautiful, noise is ugly.
  27. My favorite films are Kodak Tri-X (for black and white) and Kodak Portra 400 (for color).
  28. Bokeh in street photography is overrated. Shoot at f8-16
  29. With film, your first 10,000 photos are your worst. With digital, it is more like your first 1,000,000 are your worst.
  30. The secret of a memorable street photograph : capturing emotion.
  31. A street photograph without emotion is dead.
  32. No amount of post processing will make a crappy photograph into a good photograph.
  33. Wait at least 6 months to a year before uploading your images to the Internet, to truly understand if is a good photograph or not.
  34. When it comes to editing, remember to “kill your babies.”
  35. Cheesy titles in street photographs don’t make them any better.
  36. Watermarks in street photographs ruin the viewing experience for your audience.
  37. Buying a more expensive camera won’t make you a better street photographer.
  38. Shooting film will teach you more discipline in street photography (and may lead you to become a better photographer).
  39. Street photography is the most challenging genre of photography out there.
  40. A great street photograph needs strong content (what’s inside the frame) and form (composition).
  41. Shoot for yourself, not others.
  42. Spend less time on gear review sites and more time on
  43. You can never spend too much money on photo books.
  44. You are your worst critic. Always get critique from others, they will help spot the holes in your photography.
  45. Sticking with one focal length for a long time will help you better pre visualize your shot and master framing.
  46. You are only as good as your worst (public) street photograph.
  47. Secret to good multi subject shots : don’t overlap your subjects and look for emotional gestures.
  48. How to improve your framing : don’t crop for a year.
  49. How to become a better editor : don’t upload photos to social media for a year.
  50. Try to shoot at eye level (or extremely above or below) your subjects. So crouch when taking photos of people sitting down, shorter than you, or kids. Or shoot from a very high vantage point.
  51. 99% of street photographs are ruined by messy backgrounds.
  52. To get cleaner street photographs, first find a clean background and then wait for your subjects to enter the scene.
  53. If your mom likes your street photographs, your photos are probably generic and boring.
  54. Always carry a camera with you.
  55. Street photographs don’t have to have people in them (but generally are more interesting with them in it).
  56. You don’t need a Leica to shoot street photography. Be grateful for what you have and use what you got.
  57. Spend 99% of your time editing your photos (choosing your best images) and only 1% of your time post processing them.
  58. Style in street photography is a combination of having consistent equipment (camera and focal length) as well as “look” (film or post processing style) and content (the subjects you generally photograph).
  59. It is better to over shoot a scene then under shoot a scene.
  60. “Shoot from the gut, edit with the brain” – Anders Petersen
  61. It is always nice to have a shooting partner when out on the streets.
  62. “Shoot who you are.” – Bruce Gilden
  63. Taking a photo of an interesting character isn’t enough. Try to capture them in an interesting context or with a good gesture.
  64. Don’t take photos of homeless people and street performers. They rarely make good photos.
  65. Don’t worry if your photos qualify as “street photography” or not. Just aim to make meaningful and memorable images.
  66. Telling the truth isn’t the job of a street photographer (it is for the photo journalist).
  67. Don’t be afraid to interact with your subjects when shooting on the streets. Not all of your photos have to be candid.
  68. You can make interesting posed street photographs. But don’t pretend to your audience that they are candid.
  69. There is no one “right” definition of street photography. Define it personally for yourself and just shoot.
  70. You often can’t control the scene when you are shooting in the streets, but you can control whether you share the image or not. Case in point : don’t make excuses for the small failures in your photos, just edit out those shots.
  71. Don’t respect the critique of other photographers unless you have seen their portfolio.
  72. Zoom lenses will prevent you from becoming a great street photographer (you will never master one focal length). Stick to primes (preferably a 35mm full frame equivalent). 28mm and 50mm are okay too (if you can use it well).
  73. A single photo can’t tell a story (it doesn’t have a beginning, middle, or an end). Only photo series or projects can do that.
  74. The photos you take are more of a reflection of yourself (than of the people you photograph).
  75. The importance of looking at great photos: you are what you eat. Fine french cuisine = great photos in books, galleries, or exhibitions. Junk food = most photos on Instagram, Flickr, Facebook (not always, but mostly).
  76. 99% of people on the Internet don’t know what a great street photograph is. Don’t always trust the comments, likes, and favorites you get from the Internet on social media sites. Rather, stick around in street photography critique groups (or private ones).
  77. You will find the best street photography opportunities in the least expected places.
  78. When you see an interesting person or a scene, don’t just take one photo and move on. Aim to take at least 5 photos (or more if possible).
  79. Beware using telephoto lenses in street photography. Remember, “Creepiness is proportional to focal length.”
  80. Incorporate your own reflections and shadows in street photography. They often make interesting images (look up Lee Friedlander).
  81. Photos shot head on have more energy and drama than photos shot from the side.
  82. A brief list of great street photographers: Garry Winogrand, Lee Friedlander, Henri Cartier-Bresson, William Klein, Daido Moriyama, Diane Arbus, Weegee, Bruce Gilden, Alex Webb, Joel Meyerowitz, Martin Parr, Josef Koudelka,
  83. After taking a photo of a stranger, make it a rule to look at them, smile, and say thank you.
  84. I never regret taking photos. I always regret not taking photos.
  85. It is better to beg for forgiveness than ask for permission.
  86. Be confident while you are shooting and rarely will you have any issues. Be nervous while shooting and you will ruin into many problems.
  87. The only person you should try to impress with your photos is yourself.
  88. The benefit of getting eye contact in your photos : eyes are the windows to the soul.
  89. Don’t make photos. Make connections.
  90. The best place to shoot street photography isn’t New York, Tokyo, or Paris. The best place to shoot is your backyard.
  91. See your scenes with your eyes and shoot with your heart.
  92. If you are working on a project and photographers discourage you by saying “it has been done before” ignore them. Nobody has done it like you before.
  93. Street photography is applied sociology with a camera.
  94. If you aim to get recognition for your photography you will never get it.
  95. If someone gets upset when you take their photograph, offer to email them a copy. Carrying around business cards always come in handy.
  96. Don’t just look at photos, read into them.
  97. To double your success rate in street photography, double your failure rate.
  98. The photos you decide not to show are more important than the photos you decide to show.
  99. Rather than creating photos to please your audience, find an audience that will be pleased by your photos.
  100. Street photography isn’t a contest about how many followers, viewers, followers, exhibitions, books, cameras, lenses, and fame you have. There are no winners and losers. Collaborate with one another instead of competing with one another.
  101. Giving away my prints and cameras has brought me more joy than selling it for money.
  102. The friendships I have made through street photography is mode valuable than any of the photos I have ever taken.
  103. Luck is when preparation meets opportunity – Seneca. Make your own luck.

17.2.5 Remove people or noise from photos

Take multiple images with tripod

Using Imagemagic: (the fast way)

  • Put all aligned images in same folder
  • convert *.jpg -evaluate-sequence median OUT.jpg

Using GIMP/GMIC: (the slow way)

  • Load up each of your aligned images as a layer in GIMP, then run G’MIC.
  • Then go to Layers → Blend [median] and make sure the Input Layers are All visibles, and optionally output to New layer(s).


17.3 Randomness

17.3.1 Photography Quotes:

  1. “Be daring, be different, be impractical, be anything that will assert integrity of purpose and imaginative vision against the play-it-safers, the creatures of the commonplace, the slaves of the ordinary.” – Peter Lindbergh
    1. “The important thing is not the camera but the eye.” – Alfred Eisenstaedt
    2. “There are two people in every photograph: the photographer and the viewer” – Ansel Adams
    3. “To me, photography is the simultaneous recognition, in a fraction of a second, of the significance of an event as well as of a precise organization of forms that give that event its proper expression.” – Henri Cartier-Bresson
    4. “I always thought good photos were like good jokes. If you have to explain it, it just isn’t that good.” – Anonymous
    5. “If your photographs aren’t good enough, you’re not close enough.” – Robert Cappa (Robert Cappa sadly died from stepping on a land mine ‘It is possible to get too close!’)
    6. “A lot of photographers think that if they buy a better camera they’ll be able to take better photographs. A better camera won’t do a thing for you if you don’t have anything in your head or in your heart.” -Arnold Newman
    7. “Pictures, regardless of how they are created and recreated, are intended to be looked at. This brings to the forefront not the technology of imaging, which of course is important, but rather what we might call the eyenology (seeing).” -Henri Cartier-Bresson
    8. “The word ‘art’ is very slippery. It really has no importance in relation to one’s work. I work for the pleasure, for the pleasure of the work, and everything else is a matter for the critics.” -Manuel Alvarez Bravo
  2. “People say photographs don’t lie, mine do.” -David LaChapelle
  3. “The single most important component of a camera is the twelve inches behind it.” – Ansel Adams
  4. “You cannot depend on your eyes if your imagination is out of focus” – Mark Twain

–Read more:

17.4 Old-Photography Notes   edit

Go to Home Depot or a Glidden paint dealer. Get the "Seal Grey" sample card #GLN46, about 2.5x3.5"

Pretty darn (real) close to the 18% grey stripe on my photovision digital calibration target.

Dealing with People Issues

Model Issue / Resolution

Round or Fat Face Pose model 3/4 to the camera Use short lighting Raise camera angle slightly Thin Face Pose model facing the camera Wrinkly Face, Deep Lines Use softer, frontal lighting Blemishes or Scars Shadow problem areas, or reposition Big Nose Raise chin slightly Pose nose straight into lens Small nose Pose nose at an angle to camera Square jaw 3/4 pose, higher camera angle Multiple chins Stretch neck, lean head toward camera Different sized eyes Largest eye close to camera, other in shadow Largest eye away creates evening effect Deep set eyes Light into eyes Blinkers Time shot after subject blinks Large Ears 3/4 pose Only show one ear Shadow second ear Eye Glass Wearers Shoot with empty frames Position glasses away from lights Bring lights in from very high, or bounce off ceiling People with Dark Hair Check to make sure that background doesn't show through hair, restyle if necessary.

Basic Positioning Tips

  • Position body and head facing different directions.
  • Masculine pose: tilt top of head toward far shoulder.
  • Feminine pose: tilt top of head toward near shoulder. Note: Women can typically pull off either of these two poses.

Hand Posing Tips

  • Don't show flat surfaces of hands, show finger edges.
  • Fingers should not be facing into the lens.
  • Bend fingers at all joints.
  • Male hands should be more closed, female should be more open.
  • Use opposing diagonals: ie head resting on arm; each pointing in opposite directions.
  • Fingers should not be intertwined.
  • Never rest a head on a fist.

Stuff you should have available for your models

  • Fresh combs
  • A mirror
  • Hair spray
  • Hair clips

Session Plan

  • Start with head shots.
  • Move to head on hands, let the model pose naturally.
  • Finish with 3/4 and full length.

Shooting Groups of People

  • As a rule, the image should express a tone that all in the group are unified; either touching each other physically, or visually overlapping.

Clothing Choices

  • Everyone should have the same toned clothing, either warm or cold.
  • Brightly clothed individuals should be placed in the middle.

Posing Tips

  • Make men a little taller than women.
  • Stagger head heights.
  • Pose groups one person at a time, in relation to each other.
  • Pose men to the right of the frame, women to the left.
  • Open Poses are defined as images with physical or visual space between people. Closed Poses are defined as images where individuals overlap each other, with no visual space between them. Note: Mixing Open and Closed Poses works well for large groups.

Posing Couples

  • Front to Front Pose - fronts of both people facing, or touching the other.
  • Fronts facing forward - fronts of both people facing forward, possibly at an angle, one front to the other's back.
  • Avoid space between heads to create intimacy.
  • Use lots of negative space around couples in the frame.

Suggestions for Lighting Match the mood of image to lighting.

  • High key –> happy
  • Low key –> dramatic

An Example of a High Key Lighting Setup (four light setup)

  • Main and fill lights close to the same output (1:1 to 2:1 max ratio).
  • White clothing, white background.
  • Overexpose background by 1 stop.
  • Point background lights at opposite edge of background.
  • Meter background at its center, set background lights to +1 stop main (ie. f11).
  • Subject should be halfway between camera and background.
  • Two umbrellas should be the main source, equal powered, and when combined rated at f8.
  • Shoot at f8.

17.5 Add CYMK to GIMP

Install Adobe ICC Profiles The procedure is as follows:

  • Download Adobe ICC Profiles
  • Unzip the file and you will get the Adobe ICC Profiles folder containing two subfolders: RGB Profiles and CMYK Profiles
  • Rename the folder as ColourProfiles and copy it to C:\Program Files\GIMP-2.0\.
  • Then in each of the sub-folders, right-click the color profiles of your choice and install them.

Install the Seperate + plug-in:

17.6 My GIMP Processing

  1. Add visibility
  2. Duplicate layers x3
    1. Screen and remove visibility
    2. Curve colors to dark, add layer mask greyscale copy, make overlay
    3. Curve colors to light, add layer mask greyscale copy (check invert), make overlay
  3. Balance layers until happy
  4. Make new from visible
    1. Straighted layer
    2. Crop layer
  5. Sharpen if necessary
  6. Adjust brightness/contrast
  7. Adjust any saturation/lightness
  8. Export

17.7 Advice for beginner photographers for 2020   edit

Move to photography

  1. Let's begin with the most difficult one: Understand that the image the camera captured is not the same as the subject in front of you. It's actually different. Often I think beginners see something interesting, point the camera at it, and press the shutter. "I took a picture of a good subject, therefore it must be a good photo." But the photo is more than the subject, it is a fully-realized 2-D composition. Learn to see the entire image you took. Look at the background, the foreground, the corners, the center the perimeter, everything. How do all the parts work together? Where is empty space, and where is busy space, and how do those relate to each other in a purely visual way? Learn to see how (for example) railroad tracks or a fence visually become a line which lead your eye to a certain spot, or how a lamp becomes a bright spot which attracts your eye, or how an object on the left balances an object on the right. Struggle to see the entire 2D image as a unified composition. Your photo is similar to a painting, in the sense that the placement of every element should be deliberately chosen. (This is actually much, much more difficult than it might seem at first to even understand, much less to master, so don't feel bad if you don't get it right away).
  2. This piece of advice comes from a photo workshop I took with Jack Dykinga: "work the scene." Don't just take one photo of a thing. Take several. Take several more. Try different angles. Try closer. Further. The goal here is to make it better. Then make it even better. Then, dammit, make it still better. The goal here isn’t to “spray and pray” by shooting randomly and hoping something good comes of it. The goal is to thoughtfully, to incrementally take better and better shots of your subject. And to give yourself multiple options to choose from, in a deliberate way. It might only be later, in post that it becomes apparent that the vertical orientation works better than the horizontal orientation, for example.
  3. Another bit of advice from Jack Dykinga: in landscape photography, look for edges. Where the sea meets the sand, where the seaweed ends and the rock begins, etc.
  4. When you see something interesting to photograph, think about what in particular interests you about it. Is it the color? The symmetry? the ugliness? The beauty? The majesty of the sea? The cuteness of the kitten? The speed of the racing car? Try to emphasize that through your height, your shutter speed, your lens choice, your distance from the subject, everything. Everything should be a choice, and should contribute to the image.
  5. Don't hold your device a certain way because that is the device's default (vertically for smartphones or horizontally for most cameras). Hold it the way that works best for the subject. Often that means vertical for portraits and horizontal for landscapes, but not always. Maybe try both vertical and horizontal for a given image. Maybe a square composition works best. Really look at the scene, see what orientation works better for the shot in front of you.
  6. "Rule of thirds" is great, but it's not an ironclad rule to be imposed everywhere. It’s just one compositional technique of many. There's also bilateral symmetry, radial symmetry, patterns, leading lines, framing, negative space, contrasting color, foreground/background, lots more. They often work together. Thread about rule of thirds here
  7. Lighting is everything in photography (well, nearly so!). When the light is bad, it might be best to put your camera aside. Take out the camera when the light is good. Don't be afraid to add light, if you need to. Change your position, if the light is better that way. Go outdoors when the sun is low, not when the sun is high in the sky. I'd bet at least seven of out ten threads about "how is this picture taken" or "how can I process this better" are really questions about lighting, not processing techniques, as many beginners seem to think.
  8. In portraiture, don't just bullseye the head in the dead-center of the frame, especially for verticals. Consider the empty (negative) space that results above the subject's head. Do you really need that? Does it contribute to the story? Consider cropping dead space which doesn't help tell the story. Consider the relationship of the subject to the background. Does the background tell their story (their work tools, their dorm room)? I tend to think just a little bit of background is enough. On the other hand, sometimes a lot of background helps tell the story. Arnold Newman is a master of the off-center portrait with a lot of background, here are some examples. If the person is small (or large) in the frame does that contribute to the story you're telling?
  9. The basics of photography are the "exposure triangle:" aperture, shutter speed, and ISO. Now, you don't really have to learn these, you can set your camera to do that automatically, and that's fine. No judgement. But you'll never have full control over making your image, and you'll limit what you can and cannot achieve if you don't understand this. (google around for tutorials, this post is not about that, but it seemed so foundational that it needed mentioning).
  10. Don't just learn about photography, you need to physically practice operation of the camera. Like a pianist or typist, who has to know how to use the keyboard without thinking about it. But the goal is not simply to be skilled at using the keyboard, the goal is to play a piece of music fluidly without the keyboard getting in the way. You do need to practice, and your practice can be just sitting in the backyard with family and taking portraits. Or taking photos of your dog, or flowers in the backyard. These may not be great or even good photos, but that's fine. You don't have to show them to anybody, or even keep them at all; the goal is to practice operating the camera so that it's as natural as driving a car or playing a piano.
  11. By the same token, a good photo isn't simply about technical excellence. In the same way a good story is enhanced by the author's interesting word choices but not just about that, a good photo is technically adept but also tells a story or evokes emotion or enables the viewer to see something in a new way.
  12. When you get something that you have put a lot of effort into, post it to r/photocritique for feedback. Not "my first portrait", but maybe "my 80th and best portrait". If I'm going to put effort into a critique, I want to have a sense that you put at least some decent effort in creating the image. (I mean, if it's a truly beginner shot, I could just paste this post as my reply!)
  13. When you're not actively shooting, google for photo tips, read and watch tutorials, check out books from the library, join a photo club in your town. After you are confident you well understand the basics of how to operate your camera (shutter speed, aperture, and ISO, how to set them, and how they relate to each other), sign up for a workshop or class. All the best learning experiences I have had have been shooting live in the field with more experienced photographers.
  14. Don't only look at "how to" tutorials. Look at photography. Look at paintings. Go to art museums and galleries. Look at composition. Painting is a really interesting model, because the painter obviously controls every element of the image. Photography isn't really much different, because …
  15. A good photograph can come from serendipity, but it also very often comes from decisions made before the shoot, during the shoot, and after the shoot. The difference between "making" an intentional photograph and "taking" a snapshot is the intention. Control all the variables as much as you can. You choose when to shoot, in terms of what time of year, what time of day, what specific moment. You choose where to stand, which gear to modify the situation, etc etc. Make it, don't take it.
  16. As far as post-processing, my philosophy is “I don’t care what the camera captured. I want to see the scene that was in your head when you took the picture.” Don’t be afraid to edit the image to make it look how you want it to look like. Make the grey sky blue, make the bricks contrasty, make those freckles into a motley black texture, add Godzilla to the scene, if that's what your creative heart desires.
  17. People will often advise you not to overdo post-processing. I say: hogwash. When you are a beginner, you should overdo everything. What does "too much HDR" look like? Too much saturation? Too much contrast? Vibrance? Clarity? By doing "too much" you learn what the tools do. It's better to do "too much" than not to do enough. Conversely, if you are too conservative and are constantly afraid of overdoing things, you won't have as good an understanding of what the tools do, what is enough, and what is "too much". Maybe adding a little more clarity will help the image; don't be afraid to try it. Don't limit your creativity before you even begin. Don't be timid. Be bold! That's the path to creativity.

18 Projects

18.1 Design thinking

Design thinking is a five-step process:

  1. Empathize: Learn what the issues are.
  2. Define the problem: Which question are you going to answer?
  3. Ideate: Generate possible solutions.
  4. Prototype: Abandon perfection and either build your project or develop a plan.
  5. Test and get feedback from others.

19 References

19.1 Activities to do with the kids   QuickRef

  • Watch Rockets - SpaceX/ULA launches
  • Aiguille Rock Climbing
  • Race track/Demolition Derby
  • Dunes
  • Use the telescope
  • Paint with a twist/Paint on canvases
  • Learn GIMP
  • Minecraft Programing
  • Read books
  • Catch animals: Lizards, Crabs, Grasshoppers, Snakes
  • Practice Math, Ecology, Biology, Astronomy
  • Music - learn guitar or keyboard
  • Yard work/Landscaping - Figure out flowers, strategies, etc
  • Science Museum visits
  • Community Pool
  • 3D printing at library
  • Go Roller Skating
  • Birding - identify local birds, hear their chirps
  • Paddleboard
  • Build something together
  • Beach trips - see ecology, erosion, tides, etc
  • Visit the library

Resources with ideas:

19.2 Amazon Merch

19.2.1 Artwork Details

Templates are organized by print dimensions. For example, all t-shirts, sweatshirts, long sleeve t-shirts and the back of pullover hoodies are in one template. The front of the hoodies is in a different template because it requires a different artwork dimension.

All artwork files must meet these specifications for a successful upload into our platform:

  • sRGB
  • Transparent PNG
  • File size does not exceed 25MB

Artwork Dimensions To print on all of the products available, you will need 3 different artwork file dimensions. Below are a list of the dimensions, products to which they are applied to, and downloadable templates.

4500px by 5400px T-shirts - front and back Women's v-neck t-shirt - front and back Baseball t-shirts - front and back Tank tops - front and back Long sleeve t-shirts - front and back Crewneck sweatshirt - front and back Pullover & Zip Hoodie - back only

19.3 Amazon Prime benefits


  • Exclusive savings at Whole Foods Market: Deep discounts on select popular products, an additional 10% off hundreds of sale items throughout Whole Foods Market stores and 2-hour delivery in select cities. 5% Back for eligible Prime members with the Amazon Prime Rewards Visa Signature Card. Download the Whole Foods Market app and scan your QR code to start saving.
  • Prime Wardrobe: You can now try before you buy from eligible items across women’s, men’s, kids’, and baby clothing, shoes, and accessories. You get seven days to try-on the items at home and you will only be charged for the items you decide to keep. Shipping and returns are free.
  • Amazon Key In-Car, in-home Delivery: As a Prime member, get your Amazon packages delivered securely inside your home or into your vehicle parked at home, at work or near other locations in your address book. Available in over 35 cities for supported vehicles.
  • Amazon Day Delivery: Prime members can now receive orders on the day they choose. Simply pick a day that works for you, and we’ll deliver everything on your Amazon Day. Free to all Prime members.
  • Updated benefits
  • Free Same-Day & One-Day Delivery: Now available in over 8,000 cities and towns nationwide. Check your zip code to see which options are available.
  • Prime Now: Free 2-hour delivery on thousands of items. Shop from Whole Foods Market stores in select cities. Now delivering in over 30 cities nationwide.
  • Amazon Fresh: Expanded product offerings including meal kits and select Whole Foods Market products now available for delivery. 1-click reorder option now available.


  • Prime Video: New original movies and TV shows including Jack Ryan, The Big Sick, The Marvelous Mrs. Maisel, The Romanoffs and Sneaky Pete (new season) have been added to Prime. Stream at no extra cost.
  • Prime Music: Alexa is now available in the Amazon Music app for iOS and Android. Listen to over two million hand-curated songs and thousands of playlists and stations, always ad-free and on-demand.
  • Twitch Prime: Get free games and in-game loot / content from games including Apex Legends and Vain Glory every month and a Twitch Channel Subscription.
  • Amazon Photos: Prime Photos is now Amazon Photos and offers free unlimited full resolution photo storage and 5GB of video storage for Prime members. Now use just your voice to view photos on Fire TV and Echo Show.

19.4 Bee Stuff   bees

  • A colony should never have less than the equivalent of two deep frames of stores
  • One frame of bees is a brood frame's worth of bees - giving a close covering of both sides of the comb from corner to corner.

Development of bees:

Development Worker Queen Drone
Hatching of egg 3 3 3
Cell sealed 8-9 8 10
Emerges from cell 21 16 24
Mature/Ready to mate - 20 37

19.4.1 Bee Types

  1. Italian


    • Worker Italian bees are light in color while the queen is a bit darker, which makes her easy to locate. Workers bees also have alternating stripes on their abdomen.


    • Originally from the Apennine Peninsula in Italy, Italian bees were introduced to America in 1859 and quickly replaced the original black or German bees brought over by the first colonists.


    • Italian bees are the most popular bees to order in North America. They are known for being gentle and good honey producers. They are typically reared in the south and have difficulty in colder climates, as they need to consume extra food to compensate for not forming a tight cluster the way other honey bee types do. Italian bees are strong foragers and do a great job keeping their hive clean.
    • On the down side, Italian bees have a tendency to swarm and their sense of direction isn’t as strong as other bees, so they may drift from one colony to another and frequently rob. This can contribute to the spread of diseases between hives.

    When to Choose Italian Bees

    • Italian bees are a great choice for new beekeepers due to their gentle nature and abundant honey-producing abilities. They’re also easily accessible for purchase in packages, making them ideal for someone just starting as a beekeeper.
  2. Russian


    • Russian bees are dark brown to black in color and the yellow part of the abdomen is more pale.


    • Russian bees originated in the Primorsky region, which is also home to Varroa and Tracheal mites. As such, they’ve developed a natural tolerance to these hive pests. Due to this tolerance, the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) brought them to the US in June 1997 to breed mite tolerance into US bee stock. They went on sale to the general public in 2000.


    • Russian bees are highly resistant to mites and accustomed to cold climates. As such, they overwinter well. Unfortunately, they also have a tendency to swarm, so it’s important for the beekeeper to provide extra space in the hive to prevent unwanted swarming.
    • Russian bees are highly sensitive to the amount of nearby foraging available. They will cease producing brood in times of dearth, which may be beneficial in climates where the amount of food available is dependent upon seasons.
    • Russian bees tend to be a bit more aggressive, although this doesn’t always mean stinging. They’ve been observed engaging in head butting rather than stinging potential threats and guard their hive vigilantly, making them less likely to be robbed.

    When to Choose Russian Bees

    • Russian bees are fairly easy to purchase in packages and are a great choice for beekeepers in colder climates. Beekeepers need to be comfortable with a slightly more aggressive demeanor, but assuming bee gear is worn, this isn’t of great concern.
  3. Cordovan


    • Cordovan bees are technically a subset of Italian bees with more yellow coloring. They’re also a little more gentle than their Italian cousins and slightly more likely to rob. They are quite striking to observe, with their bright yellow bodies and lack of stripes.


    • It is not clear what caused the Cordovan bees to veer off from Italian strains and become their own race of bees. In theory, this could happen with any of the different bee types, but thus far in America it’s only been observed with Italian bees.


    • Other than being somewhat gentler and more prone to robbing, these bees behave just like the Italians they evolved from. They are hard to find in packages, unlike the Italians, so often considered as more wild.

    When to Choose Cordovan Bees

    • As Cordovan bees are not typically available in packages, beekeepers seeking them will need to be willing and able to catch a swarm. For beekeepers in colder climates, it is unlikely that a wild swarm of Cordovan bees will be available since they do better in warm weather.
  4. Caucasian


    • Caucasian bees are silver-gray to dark brown in color. They have a longer tongue than many other bee types and are therefore able to take advantage of more nectar sources.


    • Caucasian bees are originally from the high valleys of the Central Caucus region. This region is between the Black and Caspian seas, making them highly cold tolerant.


    • Caucasian bees are known for high propolis production. The propolis they produce is soft and sticky, which can make it hard for beekeepers to inspect the hive. They stop producing brood in the fall and tend to overwinter quite well. In addition, because they’re from a cold region they are able to forage on colder days than other bee races.
    • Caucasian bees show some resistance to European Foul Brood and are not overly inclined to swarm. Due to their high propolis production, they are not known for being honey comb producers and they tend to conserve their honey stores as a result. Finally, they are susceptible to Nosema and tough to find in packages, though it is possible.

    When to Choose Caucasian Bees

    • Beekeepers in colder climates who aren’t terribly concerned about obtaining a honey harvest would do well with Caucasian bees.
  5. Carniolan


    • Carniolan bees are dark with brown spots or bands on their abdomen. They’re slightly smaller than other races of bees, but that doesn’t seem to correlate to their ability to forage and bring pollen and nectar stores back to the hive.


    • Carniolan bees come from the Austrian Alps, Yugoslavia, and Danube Valley regions. They can be found across much of Eastern Europe including Hungary, Croatia, and Bosnia-Herzegovina.


    • Carniolan bees are incredibly gentle and easy to work with. Due to their region of origin, they are more likely to forage on cold, wet days than other types of bees and rank among the best in overwintering.
    • In addition, they use very little propolis and build up rapidly in the spring. Carniolan bees are also adept at handling dearth as they adjust brood production based on the availability of food. They are a little more likely to swarm than Italians, so it’s important to be sure they have plenty of room.
    • When it comes to hive diseases and pests, Carniolan bees tend to be quite adept at fending off parasites and show good resistance to some diseases.

    When to Choose Carniolan Bees

    • Their docile nature makes Carniolan bees an excellent choice for a beginner beekeeper, particularly those more interested in helping bees than harvesting honey. Beekeepers at any level who live in cold climates and seeking a bee hardy enough to withstand the winters will also benefit from Carniolan bees.
  6. Buckfast


    • Buckfast bees are yellow to brown in color and resemble what many people immediately think of when picturing a honeybee.


    • Buckfast bees are actually a hybrid. They were developed in the 20th century by Brother Adam of Buckfast Abbey in southwest England. The stock was imported to the United States by way of Canada and is now readily available in the US.


    • Buckfast bees are resistant to Tracheal mites and do well in cool climates. They are very gentle and easy to work with and are excellent honey producers. They have a low tendency to swarm and are economical in the use of winter stores. Cold, wet winters are the norm for Buckfast bees, so they’re accustomed to building up the hive size quickly in the spring.

    When to Choose Buckfast Bees

    • Beekeepers in cool, damp climates will enjoy keeping Buckfast bees. Although not as popular among commercial beekeepers as Italian or Carniolan bees, Buckfast bees are a great choice for backyard hobbyists who’d like to get a little honey out of the deal.
  7. Africanized


    • Africanized honey bees are fuzzy and brownish in color. They look similar to their Italian counterparts, making it tough to know if a hive has been taken over by Africanized genetics.


    • Africanized honey bees are actually a hybrid. They were created in Brazil by crossing the African bee with Italian bees in the 1950s as a way to increase honey production. In 1957, 26 of these experimental swarms escaped quarantine and quickly took over South America. In 1985, they made their way to the US and have since spread through most of the south.


    • Africanized honey bees are known for being highly aggressive and, unlike their more docile cousins, will chase a person up to a quarter of a mile if they perceive a threat. Their stings are more toxic.
    • There are more than 1,000 documented cases of Africanized bees killing humans and other large animals, such as horses. They begin foraging younger than other honey bee types and frequently produce more honey. They also reproduce faster than other honey bee types, meaning they require more food.

    When to Choose Africanized Bees

    • Never. Even for the most experienced beekeeper they are incredibly dangerous and aren’t worth the risk.

19.4.2 Bee Feed

  • 1:1 mix
    • 3/4 cup cane/white sugar
    • Boiling water until 1 cup
  • 1:2 mix
    • 1 cup sugar
    • 2 cups water

19.4.3 Bee Hive Body Plans

1x8" or 2x10" Pine board:

  • (A) - Hive body sides (x2): 3/4 x 6-5/8 x 19-7/8 (or
  • (B) - Hive body ends (x2): 3/4 x 6-5/8 x 14-3/4
  • 1-3/4" nails
  • Glue
  • Paint

Body Components:

  Assembled Assembled Board length Board Length
  Width (in) Length (in) (A) (B)
8 - Frame 13-3/4 19-7/8 19-7/8 12-1/4
10 - Frame 16-1/4 19-7/8 19-7/8 14-3/4

Hive body Height (Assembled)

Body Type Height (in)
Medium 6-5/8
Deep 9-5/8

19.5 Crested Gecko


  • DOB: 03/10/2017

19.6 Dog Joring Verbal Commands

Since skijoring and bikejoing requires you to surrender physical control of your dog, you must substitute physical guidance with verbal guidance. Both your safety and your dog’s safety requires the understand and obedience of verbal commands.

  • Stop / Whoa. - Tells your dog to stop moving.
  • Hike / Hike On / Let’s Go / Lead / Pull. - Tells your dog to get going!
  • Wait / Stand. - A reminder to your dog to stand still and not move forward.
  • Hup Hup / Hike Hike / Quick Quick / Pick It Up. - Tells your dog to go faster.
  • Slow. - Tells your dog to slow down.
  • Leave it / Get On. - Tells your dog to ignore a distraction and continue moving.
  • Gee / Right. - Tells your dog to move towards the right.
  • Haw / Left. - Tells your dog to move towards the left.
  • Straight. - Tells your dog to continue straight through intersections without turning.
  • Yield. - Move off the trail. This command is often used when another musher or individual is intersecting with you.

Bonus Commands

  • Cross. - Tells your dog to cross to the other side of the path.
  • Abit. - A slight turn. Combine with other commands. For example, Gee Abit means take a light right at the fork.
  • Visit. - Tells your dogs when it’s OK to interact with other dogs.
  • Take A Break. - Tells dogs to relax for a bit and calm down.

19.7 Family Notes

19.7.1 Marcus shoe size

  • 10.5-11.5

19.8 Florida Emergency Assistance

    • To apply for FEMA assistance visit: or call 1-800-621-FEMA (1-800-621-3362) TTY: 1-800-462-7585. To find the nearest FEMA Disaster Recovery Center visit: DRCLocator
    • If you need emergency help call 9-1-1.
    • If you need supplies, such as food, water, or ice, please contact your county emergency management at: http://www.floridadisaste or by phone at (850) 815-4001 for the location of the nearest distribution center. Your county emergency management can provide up-to-date information about shelters and local distribution centers for food and supplies.
    • If you know of a senior who needs assistance call the Florida Department of Elder Affairs hotline at 1-800-96-ELDER (1-800-963-5337). To report elder abuse, call 1-800-96-ABUSE (1-800-962-2873).
    • Veterans in need of assistance or in need of their medication can contact the Veteran Disaster Hotline at 1-800-507-4571 or go to any VA medical facility for assistance.
    • If you or someone you know is experiencing emotional distress please call the Disaster Distress Helpline at 1-800-985-5990 or text TalkWithUs to 66746 to connect with a trained counselor. You may also visit: for more information about managing stress after a disaster and talking with children about traumatic events.
    • To find a dialysis center in your area visit: Patients of DaVita Dialysis may contact 1-800-400-8331 to find the nearest Dialysis Center.
    • To find out if you qualify for temporary mortgage relief, visit the Freddie Mac website at: http://www.freddiem , the Fannie Mae website at: http://www or by phone at 1-800-2FANNIE (800-232-6643). To contact the Federal Housing Finance Agency visit: /Disa ster-Assistance.aspx
    • You may also contact the Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) to find out if you qualify for any hurricane related help with your mortgage or mortgage insurance. To contact HUD about disaster assistance visit: https://www. or https://www.
    • Taxpayers in affected areas may be eligible for tax relief from the IRS. To learn more about IRS assistance visit: https://ww
    • The U.S. Small Business Administration is providing various disaster loans to qualifying Floridians. For more information about SBA disaster loans visit: istance/. The U.S. Department of Agriculture provides loans to qualifying individuals, businesses, and communities after disasters. For more information visit: isaster/storms, or contact the USDA office in Florida at: (352) 338-3400.
    • Floridians who are unemployed as a result of a disaster, and who are ineligible for regular state unemployment insurance, are encouraged to apply for Disaster Unemployment Assistance (DUA) through the U.S. Department of Labor. For additional information about DUA visit: https://workfo or contact the U.S. Department of Labor by phone at 1-866-487-2365.
    • For in-person assistance with storm related questions, visit your local FEMA Disaster Recovery Center. For a list of centers in your area visit: DRCLocator or call 1-800-621-FEMA (1-800-621-3362) TTY: 1-800-462-7585.
    • Be aware of SCAMS: Federal and state workers never ask for or accept money, and always carry identification badges. There is no fee required to apply for or to get disaster assistance from FEMA, or the State of Florida. If you suspect fraud call FEMA's Disaster Fraud Hotline at 866-720-5721, or the Florida Attorney General fraud hotline at 1-866-966-7226.
    • Emergency Assistance 9-1-1
    • Local resources (food, shelter, childcare,) 2-1-1
    • Food, water, ice distribution, 850-815-4001, TDD/TTY: 1-800-226-4329
    • County Emergency Management Offices counties
    • Shelters elter-status/
    • Florida Highway Conditions: hp/traffic/livetrafficfeed.html, or dial 5-1-1 or *FHP (347)
    • Florida Elder Affairs Hotline 1-800-96-ELDER (1-800-963-5337)
    • Veteran Disaster Hotline, 1-800-507-4571
    • Disaster Distress Helpline (for emotional distress) 1-800-985-5990, or text TalkWithUs to 66746
    • Blue Tarp Roofs (Army Corps of Engineers) 1-888-ROOF-BLU
    • FEMA, 1-800-621-FEMA (1-800-621-3362) TTY: 1-800-745-0243

19.9 Game Rules

19.9.1 Cribbage strategy

General cribbage strategy tips

  • Don't lead a 5 or a 10-card. If you do, you give your opponent the chance to score 15-2.
  • Aim to bait your opponent to create runs during play. For example, if you lead with a 7, your opponent could play 8 for 15-2. You can then play a 9 to score three points for a run of 3.
  • Leading from a pair is often a good idea. If your opponent plays the matching card, you can play your own card, scoring 6 points for a pair royal.
  • Throw good cards to your own crib, such as pairs, two cards in sequence, or 5s.
  • If it's the opponent's crib, discard your least valuable cards. Avoid giving them any cards that make easy 15s, such as 5s, or ten-cards.
  • Approaching the end of the game, hang on to low cards and don't discard them. You'll have more opportunities to score points for go.


  • Play your 5s early
    • If you hold 5s, play them as early as you can to avoid them being trapped.
  • Old Faithful
    • Let's say you hold 4-6-6 and your opponent has 5s and ten-cards. You lead the 6; dealer would be foolish to reply with the 5 because of the risk of a 6-5-4 run. So she replies with a ten, making 16. You play 6 bringing the count to 22.
    • Now dealer can only play her 5, letting you finish with the 4 for a 6-5-4 run and 31, pegging 5 points in all.
  • Dump the lone Ace
  • Magic eleven
    • If you hold a combination of two or three cards that add up to 11, this can earn you extra points in the pegging
  • The jack
    • You don't want your opponent to pair your jack, so it makes sense to play it only when bringing the total to 22 or more. The exception is when you hold a pair of jacks, in which case the jack makes an excellent lead
    • Dump one jack (making 22 or more, preventing it from being paired)
    • Hold two jacks, reserving them for a 6-point play

Discard Strategy:

  • Never throw fives to your opponent's crib. If your opponent discards ten-cards, they will score against you with your five. If your opponent discards fives, they will pair with yours.
  • Avoid giving your opponent pairs, or cards that make 15 (9-6, 8-7) or 5 (3-2, 4-1). They will all score against you. 7-8 is particularly damaging to you if it meets a 5 or 9.
  • Don't discard sequence cards to your opponent, particularly ten-cards. Your 10-J may meet your opponent's Q-K for an uncomfortable score against you.
  • When discarding to your own crib, put in cards which are likely to work with whatever your opponent gives you. Fives are an obvious choice. A ten-card in the turn-up will work just as well with a five in your crib as one in your hand.
  • The next most valuable discard to your own is a 3. An opponent will probably be giving you some of her lowest cards, including 2s, which are likely to make scores for you.
  • Practice:

Leading strategy

  • If in doubt, lead a 4. This is the highest card on which the opponent cannot immediately make 15. Lower cards are best kept for later.
  • Remember that ten-cards in cribbage far outnumber any others in the pack. Thus, your opponent is quite likely to have one or more 10s. Consequently, do not lead a 5, or make 21. Naturally enough, 10s are often accompanied by 5s. Beware of making 26.
  • Conversely, making 11 is generally a good move, providing of course you hold the necessary ten-card to follow up your opponent's.

Replying to the lead

  • Never play a 6 to a led 4, or vice versa. This leads to a nasty sting as your opponent slaps down a 5, for five points (4-6-5 run and 15). It is a common mistake in cribbage strategy to set up runs for your opponent. Unless you've got a plan up your sleeve, of course…
  • Get rid of your higher cards first, as they will be a liability when the count approaches 31. Save Aces - they are your emergency escape strategy to turn a point-losing 30 into a 2-point-winning 31 (but get rid of lone aces - see below).
  • Do not pair your opponent's card unless you also hold another of the same card in reserve. For example, if your opponent plays a 4, you should not reply with a 4 if it is the only 4 you hold - because your opponent is quite likely to have another 4 herself (making a pair royal for 6 points). Conversely, you should encourage your opponent to pair your card when you yourself hold a pair. The chances of her holding the fourth card to make double pair royal (12 points) are minimal.
  • When holding two cards that together make 5 (for example 4 and Ace), lead one of them. Your opponent is likely to play a 10 onto it, enabling you to make 15.
  • Watch for runs! Don't play a card with a value 1 or 2 away from your opponent's card - for example a 9 on a 7 - as he is likely to complete the run. The exception, of course, is when you hold the necessary card to extend the run yourself and top your opponent's points. Beware of 'banging your head' on 31, though - calculate beforehand whether you will be able to play onto the run without going over 31.

19.9.2 Farkle


  • To score a minimum of 10,000 points.


  • One player is chosen to begin and play moves clockwise around the table.
  • Each player in turn rolls all six dice and checks to see if they have rolled any scoring dice or combinations. (See Scoring below.)
  • Any dice that score may be set aside and then the player may choose to roll all the remaining dice.
  • The player must set aside at least one scoring die of their choice if possible but is not required to set aside all scoring dice.


1 100 points
5 50 points
Three 1's 1,000 points
Three 2's 200 points
Three 3's 300 points
Three 4's 400 points
Three 5's 500 points
Three 6's 600 points
1-2-3-4-5-6 3000 points
3 Pairs 1500 points (including 4-of-a-kind and a pair)

Note that scoring combinations only count when made with a single throw. (Example: If a player rolls a 1 and sets it aside and then rolls two 1’s on their next throw, they only score 300 points, not 1000.)

Sometimes a single roll will provide multiple ways to score. For example, a player rolling 1-2-4-5-5-5 could score one of the following:

  • 100 points for the 1
  • 150 points for the 1 and a 5
  • 500 points for the three 5's
  • 600 points for the 1 and the three 5's


  • The first player to score a total of 10,000 or more points wins, provided that no other players with a remaining turn can exceed that score.

Farkle Scoring Variations

These scoring variations can be used in combination with, or in place of, the basic scoring scheme above.

Some variants:

  • Four of a kind = 2x (double) the 3-of-a-kind value
  • Alternatively: 1000 points
  • Alternatively: 4x the 3-of-a-kind value
  • Five of a kind = Triple the 3-of-a-kind value
  • Alternatively: 2000 points
  • Alternatively: 6x the 3-of-a-kind value
  • Three 1’s = 300 points (Known as a Pocket Farkle)

19.9.3 Rook Official Rules

Four players are organized into two teams of two players each, sitting opposite each other. Players must keep their hands secret from all other players, including their teammates. The object of the game is to be the first team to reach 300 points by capturing cards with a point value in tricks. If both teams have over 300 points at the end of a round, the team with the higher point total wins.

Only certain cards have a point value. These are known as counters. Each 5 is worth 5 points, each 10 and 14 is worth 10 points, and the Rook Bird card is worth 20 points.

  1. The Deal

    The 1s, the 2s, the 3s, and the 4s should be removed from the deck, and the Rook Bird card should be added, for a total of 41 cards. The dealer shuffles and cuts the deck, then deals all of the cards, one at a time. After every player has received his or her first card, the dealer places one card in the center of the table. This is repeated until there are five cards (the nest) in the middle of the table. The remaining cards are dealt normally.

  2. Bidding

    After the deal, players bid in increments of 5 points for the privilege of naming the trump suit. Bidding starts with the player to the left of the dealer and passes clockwise. The minimum bid is 70 points, and the maximum is 120 points (the number of points a team would make if they captured all the counters in the game). If a player chooses not to increase the bid, he may pass to the next player. A player that has passed may not make another bid for the round. The high bidder adds the five cards of the nest to his or her hand, then lays any five cards to the side. The high bidder then names the trump suit.

  3. Play

    After the trump suit has been named, the player to the left of the dealer places any card of any suit face-up on the center of the table. Play proceeds clockwise, with each player playing one card face-up in turn. After each player has played, the player that played the highest card of the suit of the leading card takes all of the cards played, or “takes the trick”.

    A player must either follow suit (play a card of the leading suit) or play the Rook Bird card. If a player has no cards of the leading suit, he or she may play any other card, including the Rook Bird card or a card of the trump suit. The highest card of the leading suit takes the trick, unless a trump card is played, in which case the highest trump card takes the trick.

    If a player reneges, or fails to follow suit when he or she could have, the error may be corrected before the next trick is taken. If it is not discovered until later, the round ends, and the team that made the error loses a number of points equal to the bid, regardless of which team made the bid. The opponents score all the counters they captured before the error was discovered.

    The person who takes the trick leads in the next trick. When a trick is taken, it is placed face-down in front of the player who took it. Tricks taken may not be reviewed by any player until the end of the round. The player that takes the last trick in a round captures the nest and scores any counters in it.

  4. The Rook Bird card

    The Rook Bird card is the highest trump card in the game. It takes any trick in which it is played.

    You may play the Rook Bird card at any time, even if you are able to follow suit. It is the only card that may be played this way. If the Rook Bird card is led, all other players must play a trump card, if they have one. If the trump suit is led, and you have no other trump card, you must play the Rook Bird card.

  5. Scoring

    When all possible tricks have been taken, each team adds the counters it captured. If the bidding team failed to make the number of points bid, the team loses a number of points equal to the amount of the bid, and does not make any points for counters captured in the round. The opposing team receives points for any counters they captured.

    The first team to reach 300 points is the winner.

  6. If using Standard Playing Cards:

    ROOK may be played with standard playing cards by removing the 2s, 3s, and 4s from the deck and adding the joker to be used as the Rook Bird card. Thus, each 5 is worth 5 points, each ace and 10 is worth 10 points, and the joker is worth 20 points. Aces play high in tricks.

  7. Graduation devotion - Choose

    Today, though, you must make a choice. You are free to choose.

    Choose love

    No occasion justifies hatred. No injustice warrants bitterness. Today, love God and what God loves.

    Choose joy

    Invite God to be the God of circumstance. Refuse the temptation to be cynical. Refuse to see people as anything less than human beings, created by God. Refuse to see any problem as anything less than an opportunity to see God.

    Choose peace

    Live forgiven. Forgive so that you may live.

    Choose patience

    Overlook the inconveniences of the world. Instead of cursing the one who takes your place, invite him to do so. Rather than complain that the wait is too long, thank God for a moment to pray. Instead of clinching your fist at new assignments, face them with joy and courage.

    Choose kindness

    Be kind to the poor, for they are alone. Kind to the rich, for they are afraid. And kind to the unkind, for such is how God treats us.

    Choose goodness

    Go without a dollar before you take a dishonest one. Be overlooked before you boast. Confess before you accuse.

    Choose faithfulness

    Keep your promises. May your debtors not regret their trust. May your associates not question your word. May your spouse never question your love and your children never fear that their parent will not come home.

    Choose gentleness

    Nothing is won by force. Raise your voice only in praise. Clench your fist only in prayer. Make demands only of yourself.

    Choose self-control

    You are a spiritual being. After this body is dead, your spirit will soar. Refuse to let what will rot rule the eternal. Be drunk only by joy. Be impassioned by your faith. Be influenced by God.

    Love, joy, peace, patience, kindness, goodness, faithfulness, gentleness, and self-control.

    Choose these. To these commit your days.

    Portions paraphrased from a passage in Max Lucado’s devotional Grace for the Moment

    Based on Galations 5:22-23 in The Bible

  8. A plan for the improvement of spelling in the English language By Mark Twain

    A plan for the improvement of spelling in the English language By Mark Twain

    For example, in Year 1 that useless letter "c" would be dropped to be replased either by "k" or "s", and likewise "x" would no longer be part of the alphabet. The only kase in which "c" would be retained would be the "ch" formation, which will be dealt with later. Year 2 might reform "w" spelling, so that "which" and "one" would take the same konsonant, wile Year 3 might well abolish "y" replasing it with "i" and iear 4 might fiks the "g/j" anomali wonse and for all.

    Generally, then, the improvement would kontinue iear bai iear with iear 5 doing awai with useless double konsonants, and iears 6-12 or so modifaiing vowlz and the rimeiniing voist and unvoist konsonants. Bai iear 15 or sou, it wud fainali bi posibl tu meik ius ov thi ridandant letez "c", "y" and "x"— bai now jast a memori in the maindz ov ould doderez —tu riplais "ch", "sh", and "th" rispektivili.

    Fainali, xen, aafte sam 20 iers ov orxogrefkl riform, wi wud hev a lojikl, kohirnt speling in ius xrewawt xe Ingliy-spiking werld.

19.9.4 Tonk

19.9.5 Yahtzee

Basic rules

  • There are 13 rounds in a game of Yahtzee. In each turn, a player can roll his dice up to 3 times in order to get the desired combination. On the first two rolls, the player has to roll all five of the dice at once. On the third roll, the player can roll any number of dice he wants to, including none or all of them, trying to get a good combination.
  • The player can choose whether he wants to roll once, twice or three times in each turn. After the three rolls in a turn, the player must put his scores down in the scorecard, under any one of the thirteen categories. The score that the player finally gets for that turn depends on the category/box that he chooses and the combination that he got by rolling the dice. But once a box is chosen on the score card, it can't be chosen again.

Yahtzee scoring

  • There are two sections in a Yahtzee scorecard: the upper section and the lower section.
    • In the upper section, there are six boxes that represent the six face values of a die. For these six boxes, the player must enter only the sum of the dice with the corresponding face value. If the player scores a total of 63 or more in the upper section, he gets a bonus of 35 points at the end of the game.
    • The lower section of a scorecard is very important. Here, there are various combinations that a player can score for, which are very similar to Poker "hands":
      • 3 of a kind: If the dice include 3 or more of the same number. Unlike in the upper section where only the dice of one number are summed, here the total of all five dice is used.
      • 4 of a kind: If the dice include 4 or more of the same number.
      • Full House: If the dice show 3 of one number and 2 of another.
      • Small Straight: If the dice show a sequence of 4 continuous numbers.
      • Large Straight: If the dice show a sequence of 5 continuous numbers.
      • Chance: The player can score in this box with any combination. The score is the total of all five dice.
      • Yahtzee: If the dice show 5 of the same number. The score is a standard of 50 points.
      • Yahtzee Bonus: If a player gets extremely lucky and rolls his second Yahtzee and his Yahtzee box already has 50 points due to the previous one he scored, he gets a bonus of 100 points.
        • Regarding the Yahtzee bonus - the same rule doesn't apply when a player rolls a Yahtzee and his Yahtzee box is already filled with a zero. In either case, the "joker rules" must be used. That is, if possible the player must fill the upper section box corresponding to the number rolled. But if that box is full, he must fill in any empty box in the lower section.
        • For the first three categories in the lower section this means scoring the total of all 5 dice. But for the full house, small straight and large straight boxes, this means scoring 25, 30, or 40 points respectively. But incase the entire lower section is full he must enter a zero in any one of the open boxes in the upper section.

19.10 Imperial system (vs Metric)   edit

World Metrology Day is Monday. Forgive me if I don’t raise a pint—sorry, 473 milliliters—in commemoration. This date is meant to celebrate the International System of Units, otherwise known as the metric system. Against pascals of pressure, the U.S. stands nearly alone in maintaining its own “customary units” of weights and measures. We should stand tall on our own 2 feet. The metric system has never measured up. It was customary units that calibrated the machinery of the Industrial Revolution and took us 240,000 miles to the moon.

Proponents of the metric system have been metering out contempt since their inhuman invention emerged from the French Revolution. In 1793 France’s own customary units, including the pied du Roi (king’s foot), fell victim to Jacobin Terror. The radicals standardized regional differences and went the extra mile, rationalizing their measures through the blinding logic of Enlightenment thought.

The metric system became a symbol of modernity. More than overturning millennia of custom, the meter also overturned man and his labor as the basis of measurement. Nearly all customary units derive in some way from use. The acre was the amount of land a yoke of oxen could till in a day. The fathom is 6 feet, the span of the arms, useful when pulling up the sounding line of a depth measure. The meter is unfathomable, calculated (imprecisely) as a tiny fraction of the Earth’s circumference.

Worse than the abandonment of human measure is the imposition of decimal division. From calendars to clocks, French radicals went all in for 10. That works well for abstract calculations, as with dollars and cents, but not when measuring things in the real world. The Romans counted in 12s, as in the hours on a clock and the inches in a foot. The Babylonians used 60, from which we get minutes, seconds and degrees. A simple system of 8 still exists in our ounces—and in computer bytes. Eight, 12 and 60 divide easily into halves and quarters, even thirds, while a decimal system does not. A third of a meter is roughly 33.33 centimeters, a third of a foot exactly 4 inches.

The abstract inhumanity of the metric system may be newly measured as new bases are adopted to replace “Le Grand K,” a platinum cylinder kept locked away in France that has been the kilogram standard. The metric kilogram will now be determined through a new fixed agreement of Planck’s constant, the length light travels in a vacuum in 1/299,792,458th of a second, and the amount of time it takes a cesium-133 atom to vibrate 9,192,631,770 times. It’s so simple!

The U.S. has come close to compulsory metrication more than once. The latest push came out of the 1970s, with metric textbooks, metric road signs, and “The Metric Marvels,” a “Schoolhouse Rock” knockoff. President Reagan ended the effort in 1982.

With the European Union being cut down to size, can we hope for a return to British imperial units, which the U.K. was forced to abandon after it joined? A pint’s a pound, the world around, and it beats walking the Planck.

19.11 Local Run clubs

  • Ten10 Run Club qTues @ 1830
    • 5k
    • 10k

Graffiti Junction qWed @ 1830

  • 5k
  • Deadly Sins Run Club qThurs @ 1830
    • 5k
    • 10k

19.12 Orange County Library

  • Books: Overdrive
  • Music: Freegal
  • Movies/Music: Hoopla
  • Movies: Kanopy

19.13 Sermon notes   QuickRef

David and Bathsheba:

  • You can't control your feelings, but you can control what you do with it. Attraction is a feeling. Love is a commitment word.
  • Success is not starting temptation in the face and saying no, it is not seeing the temptation because you are in the place you are supposed to be. Where are you supposed to be that you are missing? Work, school, marriage, kids?

Anger is a function of that which you love. Want to know what you live? See what you get angry at.

  • When angry, ask what am I defending?
  • Essau had Godless anger and seeked revenge.

Heb 12:12-17

Prayer: ACT DAP

  • Address: Calling on Yahweh
  • Complaint: What's going wrong
  • Trust: Statement of trust in God
  • Deliverance: Cry for help
  • Assurance: Belief that deliverance will come
  • Praise: Praising God in some way

Psalm 13

Phil 4:8

God doesn't call us to call out sins of others - that's His job. He does call us to call out sins in those of the church but not those out of it. This parable was given for the Church! Mat 13:47-50

Has your zeal for justice ever made you the villain in someone else's story? Are you there mouthpiece for the Accuser for someone else? God's justice always comes with mercy. Without Mercy it is from the accuser. Zechariah 3:1-5

Sex isn't bad, but neither was the fruit. It was the action of disobedience.

And Jesus, looking at him, loved him, and said to him, "You lack one thing: go, sell all that you have and give to the poor, and you will have treasure in heaven; and come, follow me." Mark 10:21 ESV

It doesn't matter what you do, it matters what you think (who you are).

Whoever has my commandments and keeps them, he it is who loves me. And he who loves me will be loved by my Father, and I will love him and manifest myself to him." John 14:21 ESV

Jesus + Salvation = Obedience to the law NOT Obedience to the law + Jesus = Salvation Galatians 4

Judging: When you judge, first place yourself in the position of being judged. Think "love the sinner, tell your sin" Mat 7:1-5

Be in a place of trusting God: Asking puts you in the posture of trust in God. Mat 7:7

Because of Christmas, we can see things as they are. Like Don Quixote, seeing the prostitute in her true beauty as Dulcinea.

Where is your anger leading you? Move towards life.

When you:

  1. Give to poor
  2. Pray
  3. Fast

Do it in secret - Mat 6

We all preach our own funeral through our lives. Love is a gift. -Judi's funeral

But the fruit of the Spirit is love, joy, peace, forbearance, kindness, goodness, faithfulness, gentleness and self-control. Against such things there is no law. Galatians 5:22-23

Gifts come paired with fruit of the Spirit

Love your neighbor - quartet of the vulnerable: Nicholas Wolterstoff refers to the “quartet of the vulnerable” repeated throughout Scripture. These aren’t the only vulnerable people groups—and the list could be expanded in our day—but these four groups are often mentioned together throughout the Old Testament as those God loves and who his people are to love.[1]

“The Lord watches over the sojourners; he upholds the widow and the fatherless.” (Ps. 146:9)

“Thus says the Lord of hosts, Render true judgments, show kindness and mercy to one another, 10 do not oppress the widow, the fatherless, the sojourner, or the poor, and let none of you devise evil against another in your heart.” (Zech. 7:9–10)

“He executes justice for the fatherless and the widow, and loves the sojourner, giving him food and clothing. 19 Love the sojourner, therefore, for you were sojourners in the land of Egypt.” (Deut. 10:18-19)

Forgiveness: Ephesians 4:31 Get rid of all bitterness, rage and anger, brawling and slander, along with every form of malice. Ephesians 4:32 Be kind and compassionate to one another, forgiving each other, just as in Christ God forgave you.

Do good: Romans 12:20 On the contrary: "If your enemy is hungry, feed him; if he is thirsty, give him something to drink. In doing this, you will heap burning coals on his head." Romans 12:21 Do not be overcome by evil, but overcome evil with good.

Compassion: Mark 10:46-52 Being interruptible is the beginning of compassion. Bartamaeus is inconvenient … A problem. What do you need me to do for you?

Care for the most vulnerable - don't maximize profits Leviticus 19:10 Do not go over your vineyard a second time or pick up the grapes that have fallen. Leave them for the poor and the foreigner. I am the LORD your God.

Listen, speak, anger: James 1:19 My dear brothers and sisters, take note of this: Everyone should be quick to listen, slow to speak and slow to become angry, James 1:20 because human anger does not produce the righteousness that God desires. What comes out of the Mouth - reveals the heart, brings life, blessing, and cursing; Everyday day:

  • I'm sorry
  • Thanks you
  • I love you, I appreciate you
  • Will you help me

19.13.1 Medicine in Religion

"Why do your disciples break the tradition of the elders? For they do not wash their hands when they eat." Matthew 15:2 ESV

19.14 Voting Information

  • Matthew Rensberry FVRS ID Number: 121379073
  • Erica Leon FVRS ID Number: 109947331
  • County Precinct: 503
  • Municipal Precinct: 4101
  • Congressional District: 7
  • Senate District: 13
  • House District: 47
  • County Commission: 5
  • School Board District: 6
  • Municipality: ORLANDO DISTRICT 4

19.15 Washing white clothing

Here’s the formula:

  • Add about a half cup of baking soda to the drum of the washing machine and then add distilled white vinegar to the fabric softener dispenser.
  • This specificity is important to note:
    • Allowing vinegar and baking soda to combine in the process will render each of them no more useful than salt.
    • Splitting them up, on the other hand, allows them each to work their magic without interference, since the vinegar gets released later in the cycle through the fabric softener dosing cup.

20 Relationships

20.1 23 Pieces of the Best Marriage Advice EVER (Collected Over 13 Years)

  1. Choose to love each other, even in those moments when you struggle to like each other. Love is a commitment, not a feeling.
  2. Always answer the phone when your husband/wife is calling. When possible, try to keep your phone off when you're together with your spouse.
  3. Make time together a priority. Budget for a consistent date night. Time is the "currency of relationships," so consistently invest time into your marriage.
  4. Surround yourself with friends who will strengthen your marriage. Remove yourself from people who may tempt you to compromise your character.
  5. Make laughter the soundtrack of your marriage. Share moments of joy. And even in the hard times, find reasons to laugh.
  6. In every argument, remember that there won't be a "winner" and a "loser." You're partners in everything so you'll either win together or lose together. Work together to find a solution.
  7. Realize that a strong marriage rarely has two strong people at the same time. It's usually a husband and wife taking turns being strong for each other in the moments when the other feels weak.
  8. Prioritize what happens in the bedroom. It takes more than sex to build a strong marriage, but it's nearly impossible to build a strong marriage without it.
  9. Remember that marriage isn't 50/50— divorce is 50/50. Marriage has to be 100/100. It's not splitting everything in half, but both partners giving everything they've got.
  10. Give your best to each other, not your leftovers after you've given your best to everyone else.
  11. Learn from other people, but don't feel the need to compare your life or your marriage to anyone else's. God's plan for your life is masterfully unique.
  12. Don't put your marriage on hold while you're raising your kids or else you'll end up with an empty nest and an empty marriage.
  13. Never keep secrets from each other. Secrecy is the enemy of intimacy.
  14. Never lie to each other. Lies break trust and trust is the foundation of a strong marriage.
  15. When you've made a mistake, admit it and humbly seek forgiveness. You should be quick to say, "I was wrong. I'm sorry. Please forgive me."
  16. When your husband/wife breaks your trust, give them your forgiveness instantly. This will promote healing and create the opportunity for trust to be rebuilt. You should be quick to say, "I love you. I forgive you. Let's move forward."
  17. Be patient with each other. Your spouse is always more important than your schedule.
  18. Model the kind of marriage that will make your sons want to grow up to be good husbands, and your daughters want to grow up to be good wives.
  19. Be your spouse's biggest encourager, not his/her biggest critic. Be the one who wipes away their tears, not the one who causes them.
  20. Never talk badly about your spouse to other people or vent about them online. Protect your spouse at all times and in all places.
  21. Always wear your wedding ring. It will remind you that you're always connected to your spouse and will remind the rest of the world that you're off limits.
  22. When you have to choose between saying nothing or saying something mean to your spouse, say nothing every time.
  23. Never consider divorce as an option. Remember that a "perfect marriage" is just two imperfect people who refuse to give up on each other.

20.2 36 Questions to Bring You Closer Together

Take turns answering each question.

In order:

  1. Given the choice of anyone in the world, who would you want as a dinner guest?
  2. Would you like to be famous? In what way?
  3. Before making a phone call, do you ever rehearse what you're going to say? Why?
  4. What would constitute a perfect day for you?
  5. When did you last sing to yourself? To someone else?
  6. If you were able to live to the age of 90 and retain either the mind or body of a 30-year old for the last 60 years of your life, which would you choose?
  7. Do you have a secret hunch about how you will die?
  8. Name three things you and your partner appear to have in common.
  9. For what in your life do you feel most grateful?
  10. If you could change anything about the way you were raised, what would it be?
  11. Take four minutes and tell your partner your life story in as much detail as possible.
  12. If you could wake up tomorrow having gained one quality or ability, what would it be?
  13. If a crystal ball could tell you the truth about yourself, your life, the future or anything else, what would you want to know?
  14. Is there something that you've dreamt of doing for a long time? Why haven't you done it?
  15. What is the greatest accomplishment of your life?
  16. What do you value most in a friendship?
  17. What is your most treasured memory?
  18. What is your most terrible memory?
  19. If you knew that in one year you would die suddenly, would you change anything about the way you are now living? Why?
  20. What does friendship mean to you?
  21. What roles do love and affection play in your life?
  22. Alternate sharing something you consider a positive characteristic of your partner. Share a total of five items.
  23. How close and warm is your family? Do you feel your childhood was happier than most other people's?
  24. How do you feel about your relationship with your mother?
  25. Make three true "we" statements each. For instance, "we are both in this room feeling…"
  26. Complete this sentence "I wish I had someone with whom I could share…"
  27. If you were going to become a close friend with your partner, please share what would be important for him or her to know.
  28. Tell your partner what you like about them. Be honest this time, saying things that you might not say to someone you've just met.
  29. Share with your partner an embarrassing moment in your life.
  30. When did you last cry in front of another person? By yourself?
  31. Tell your partner something that you like about them already.
  32. What, if anything, is too serious to be joked about?
  33. If you were to die this evening with no opportunity to communicate with anyone, what would you most regret not having told someone? Why haven't you told them yet?
  34. Your house, containing everything you own, catches fire. After saving your loved ones and pets, you have time to safely make a final dash to save any one item. What would it be? Why?
  35. Of all the people in your family, whose death would you find most disturbing? Why?
  36. Share a personal problem and ask your partner's advice on how he or she might handle it. Also, ask your partner to reflect back to you how you seem to be feeling about the problem you have chosen.


  • Arthur Aron "The Experimental Generation of Interpersonal Closeness"

20.3 50 Sex Tips & Intimate Suggestions to Keep Your Relationship Strong

  1. Both sexes need to keep sex fresh and alive! Don’t be predictable!
  2. Men like women who are willing to explore new things between the sheets & who initiate sex as well.
  3. Women like massage/candles/soft words and a man who caresses them. (They do not like to be to be groped or men who are constantly aggressive!)
  4. Men love lingerie and a woman who enjoys wearing it. (They also like sexual surprises when out for the evening. Many men find it very sexy when he knows what his lady is wearing or “not” wearing under her outfit.
  5. Booze-less sex is better than a drunken session. The senses are more alive when sober! (And you actually remember you had sex!)
  6. Daytime sex is the best scenario for both genders. Sex after 9pm becomes a quick expected routine & not always as arousing because everyone is tired from their busy day.
  7. A little naughty talk in the bedroom is alluring for both sexes!
  8. Send phone sex messages during the work day. (If you call them at the office ensure the speaker phone is off!)
  9. Always listen to what your partner says they like during sex.
  10. Don’t ignore men’s nipples.
  11. Pick up on their desires in & out of the bedroom & use it to your advantage.
  12. The smallest romantic gestures will increase your odds of better sex or at least getting it once in a while. Head nods towards the bedroom are not considered foreplay.
  13. Try new positions. Don’t become a “vanilla sex” creature of habit in the bedroom.
  14. Wear cologne or body cream lightly & do not forget the deodorant! You may not think you need it but trust me most people do!
  15. Learn how to read each other’s emotions & feelings so you know when they are in the mood for love or at least how you can help get them in the mood.
  16. Be aware of their body language. Know when something is not right
  17. Light Candles. Hold hands when you are sitting beside from them on the coach and talk with them about things they are interested in. Show them you really care about their life.
  18. Ladies; after your man gets home from work, bring him a drink or the remote control for half an hour. He needs time to unwind quietly for a bit and is ready not a deep conversation. Or sit together and chat lightly about other things that aren’t stressful.
  19. Men: after your orgasm sex is NOT over!
  20. Scream out during sex once in awhile let the neighbors know you are not that boring couple after all.
  21. Sex is not just penetration!
  22. Don’t ask someone if they would like to have sex! Be creative and lure them into the bedroom.
  23. Shave! That goes for both sexes; do a little landscaping.
  24. Sexting is great foreplay!
  25. Complement your partner & make them feel good about themselves which gives them confidence that you find them attractive. Body image is very important, especially for women.
  26. Don’t wear flannel pajamas, curlers or eye shades to bed or around the house for the matter.
  27. Shave her legs or paint her toenails once in awhile ~ wax his unibrow or give him a foot massage.
  28. Wash his/her hair or other pampering things Mom used to do.
  29. Dress sexy for them, even at home.
  30. Dental hygiene; floss, whiten and keep your breath fresh! Yellow teeth are a huge turn off and get worse with age, be preventative before it happens.
  31. Get rid of granny panties & tighty whities!
  32. Tell each other what you like & want in bed. Guide each other with your hands. Don’t just lie there like a starfish.
  33. Men love women who actually enjoy giving oral sex and don’t just do it on their Birthday because it is expected. The same goes with oral sex for women. It makes us more comfortable & relaxed when our man enjoys it. (Don’t forget to eat a little pineapple!)
  34. Think ahead romantically for special occasions.
  35. Sexual confidence is a turn on for both sexes!
  36. Take your time during sex; don’t be in a rush for the finish line or happy ending!
  37. Find their erogenous zones and work them, especially if you want them to get in the mood before your bedroom liaison.
  38. Don’t assume that one orgasm is all they are good for. (That goes for men too, ladies.)
  39. Have sex outside the bedroom.
  40. Make-out on the couch, elevator or in the car like a teenager if you have been together for a while.
  41. Tell them often that you love them & want them. Don’t assume they know.
  42. Be respectful of each other’s time. Late for a date probably means you won’t get laid that night!
  43. Valentine’s Day is a reminder of “romance for dummies” so make other days special for no reason other than you care about them.
  44. Don’t be afraid to be a mush-ball occasionally. Let down your conservative guard and really show your soft emotional side. It makes the other person feel special when you show a little vulnerability.
  45. Have a naughty “pet name” for them in the privacy of your bedroom.
  46. Read or watch something sexy together to spice things up if you feel like your sex life is becoming repetitive.
  47. Take turns planning weekly date nights. Be creative! It also keeps you focused on your partner during the time you are prepping for the big night.
  48. Never be too busy for your partner! Take their calls, text them throughout the day, make their favorite meal, bring home little gifts once in awhile and always remember dates on the calendar that are important to them.
  49. Kiss them deeply every day, hug them constantly and always get up to greet each other when they come home. Constantly connecting with your partner through “touch” will always keep you close as a couple.
  50. Take sexy vacations or mini holidays to refresh your sexual desires for one another. Getting away from the daily routine at home puts you into a different space where you can relax. Make sure there is a double bathtub or hot tub in the hotel where you can share a glass of wine & candlelight together.

20.4 Couples re-engagement

Part 1 - Money

  1. Be a team
  2. Have a plan
  3. Develop a habit of saving
  4. Be a giver

Money is not a money problem it is a behavioral problem

Part 2 - 7 ways to reengage your husband

Men need…

  1. Sexual satisfaction
  2. Respect - Eph 5:23, 1 Peter 3:2
  3. Someone to dream with
  4. Recreational companionship - Gen 2:18
  5. An attractive wife
  6. Appreciation - Eph 5:33
  7. A growing wife

Part 3 - I'd Like to get to Know You 1 Peter 3:7

  1. Know each others salvation stories - learn to pray together
  2. Know your spiritual gift of yourself & your spouse (able to relate better) Romans 12:6-8
  3. Know your spouses love language (book)
  4. Know what relaxes and replenishes you & your spouse.
  5. Know your spouse's personality profile
  6. Know your spouse's conflict style.

Part 4 - 7 ways to reengage your wife

  1. With affection (non-sexual touch)
  2. With romance - Song of Solomon ch 4 - be the first to recognize how she's made herself pretty
  3. Be authentic and truthful - never lie to your spouse Col 3:9, Phil 4:8
  4. In conversation.
  5. Provide financial security - 1 Tim 5:8
  6. Be the leader - NOT a dictator
  7. Show understanding - 1 Peter 3:7

20.5 Everyday seduction:

  • Be sweet: say something nice
  • Be explicit: say something with desire

20.6 Guide to Show Up For Friends

  1. When you’re talking to someone you care about — whether that’s IRL or over the phone/Skype — do your best to be fully present.
  2. Give your non-romantic relationships the same sort of attention, care, and mental energy that you give your romantic ones. Think about your friends at least as much as you think about your crush, your favorite sports team, or reality TV celebrities.
  3. Set up calendar notifications for their birthdays, or write them on your new calendar each January. (Don’t rely on Facebook to tell you!) Memorize their zodiac sign while you’re at it.
  4. And put other meaningful days in their life (kids’ birthdays, wedding anniversaries) on your calendar, especially ones tied to grief. Reach out on the anniversary of their loved one’s passing and let them know you are thinking of them.
  5. Figure out the best method of communication for the two of you. Some people are terrible at texting back but are great on the phone. We’re sorry to say that this means you just gotta suck it up and call them sometimes. Talking on the phone sometimes is better than losing lifelong friends because they can’t Gchat all day at work.
  6. Establish the low-hanging fruit way to check in with each other regularly. Something as simple as Snapchatting each other pics of your breakfast and outfits every single day can actually be a surprisingly amazing way to connect regularly. So can sending each other voice memos.
  7. Ask/remember the names of the coworkers and colleagues they talk about the most. Not only is it logistically easier, it communicates, “I am invested in you and your stories.”
  8. When you’re catching up, ask them how their parents/siblings are doing.
  9. If you don’t live near each other, make a point to pay attention to the weather in their city. Weather shapes our lives literally every single day — it influences our outfit decisions, daily commute, weekend plans, and overall mood. By being more aware of it, you’re able to get a tiny daily insight into the everyday lives of your favorite people.
  10. Repeat after us: “This reminded me of you.” Or “Thought you might enjoy this.” It doesn’t matter if you're sending them a meme or a little gift; that moment of feeling truly seen by a friend is so affirming.
  11. Pay attention to and take note of anything they say that includes “I wish,” “I want,” or “I need.”
  12. And utilize the “notes” section in their contact card on your iPhone to write things about them you want to remember — birthday gift ideas, favorite color, the names of their 17 nieces and nephews, etc.
  13. Set up standing hangout times — weekly calls, monthly breakfasts, a recipe club that meets regularly, whatever. Even if you have to change the exact day/time the week of, it’s so much easier to make it happen when you already have that jumping-off point.
  14. And consider having a place you always meet (like your local bookstore, or a great diner) or an activity you always do (go to a matinee and then get coffee); it’s so much easier to make plans if most of that work is already done.
  15. Literally show up. Don’t flake on them. Make a point to be on time. And if you do need to cancel plans, set a date for new plans in the same conversation rather than leaving it open.
  16. If they tell you about something they have planned, ask them how it went the next day.
  17. Get to know their daily/weekly routines so you can tell when things seem off, or when you realize you haven’t seen or heard from them in a while.
  18. Get contact info for at least one other person in their life — their parent, their sibling, their partner, their roommate — along with their landlord and/or a coworker. Good to have in case of an emergency, and also for surprise party planning.
  19. Send them a positive, funny, or affirming text first thing in the morning.
  20. Remember to ask how their day was, and actually listen to the answer.
  21. If they keep talking about a Netflix show or comic book they are into, or they recommend a recipe or product, make a point to check it out. Even if you don't love it, you’ll still learn a bit more about them in the process, and they'll appreciate that you tried.
  22. Don't dismiss the things your friend wants to talk about, even if, TBH, you're not exactly interested.
  23. Make a mental note of the topics that they seem to have a lot to say about or have a lot of strong feelings about.
  24. And notice the things they don’t ever seem to talk about. You don’t have to pry, but it’s good to be aware of the tender spots.
  25. Take more pictures of them when they're feelin' themselves.
  26. Tell them when someone else says something nice about them.
  27. Support their goals and don’t begrudge them for the things you know they’re actively trying to change for the better.
  28. Be conscious of how you talk about other people/other friends in front of them. No one wants to open up to someone who is insensitive, judgmental, or gossipy.
  29. And don't tell other people about their personal business without permission — not even other close friends who you trust.
  30. If they tell you about a personal experience, avoid interrogating them or taking the devil’s advocate position. (The devil doesn’t need more advocates!!!) Become known as the friend who says, “I believe you.”
  31. And do your best not to judge them, especially if they’ve shared something particularly personal or that is a source of shame for a lot of people. (But if you do get judgey about something in the moment, own that and apologize.)
  32. Send them handwritten letters or postcards just to say hi.
  33. Create your own shared traditions. Plan a weekend trip every summer, choose a holiday that you always spend together, always see the new Star Wars movie together, write them a letter each year on their birthday, etc.
  34. Develop your own shared language for things that come up a lot in conversations. Designating a phrase, keyword, or emoji to signal “This is a bit much for me, let’s please change the subject” or “I’m too busy to talk but am thinking of you and miss you!” can really deepen bonds.
  35. Practice radical candor.
  36. Be honest with them about your needs instead of expecting them to inherently know how to love you, and then harboring resentment when they don’t do it “right.”
  37. Like and comment on the pic or status update that's not getting the recognition it deserves.
  38. Invite them to things, even if it’s with the caveat “I know you don’t usually do X, but I still wanted to ask.” A lot of people worry that saying no a few times will mean they are never invited again, so try to assuage that fear. Also! If they are continuously saying no to your invites, you can always ask them — in an open, non-pressurey way — if there’s something that would make it easier for them to hang out.
  39. If they’re too busy to make plans, ask if they need help balancing their load, if they’d like some company while they do chores or run errands, or if they just want to talk about it.
  40. Don’t push them to hang out with other people in your circle who they don’t like/don’t trust. Bonus points: read up on the Five Geek Social Fallacies and The Missing Stair.
  41. Keep an eye on whether or not they seem to be spending time with other friends. Social isolation is a very real problem, and isn’t always obvious if you aren’t really looking for it.
  42. Really see them. Pay attention to physical cues that they might not be doing great — like looking super tired/not sleeping, poor hygiene, a home in total disarray, or weight fluctuations. You don’t need to comment or anything; it’s all just data that might tell you a story if you start to notice other little flags as well.
  43. If your gut is telling you something is off with them, trust your gut.
  44. Familiarize yourself with warning signs — of domestic abuse, eating disorders, substance abuse, depression, postpartum depression, and suicide risk. Remind yourself that these things can affect anyone, and no, they wouldn’t necessarily tell you if they were going through it, and no, you don’t always “just know.”
  45. Stay curious. Don’t wait until you or your friends experience something terrible — miscarriage, divorce, suicide of a loved one, etc. — to learn about what it’s like to experience it, or how to best support people dealing with it.
  46. And be prepared. Bad stuff will happen, so you might as well learn some not-shitty things to say to a friend going through a shitty time and read There Is No Good Card for This: What To Say and Do When Life Is Scary, Awful, and Unfair to People You Love before it does.
  47. Celebrate their wins like they’re your wins.
  48. Go to the art showcase, recital, or birthday drinks.
  49. And always go to the funeral.
  50. And offer to go with them to scary appointments they're dreading. Even if they don’t take you up on it, they’ll appreciate that you asked.
  51. Send them a Venmo when they are going through something, or when you can tell they just need permission to spend $10 on themselves.
  52. If you're looking for a small but solid way to show support, send them a puzzle.
  53. When they are going through something difficult — or just venting about a rough couple of days at work — ask, “How can I best support you right now?” Sometimes people want advice, sometimes they just want someone to listen, and other times they need something really practical. They may want to hash out the thing at length or they may be hoping you’ll distract them. Just ask!
  54. And when shit gets tough, embody ring theory (comfort in, dump out).
  55. If they are dealing with something hard, ask them if they are eating and/or remind them to eat and/or drop off some groceries and/or organize a meal train. Grief, trauma, and mental illness can wreak havoc on eating habits, and they genuinely may not realize they actually haven’t eaten all day.
  56. And after a big crisis or just a big life change, set reminders for yourself to check in with them periodically. Those follow-ups mean a lot, and even if they don’t need any support the first four times you ask, they’ll know exactly who to call the day that they do.
  57. Read Sheila O'Malley’s incredibly moving thread on what showing up can look like in practice. And this one, from Hayley Webster. Aim to be that person.
  58. Know their love language! Let them know yours!
  59. Be conscious of how current events might be affecting them. When the news is particularly bad and relevant to a community they are a part of, reach out to them to tell them you’re thinking of them and that you’re there for them.
  60. If they tell you that you did something that upset or hurt them, listen to them and ask them how you can be better next time. Then do better next time.
  61. If/when you mess up, properly apologize. A mediocre “apology” can undermine trust for years.
  62. If you know in your heart that you haven’t been showing up for them, be honest about it (and apologize). If your friend noticed, you’ll validate their feelings. And if they hadn’t noticed, they’ll probably still appreciate that you’re thinking about these things and trying your best.
  63. If you need to end the friendship, properly break up with them instead of just ghosting or doing a slow fade.
  64. Be vulnerable with them so they know they can be vulnerable with you, too.
  65. Be generous in telling them how you feel about them. “I really miss you.” “I’m worried about you.” “I appreciate you.” “Your friendship means so much to me.” “I love you.”
  66. And be specific with your compliments. They deserve to know exactly why they’re important to the world.

20.7 Keep spark alive as a couple

Keep spark alive as a couple

  • Give up the right to be right
  • Hold hands whenever you can
  • Live like the song, "All i wanna do, is have some fun."
  • Have couple friends with whom you can talk honestly about your relationship
    • Learn from wise couples that have gone before you
  • Date. each other. Often.

From The Simple Dollar:

Every day, do two things.

  1. One, tell your spouse that you love them and tell them something specific about them that you love.
  2. Two, spend half an hour doing something that helps them in some way and expect no compliments or comment from it – do it just because you care about that person. This works better if you focus on something that you know will really matter to your partner. For instance, if your partner loathes doing the dishes, just do them without comment once or twice a week.

Do these two things every day and you’ll be surprised how much better your relationship goes.

20.8 Magic 5 hours for a relationship

Morning farewells:

  • Learn at least one interesting thing that your partner has planned for the day. Follow up later by asking your partner about this.
  • (2 minutes a day x 5 working days= 10 minutes a week)

Stress-reducing and catch-up conversations:

  • Take 20 minutes each day to talk about your day. Your partner’s role is to genuinely listen and be supportive. When it is your turn to listen, make sure you fully understand the situation and demonstrate this understanding before you give any advice.
  • (20 minutes a day x 5 days= 1hr 40 minutes a week)

Admiration and appreciation:

  • Genuinely communicate admiration and appreciation toward your partner. For example, you can simply say thank you for cleaning up after you when you had to run out of the house for something. Or, you can toast your spouse for completing a school project while balancing family life.
  • (5 minutes a day x 7 days= 35 minutes a week)


  • Kiss, hug, and touch your partner. Lovingly kiss when you see each other at the end of the day and each night before you go to bed (not just a quick peck!). If the “touchy feely” element of your relationship is long dormant, start slowly and work your way up.
  • (5 minutes a day x 7 days= 35 minutes a week)

Learning about your partner’s inner world:

  • It’s important to keep updated about your partner’s likes, dislikes, interests, values, etc. Make a date. Ask questions about what is important to your partner (i.e. How are things going with your friend Peggy?, Are you still thinking about landscaping the front yard?). Or, learn more about your partner’s thoughts about a problem you are having in the marriage (i.e. explain to me why you were so angry when I asked you to come with me to my mother’s house).
  • (2 hour x 1 day = 2 hours)

20.9 Marriage promises

  1. "I promise to respect, admire and appreciate you for who you are, as well as for the person you wish to become."
  2. "I promise to support and protect your freedom, because although our lives are intertwined, your choices are still yours alone."
  3. "I promise to seek a deep understanding of your wishes, your desires, your fears, and your dreams."
  4. "I promise to always strive to meet your needs, not out of obligation, but because it delights me to see you happy."
  5. "I promise to be there for you when you need me, whenever you need me."
  6. "I promise to nurture your goals and ambitions; to support you through misfortune, and to celebrate your triumphs."
  7. "I promise to keep our lives exciting, adventurous, and full of passion."
  8. "I promise to persevere when times get tough, knowing that any challenges we might face, we will conquer them together."
  9. "I promise to treat you with compassion rather than fairness, because we are a team, now and for always."
  10. "I promise to show you, every day, that I know exactly how lucky I am to have you in my life."

20.10 Relationship killers

The top 10 everyday passion-killers:

  1. Weight gain/lack of exercise, 13 percent
  2. Money & Spend thriftiness, 11 percent
  3. Anti-social working hours, 10 percent
  4. Hygiene issues (personal cleanliness), 9 percent
  5. In-Laws/extended family - too much/too little, 9 percent
  6. Lack of romance (sex, treats etc.), 8 percent
  7. Alcohol - drinking too much, 7 percent
  8. Snoring & anti social bedtime habits, 6 percent
  9. Lapsed fashion-Same old underwear/clothes, 4 percent
  10. Bathroom habits - Stray nail cuttings etc., 4 percent

20.11 The Romance

(A course that Erica did)

  1. Alone time together without interruptions
  2. 10-15min engaging in an intimate act (touching, cuddling, holding, etc) increase occurrence per week
  3. More love notes!
  4. Adding romance activity:
    • each partner writes down 10 romantic scenarios (independently)
    • privately rank each in importance
    • Share thoughts


  • Comp ID code: MEDTRONIC

21 Tech Related

21.1 CLI Programs

  • Internet: links
  • Text: emacs, nano
  • Calc: bc
  • Cal: cal
  • Music/Video: mpv
  • Search: find

22 Travel

22.1 HD Top 10 Tours

  1. Texas Hill Country
    • Three Sisters - Ranch roads 33, 336, 337
    • 100 mi loop
  2. Florida Forgotten Coast
    • US Route 98 - 80 mi
    • Apalachicola Bay - FL Panhandle
  3. Maine Seacoast
    • US Route 1 - Kittery to Calais
  4. Overseas Highway (FL)
    • US Route 1
  5. Skyline Drive, VA
    • 105 mi - 35mph speed limit
    • Shenandoah National Park
    • 75 scenic overlooks
  6. Deals Gap, TN
    • US Route 129
    • 318 curves in 11 mi
  7. Black Hills/Badlands, SD
    • Badlands loop
    • 31 mi
  8. West TX - Big Bend Region
    • Marfa TX
  9. Trail Ridge Road, Rock Mountain National Park, CO
    • US Route 34
    • Above the 11,500 ft treeline
  10. US Route 50 - Nevada National Park, CO
    • Loneliest road in America
    • 285 mi

22.2 2019 Summer Camp Ideas

22.3 23:59 Is The Coolest Airline Rule For Travelers

Any connecting flight under 24 hours counts as just that – a connection. By building in stopovers up to 23 hours and 59 minutes, you’re able to save money on the ticket, leave the airport, hit the city, (or the beach) and explore until your next flight.


  • Seek bad connections in great cities, or use multi city flight booking to create connections manually.
  • If you can find a flight that lands mid day and leaves mid day the next day, you can take in a full dinner, drinks and stroll around the city, before carrying on. Or better yet, if you land early in the morning and leave late at night, you don’t even need to pay for a hotel!

22.4 Orlando: 36 Hours in Orlando


  1. 3 P.M. Digital Art Dive
    • Make the Orlando Museum of Art (admission, $15) your first stop in erasing theme park stereotypes.
  2. 5 P.M. Aperitif With Atmosphere
    • Set design does not begin and end with Disney, as the new Mathers Social Gathering lounge testifies. The downtown speakeasy-style bar resides on the third floor of a 19th-century furniture store.
  3. 6 P.M. Taco Time
    • if you can only hit one, make it Black Rooster Taqueria.
  4. 7:30 P.M. Orchestral Maneuvers
    • Follow the creative crowd to whatever is happening at the Timucua Arts Foundation.


  1. 9 A.M. D.I.Y. Neighborhood Tour
    • Take a D.I.Y. tour to get a feel for Old Florida life aboard one of the orange bikes in the Juice Bike Share program ($8 an hour)
  2. 11 A.M. House & Garden
    • In the 19th century, old-money snowbirds from the north began spending their winters beside the lakes of Central Florida, particularly Winter Park, the Orlando neighbor that feels more like a village than a suburb. They and modern-day successors built mansions lining Lakes Osceola, Maitland and Virginia, which are connected by old logging channels: narrow passages about the width of the 18-seat pontoon boats operated by Scenic Boat Tour.
  3. 1 P.M. Double Feature
    • One of Winter Park’s affluent part-timers was Charles Hosmer Morse, whose heirs eventually amassed the largest collection of glass works by Louis Comfort Tiffany in the world and made it the anchor of the Charles Hosmer Morse Museum of American Art.
    • For contemporary ballast, cross the leafy Rollins College campus to the Cornell Fine Arts Museum, which mounts shows with pieces that range from old master paintings to modern-day neon.
  4. 4 P.M. Pushing Paper
    • A few blocks east on Winter Park’s main drag, Park Avenue, independent boutiques include Violet Clover, selling blouses and accessories; and Han Design, with unique jewelry and Turkish rugs. Grab a novel and flop down in a cozy armchair at Writer’s Block Bookstore, where the staff tapes their mini book reviews to the shelves.
  5. 6:30 P.M. Progressive Feast
    • Winter Park offers a bounty of restaurants within walking distance of each other. Start at the Ravenous Pig, staffed by crack bartenders who whip up cocktails that may include a rum-port-spiced apple Needle in the Hay ($12). Move on to bustling Prato, where the partner and chef Brandon McGlamery serves market-inspired Italian dishes, including house-made pastas ($17) and pizzas ($16) cooked in a wood-fired oven. He also oversees Luma on Park, a romantic spot with an open kitchen and a luscious pineapple curd ($8) on the dessert menu.
  6. 9 P.M. After-Dinner Art
    • The culinary arts and the fine arts meet at the Alfond Inn at Rollins, a few blocks from Park Avenue. Contemporary art fills the ground floor of the 112-room hotel in a rotating arrangement overseen by the curators of the Cornell Fine Arts Museum. Join the locals for post-dinner drinks in admiring the art or sitting around the courtyard fires beside the bougainvillea hedges.


  1. 8 A.M. Wild and Scenic Splash
    • Rarely do you see such bodies of water buffered by native hardwood forests, which makes Wekiwa Springs State Park, about 16 miles from downtown, worth the trip.
  2. Noon. To Market
    • ew places capture the creative energy of millennial Orlando as tastily as the four-year-old East End Market. Garden plots grow herbs and vegetables outside the building in the Audubon Park Garden District.

22.5 Orlando: Kid deals in Orlando






  • IHOP kids eat free Fridays 4-10p



  • Astro skate $1/person $3 skate rental 3-5p

22.6 Orlando: To Do in Orlando

  • Bill Fredrick Park
    3401 South Hiawassee Road, FL 32835, 407-246-4486
    For just $5 per car you could visit Bill Frederick Park home to one of the top five fishing lakes in Florida, Turkey Lake. Open from 8 a.m. to 5 p.m. you can hike trails, cook on an outdoor grill in one of the open gazebos, rent a kayak or swim in the lake.
  • Wekiva Springs
    1800 Wekiwa Circle, Apopka FL 32712, 407-553-4383
    The swimming and nature trails are open to the public but camping grounds and restroom availability are at limited capacity. Enjoy the outdoors and social distance in this famous Florida springs and dry off with a long walk or run through one of the nature trails. It’s just $6 per vehicle to enter the park.
  • Kelly Park
    400 E. Kelly Park Road, Apopka, FL 32712, 407-254-1902
    Have fun outdoors at Kelly Park by tubing, kayaking, canoeing, paddle boarding or camping. Swimming is closed until further notice but that doesn’t mean your fun in the water is limited. Kelly Park is known for its tubing!
  • Orlando Tree Trek Adventure Park
    7625 Sinclair Road, Kissimmee, Florida 34747, 407-390-9999
    Looking for a thrill while surrounded by a natural pine forest, Orlando Tree Trek Adventure Park offers guests a challenging aerial obstacle course for all levels of skills. Offering 5 levels in total, including a kid’s course, each adventure increases in elevation and difficulty. Some opportunities include climbing Tarzan Ropes, leaping into hanging nets, soaring through the forest on a zip-line, and so much more.
  • Lakeridge Winery and Vineyards
    19239 U.S. 27 North., Clermont, Florida 34715, 1-800-768-WINE
    Due to the ongoing coronavirus pandemic the Lakeridge Winery and Vineyards monthly outdoor festivals are cancelled but they have been replaced with weekends at the winery. Every Saturday and Sunday from noon to 4 p.m. enjoy live music on an outdoor stage, a wine bar, food pavilion, coronhole and other games. The best part is admission is free!
  • West Orange Trail
    501 Crown Point Cross Road, Winter Garden, FL 34787, 407-654-1108
    Run, walk, bike or ride on horseback along the 22.26 mile long trail in Winter Garden. You can even stop at the butterfly garden at the Tildenville Outpost. Winter Garden station and Killarney Station in Oakland offer bike rentals for those wishing to bike the long trail.
  • Mead Botanical Garden
    1300 S. Denning Drive, Winter Park, FL 32789, 407-622-6323
    Get in touch with nature at this 47-acre botanical garden in Winter Park. You can hike the trials, swim in the creek, explore the boardwalk, the greenhouse and view the butterfly garden all for no admission fee.
  • Clermont Farmers Market
    685 W. Montrose Street Clermont, FL 34711, 352-617-8788
    The market is open Sundays from 9 a.m. to 1 p.m. with many vendors and lots of open space to socially distance. The market has hand sanitizing stations at the entrance, hand sanitizers at each booth, chalk marks for lines, a limit on the number of people per booth, signage to remind customers of social distancing, suspension of samples and additional space via wider market aisles.
  • Giraffe Ranch
    38650 Mickler Road, Dade City, FL 33523, 813-482-3400
    Due to the coronavirus pandemic Giraffe Ranch is now a safari exploration in your own car. The drive through safari tours span over the 46-acre ranch where you can see giraffes, rhinos, pygmy hippos, tapirs, deer, antelopes, zebras, camels and so many more. Make sure to book your reservation online for your one hour tour for $125 weekday safari tour or $150 weekend tour.
  • Revolution Off Road
    4000 State Road 33 Clermont, FL 34714, 352-400-1322
    Looking to shoot, ride atvs, drive an 8-wheel vehicle through lakes or go fishing visit Revolution Off Road. The off road driving tour service recently reopened on May 29 and is still working with reduced spaces on daily tours to promote social distancing so call to reserve your time slot between 10 a.m. and 4 p.m.
  • Winter Park Farmers Market
    W. Morse Blvd & S. New York Ave, Winter Park, FL 32789, 407-599-3328
    While typically held at the old train depot in Winter Park, the Winter Park Farmers market has a new location and new times from 8 a.m. to 1p.m. with limited vendors due to the coronavirus pandemic. The new location of the Central Park West Meadow allows for lots of social distancing space throughout the summer months.
  • Bok Tower Gardens
    1151 Tower Boulevard, Lake Wales, FL 33853, 863-676-1408
    Visit the gardens open from 9 a.m. to 6p.m. daily. The Blue Palmetto Cafe now accepting online orders and the shop at the Bok are also opened now. Face masks are required when visiting the gardens and are encouraged when inside all interior spaces.
  • Hidden Palm Ranch
    1410 Oakway Sanford, FL 32773, 407-620-7880
    Reserve a spot to ride in a guided group tour on horseback or a private trail ride through the Lake Jesup conservation area. You can also book a one-on-one horse experience to groom and spend time with one of the family owned horses in the business.
  • Lake Mary Farmers Market
    100 N. Country Club Road Lake Mary, FL 32746, 407-585-1421
    The Lake Mary farmers market recently reopened on May 16 and encourages face masks and social distancing. The market which goes on every Saturday from 9 a.m. to 1:30 p.m. offers plant booths, baked goods, treats and handmade jewelry booths.
  • Buena Vista Watersports
    13245 Lake Bryan Drive, FL 32821, 407-239-6939
    Rent a boat, a paddle board, a kayak or jet ski for the day at Buena Vista Watersports. The perfect place to socially distance with your quarantine partners and have fun on the water. Call ahead to make reservations for the equipment you want to rent.
  • Showcase of Citrus
    5010 US Highway 27 Clermont, FL 34714, 352-394-4377
    Visit the Showcase of Citrus to pick oranges on the family owned 2,500 acre farm, feed farm animals, visit the old time country store or take a monster truck tour. Monster truck tours are limited to 10 people maximum to promote social distancing and reservations can be made through the phone.”"
  • Harry P. Leu Gardens
    1920 N. Forest Ave., 407-246-26
    While the museum is still closed due to the coronavirus pandemic, guests can still explore the 50-acre botanical garden. Admission is $10 for adults and $5 for children. Masks are required and admissions in no longer accepting cash but are encouraging online ticket purchases or credit cards.
  • The Canyons Zip Line and Adventure Park
    8045 N.W. GAINESVILLE Road, OCALA, FL, 352-351-9477
    Call or book online for your day zip lining, kayaking, riding through trails on horseback, wine tasting or even gem mining at this adventure park. The Canyons Zip Line and Adventure Park is a nationally recognized award winning park that will surely make summer during a pandemic a lot more fun.
  • Nona Adventure Park
    14086 Centerline Drive, FL 32827, 407-313-2907
    Head out to Lake Nona to discover the aquatic adventures of Nona Adventure Park. While the climbing tower remains closed, wakeboarding, paddle boarding, swimming, the inflatable aqua park and bistro are open to enjoy for all.
  • Juniper Springs
    26701 E. Highway 40, Silver Springs, FL 34488-6741, 877-444-67
    Enjoy a day or weekend away at Juniper Springs where you can rent canoes, walk the nature trails or swim in one of the hundreds of natural springs along the seven mile creek. There are plenty of opportunities to socially distance among the park and springs under the canopy of trees.

23 Work and Career

23.1 4 Folders for all paperwork

  1. Hot:
    • In this folder, put anything you need to address in the next few days, such as background on a new client project that you need to review or a coupon that you don't want to forget for an upcoming oil change.
  2. Bills:
    • In this folder, put any bills that you receive in the mail, or which you receive via email but want to retain a paper copy.
  3. To Review:
    • In this folder, put anything that you don't need to deal with right now, but that you do need to process eventually, such as a tax receipt that needs to be entered or a magazine that you want to read.
  4. Inspiration:
    • In this folder, put anything that inspires you and which you don't want to lose. Interviews with other creatives you admire. Ideas that may some day mature into new projects. Ads for vacations you may want to take someday. As creatives, it's important to gather the stuff that inspires us, and review these periodically.

23.2 7 practical methods for how to prioritize work

  1. Capture everything on a Master List and then break it down by monthly, weekly, and daily goals
  2. Separate the urgent from the important with the Eisenhower Matrix
    1. Urgent and Important: Do these tasks as soon as possible
    2. Important, but not urgent: Decide when you’ll do these and schedule it
    3. Urgent, but not important: Delegate these tasks to someone else
    4. Neither urgent nor important: Drop these from your schedule as soon as possible
  3. Rank your work by its true priority with the Ivy Lee Method
    1. At the end of each work day, write down the six most important things you need to accomplish tomorrow. Do not write down more than six tasks.
    2. Prioritize those six items in order of their true importance.
    3. When you arrive tomorrow, concentrate only on the first task. Work until the first task is finished before moving on to the next one.
    4. Approach the rest of your list in the same fashion. At the end of the day, move any unfinished items to a new list of six tasks for the following day.
    5. Repeat this process every working day.
  4. Separate tasks with seemingly similar priorities using the ABCDE method
    1. Go through your list and give every task a letter from A to E (A being the highest priority)
    2. For every task that has an A, give it a number which dictates the order you’ll do it in
    3. Repeat until all tasks have letters and numbers
  5. Set the tone of the day by “Eating the frog”
  6. Cut out “good enough” goals with Warren Buffett’s 2-list strategy
    1. Periodically reassess your long-term goals and priorities to make sure you’re still on the right path.
    2. The first step is to write down your top 25 goals. This could be life goals, career goals, education goals, or anything else you want to spend your time on.
    3. Now, circle your top five goals on that list (if you’re doing this right now, finish circling before moving on).
    4. Finally, any goal you didn’t circle goes on an “avoid at all cost” list.
  7. Be aware of the sunk cost fallacy (i.e. don’t fix a leaky boat. Just switch vessels)

23.3 9 tips for managing your boss

Most physicians are accountable to a medical director, another physician in their practice, or an administrator. Here’s how to work together to advance your goals, their goals, and your organization:

  1. Make sure you and your boss understand each other’s objectives,
  2. Keep your boss informed at the level that fits his or her work style,
  3. Communicate about successes and setbacks,
  4. Maintain honesty and dependability to build trust,
  5. Respect one another’s time,
  6. Learn how best to sell your ideas,
  7. Give positive reinforcement,
  8. When passing judgment, communicate with tact and good intentions,
  9. Focus on what you can change, even if it’s only your attitude.


23.4 Create a values-driven schedule

  • Step 1: Get Clear on What’s Most Important
    • Begin by listing these key items:
    • The categories you want to include in your schedule
    • The level of achievement you want in these areas
    • Essential rituals for yourself or your family
  • Step 2: Define Why They’re Important
  • Step 3: Fuse Your Priorities with Your Schedule
    • Here are some examples of priorities translated into calendar actions:
      • Exercise: Go to the gym on Monday, Wednesday, and Friday before work from 6:30-7:30 am.
      • Family time: Eat Saturday morning breakfast with the family around 8 am.
      • Connection time: 15-20 minutes before their bedtime, talk to the kids about anything on their minds. Spend some time talking with my spouse before going to bed as well.
      • Activity time: Leave at 4:30 pm on Tuesdays to take my daughter to dance class.
      • Alone time: Take a 15-minute walk around 2:30 pm to clear my head and get refreshed.

23.5 GTD 5 Steps

  1. Collect

The notion of stress-free productivity starts with off-loading what needs to get done from one's head, capturing everything that is necessary to track, remember, or take action on, into what Allen calls a bucket: a physical inbox, an email inbox, a tape recorder, a notebook, a PDA, a desktop, etc. The idea is to get everything out of one's head and into a collection device, ready for processing. All buckets should be emptied (processed) at least once per week.

Allen doesn't advocate any preferred collection method, leaving the choice to the individual. He only insists upon the importance of emptying the "buckets" regularly. Any storage space (physical inbox, email inbox, tape recorder, notebook, PDA, etc.) that is processed regularly by the individual is acceptable.


  1. Process

When processing a bucket, a strict workflow is followed:

Start at the top. Deal with one item at a time. Never put anything back into 'in'. If an item requires action: Do it (if it takes less than two minutes), OR Delegate it, OR Defer it. If an item does not require action: File it for reference, OR Throw it away, OR Incubate it for possible action later. If it takes under two minutes to do something, it should be done immediately. The two-minute rule is a guideline, encompassing roughly the time it would take to formally defer the action.


  1. Organize

Allen describes a suggested set of lists which can be used to keep track of items awaiting attention:

Next actions - For every item requiring attention, decide what is the next action that can be physically taken on that item. For example, if the item is, "Write project report", the next action might be, "Email Fred for meeting minutes", or, "Call Mary to ask about report requirements". Though there may be many steps and actions required to complete the item, there will always be something that needs to be done first, and this step should be recorded in the next actions list. Preferably, these steps are organized by the context in which they can be done, such as "in the office", "by the phone", or "at the store".

Projects - Every open loop in one's life or work which requires more than one physical action to achieve becomes a project. These projects are tracked and periodically reviewed to make sure that every project has a next action associated with it, and thus can be moved forward.

Waiting for - When an action has been delegated to someone else, or when one is waiting for some external event before a project can be moved forward, this is tracked in the system and periodically checked to see if action is due, or a reminder needs to be sent.

Someday/Maybe - Things to be done at some point, but not right now. Examples might be "learn Spanish", or, "take diving holiday". A calendar is important for keeping track of appointments and commitments; however, Allen specifically recommends that the calendar be reserved for the hard landscape: things which absolutely have to be done by a particular deadline, or meetings and appointments which are fixed in time and place. To-do items should be reserved for the next action lists.

A final key organizing component of GTD is the filing system. A filing system must be easy, simple and fun. Even a single piece of paper, if needed for reference, should get its own file if it doesn't belong in an existing folder. Allen suggests a single, alphabetically organized filing system, in order to make it as quick and easy as possible to store and retrieve the needed information.


  1. Review

The lists of actions and reminders will be of little use if not reviewed regularly (usually weekly). Given the time, energy, and resources available at a particular moment, one must decide the most important task to be done immediately, and do it. If one is inclined to procrastinate, one may end up always doing easy tasks and avoiding difficult ones. To solve this, one can decide to do the actions on the list one by one, in order, just like processing an inbox.

The discipline of GTD requires that all outstanding actions, projects and 'waiting for' items are reviewed at least once per week, making sure that any new tasks or upcoming events are entered into one's system, and that everything is up to date. Allen suggests creating a "tickler file" containing outstanding tasks and projects as a way to refresh one's memory daily.


  1. Do

Any organizational system is no good if excessive time is spent organizing tasks instead of actually doing them. Allen's contention is that if one can make it simple, easy, and fun to take the necessary actions, one will be less inclined to procrastinate or become overwhelmed with too many 'open loops'.

23.5.1 GTD process

  • Is it Actionable?

No - Place in one of these folders:

  • Trash
  • Reference
  • Someday

Yes - Process into Plan/Project, place in Someday folder if maybe later, or task:

  • For tasks - will it take <2 min to complete?
    • Yes - Do it
    • No - Delegate and wait or
    • No - Defer to Delegate or Do next.

23.5.2 Email GTD

  • Does it take <2 min to address - if so: Do it now
  • Place in one of the following folders:
    • Delete
    • Follow up (things that must be done - also add to to-do list)
    • Archive (things to save for reference)
    • Hold (Temporary holding pen - must be reviewed regularly)

23.6 Lean Stuff

23.6.1 5 S's for Cleaning, Organizing, Standardizing the workplace

5 S's for Cleaning, Organizing, Standardizing the workplace

  • Sort
  • Separate
  • Shine
  • Standardize
  • Sustain

23.6.2 PDSA

  1. Plan
  2. Do
  3. Study
  4. Act

23.6.3 Root Cause

  1. 5 W's for every problem:
    • Why…
    • Why…
    • Why…
    • Why…
    • Why…
  2. Fishbone map

23.6.4 Shingo model for organizational principles

The Shingo Model is based on 10 universally accepted Guiding Principles. Each principle plays a critical role in enabling an organization's culture, designing systems for continuous improvement, aligning principles, behaviors and results across the enterprise, and achieving a sustainable culture of excellence.

The Shingo Model Organizational Principles:

  1. Respect every individual
  2. Lead with humility
  3. Seek perfection
  4. Ensure quality at the source
  5. Employ scientific thinking
  6. Focus on process
  7. Think systemically
  8. Create constancy of purpose
  9. Achieve transparency through visual management

23.6.5 SMART Objectives

  • S - Specific
  • M - Measurable
  • A - Attainable
  • R - Relevant
  • T - Time-bound

23.7 Map Out Your Career Ambitions   2020

How we grow most successfully The 70-20-10 model - This research-derived mantra says that roughly:

  • 70% of your professional growth will come from the work experiences you have,
  • 20% will come from your interactions with others, and
  • 10% will come from formal education.

Two key steps to grow faster are:

  1. Determine your from/to.
    • Examples of great from/to statements include:
      • From an individual contributor who adds value through technical expertise and closely follows others’ directions, to a people leader who creates a clear strategy and delivers results through a small team.
      • From a business strategist who can appear aloof and dismissive of those with less intellectual horsepower, to a general manager who aligns and inspires her region through personal connections and demonstrates genuine care for people.
  2. Get the experiences and create a personal experience map.
    • Create Your Personal Experience Map
    • Two types of experiences that will accelerate your development:
      1. functional experiences
        • Functional experiences help make you great at something, i.e. marketing, supply chain, R&D. They allow you to prove that you’re highly competent at what you do.
      2. Management experiences
        • Management experiences will help you prove that you can perform or manage in a variety of challenging situations.

Build your map

  • Your goal is to sort through this information to find the few experiences that will most accelerate your career.
  • For simplicity, you can use these experiences when you create your map:
    • Life-cycle experiences: Lead in different parts of your company or product evolution: a turnaround situation, a startup, a steady-state environment, a developing market or a fully mature one.
    • Managing experiences: Upgrade a poor-quality team, lead a large team, manage a team where you have influence but not authority, lead in a matrixed environment, lead in a highly political environment.
    • Geographic experiences: Have experiences outside your home geography where the local language is not your native language.
  • Select four to seven functional experiences and three to four management experiences you believe will benefit you most and list them on your personal experience map.

23.8 Mentoring Questions

  1. What Does Success Look Like To You?
  2. What Is The Outcome You Want?
  3. What Do You Want To Be Different In Three To Five Years?
  4. What Are The Obstacles You’re Facing?
  5. What Can You Control?
  6. What Are The Options You’ve Come Up With?
  7. Tell Me More.
  8. What Are You Reading?

23.9 Never Wait

  • Your career is more important than its details.
  • Success is your top priority.
  • Never let anything stop you.

23.10 One-Three-Five List (1-3-5)   2020

Instead of organizing entries by time or urgency, a one-three-five list looks at the size of the tasks at hand.

  • Start by identifying the biggest job of the day — that goes in the number one slot.
  • From there, pick three smaller, but still important tasks to fill out the middle of your list.
  • Finish it off with five small items you’ll be able to take care of quickly.

While it may be impossible to stick with what’s on the list every day, it doesn’t hurt to have it as a guideline.

23.11 Organize To-do's (SUG Technique)

Organize To-do's (SUG):

Weight them according to three variables — seriousness, urgency, and growth:

  • Significance: How important is this task or issue?
  • Urgency: How long will it take to complete?
  • Growth: Will this issue get worse if I wait to tackle it?

Grade each item using "high," "medium," or "low" for seriousness and urgency and "yes" or "no" for growth.

To take your SUG list from personal to collective, ask these three questions for each item:

  • Is this something that only I can do?
  • Are there any ways to automate this task?
  • Is there an opportunity here for me to mentor others?

23.12 Start the workday

  1. Eat The Frog
    • Mark Twain once said that if the first thing you do in the morning is eat a live frog, you can go through the rest of the day knowing it can’t get any worse. That doesn’t mean you have to go and switch your soy latte for a frog—it simply means you should do your most important assignment first. Studies have shown that you have the most willpower in the morning, so harness your motivation mojo and master your most important task bright and early.
  2. Scan For Red Flags
    • Productivity experts recommend that you not spend your morning reading and answering emails (as I learned firsthand, it can totally derail your good a.m. intentions). Focus your morning on what you need to get done—not the little things people need from you. Quickly scan your emails to see if there is anything high priority that will affect your goals for the day, then keep the trains moving. As Julie Morgenstern, author of Never Check Email in the Morning, told the Huffington Post, "Those requests and those interruptions and those unexpected surprises and those reminders and problems are endless . . . there is very little that cannot wait a minimum of 59 minutes." So if you want to be more productive throughout your day, step away from your inbox in the morning. Seriously.
  3. Rally Your To-Do List
    • Organizing your to-do list might sound like yet another thing to add to your to-do list, but doing so is like creating a compass to get you to that golden "closing time" hour. How do you decide which task is "more important" than another? Use time management and productivity expert Laura Vanderkam’s advice and quickly ask yourself five questions: Does it take a step toward a big professional goal? Does your boss say it’s a top priority? Does it make you money? Does it lighten your mental load? Can it only be done today? Once you have your list organized, break down any big tasks into specific actions you’ll take to accomplish them.
  4. Check In With Your Team
    • It’s small but mighty: Say hello to your colleagues in the morning.

23.13 Stoics and productivity:

What to learn about productiity from ancient stoics:

  1. Protect your time like your money: You can get more money.
  2. Manage emotions to better manage time: Feeling too cranky right now; I’ll explain this later.
  3. Important beats urgent: Getting a lot of unnecessary things done is not productivity; it’s stupidity.
  4. Focus on effort, not outcome: You can’t control whether it ends up as a “robbery” or an “attempted robbery”, just focus on executing the heist in a way that would make mom proud.

23.14 Try hard enough that you fail 15% of the time

If You Want To Learn Efficiently, Plan On Failing 15% Of The Time

Learning is optimized when we get answers right on a given subject 85% of the time.

"If you have an error rate of 15% or accuracy of 85%, you are always maximizing your rate of learning"


23.15 What the Best Mentors Do

  • Put the relationship before the mentorship.
  • Focus on character rather than competency.
  • Shout loudly with your optimism, and keep quiet with your cynicism.
  • Be more loyal to your mentee than you are to your company.

23.16 Why things fail

  1. Stage 1 is a Failure of Tactics. These are HOW mistakes. They occur when you fail to build robust systems, forget to measure carefully, and get lazy with the details. A Failure of Tactics is a failure to execute on a good plan and a clear vision.
    • There are three primary ways to fix Failures of Tactics.
      • Record your process.
      • Measure your outcomes.
      • Review and adjust your tactics.
  2. Stage 2 is a Failure of Strategy. These are WHAT mistakes. They occur when you follow a strategy that fails to deliver the results you want. You can know why you do the things you do and you can know how to do the work, but still choose the wrong what to make it happen.
    • There are three primary ways to fix Failures of Strategy.
      • Launch it quickly.
      • Do it cheaply.
      • Revise it rapidly.
  3. Stage 3 is a Failure of Vision. These are WHY mistakes. They occur when you don’t set a clear direction for yourself, follow a vision that doesn’t fulfill you, or otherwise fail to understand why you do the things you do.
    • There are three primary ways to fix Failures of Vision.
      1. Take stock of your life.
      2. Determine your non-negotiable.
      3. Navigate criticism.
  4. The 4th Stage of Failure
    • There is a 4th stage of failure that we haven’t talked about: Failures of Opportunity.
      • These are WHO mistakes.
      • They occur when society fails to provide equal opportunity for all people.
      • Failures of Opportunity are the result of many complex factors: age, race, gender, income, education, and more.

23.17 Write a personal manifesto

To ensure your goals are well-formed and clear, ask yourself:

  • "Is this desire Positive, Immediate, Concrete, and Specific?"

This step ensures you’re stretching yourself and engaging your emotions appropriately in forming your goals. Ask yourself:

  • "Is this goal Ambitious, Meaningful, and Exciting?"

The goal of this phase of the Masterplanning process is to reduce your list of active goals to five:

  1. One health / fitness goal
  2. One relationship goal
  3. One skill acquisition / personal growth goal
  4. One wealth / career goal
  5. One enjoyment goal

24 Writing

24.1 10 Rules to write better

  1. Open with questions that get the reader to say “yes.”
  2. Double tap the “Enter” button every 1-3 sentences.
  3. Bold your key benefits.
  4. Isolate important information using bullet points.
    • Bullets and numbered lists will:
      • Organize your text, making it more scannable and digestible.
      • Highlight your key points and other important bits of information.
      • Draw the most attention after your headline and subheads, making them an ideal vessel for benefits.
  5. Start sentences with “Imagine,” “Remember,” or “Picture this …”
    • These words are triggers. They let readers know you’re about to tell them a story, jog their memory, or paint them a picture (the way I do here). People love that stuff. Always have.
  6. Incorporate the word “because” as often as possible.
    • “Because” is another trigger word. It lets people know they’re about to hear a justification – a reason why – which, according to renowned researcher and author, Dr. Robert Cialdini, is great at getting people to nod their heads:
  7. Convert sentences to active voice.
    • Nothing kills writing quite like the overuse of passive voice. A simple way to combat this? Convert sentences to active voice.
    • Active voice means the subject of each sentence is doing the action rather than receiving it. The latter would be passive voice. For example:
      • Active: Usain Bolt broke the world record.
      • Passive: The world record was broken by Usain Bolt.
    • To passive-proof your text, start by doing a CTRL-F for the word “by.” That’ll quickly highlight sentences in which the subject may be receiving the action rather than doing it.
    • Or you can let Hemingway Editor find them for you.
  8. Rewrite everything in the second person.
    • Second person is the most engaging narrative mode because it’s the most personal. Pronouns like “you,” “your,” and “yours” will help the reader see themselves in your copy and, consequently, in the story your product or service is trying to tell.
    • Great writing speaks to readers on an intimate level. It connects with them, which is incredibly difficult to do. But writing in the second person makes it easier.
  9. Count your adverbs and then cut that number in half.
    • Adverbs are very, very good at weakening your writing.
    • If you want your writing to grab people by the collar, replace that mediocre adverb-verb combo with a single punchy, potent verb.
  10. Amend your call-to-action to be a call-to-value.
    • Before you publish that landing page or send out that email, you should double-check your call-to-action (you know, the essential end-piece that tells your reader what to do next). Make sure it’s clear and concise, bold and visible, urgent and compelling. Most importantly, make sure it communicates benefits (i.e., the value that awaits those who do what you’re asking).
    • For example, if you’re a travel agent, don’t let your copy read “Call now for a free quote” or something equally typical and uninspiring. Instead, drive them to take action with a sneak peak: “Call now and let the anticipation begin” or “Click today and be gone tomorrow.”

24.2 5 Drafts of book writing

  1. Draft #1: The Junk Draft

This is your first try, what my friend Marion calls the “vomit draft.” It’s where you get all your ideas on paper or screen or whatever. It’s where you dream big and swing for the fences. Save your cynicism and self-doubt for later. Here, anything is possible. Lesson: Your dreams must be bigger than your doubts.

  1. Draft #2: The Structure Draft

This is where you look at the structure of your project. Does the story flow? Is the argument cohesive and consistent? Will people look at it and see something that resembles some kind of order? At this point, you need to make a decision. Will you commit to this? Here is where you abandon your project, go back to the drawing board, or decide to forge ahead. Lesson: Before you can make it pretty, you have to make it work.

  1. Draft #3: The Rough Draft

This is the point at which you have an actual manuscript, something you can legitimately call a “work-in-progress.” At this stage, you will review you work as a whole and see if what you’ve said makes sense. From idea to idea, chapter to chapter, and sentence to sentence. Now that you’ve got a structure, it’s time to make this thing sing. Lesson: Excellence takes longer than we want.

  1. Draft #4: The Surgery Draft

At this point, you need to start slicing and dicing, cutting your content down to its most essential message. You’ve gone through enough edits that you’ve added things, beautiful things. Unnecessary things. Distracting things. You’re too close to the work now and need to have a someone review it. Ask a friend, peer, or professional editor (if you can afford it) to do her worst. Be ready for the criticism to come and decide ahead of time to apply it. All feedback is a gift, if you choose to see it that way. Here, you must cut superfluous phrases and nonessential details. You might even kill entire chapters and sections. It’s hard and painful but so important to making your message clear and good. Lesson: The simplest version of a book is the best.

  1. Draft #5: The Last Draft

This is when you go through your work and try to tweak the parts that could be better, where you make sure there are no loose ends or dangling parts that don’t make sense or resolve. Simply put, this is the final edit. After this draft, it’s wise to have a whole team of people review your work to catch simple errors. But this is the last chance to make major edits to your project. This is also when you decide to push forward and ship your work. It’s the decision point at which you throw the manuscript in the trash (as Stephen King did with Carrie before his wife pulled it out) or swallow your fear and push on.


"Art is never finished, only abandoned." —Leonardo da Vinci You will never have a “final” draft. Your work will never be done, not completely. However, there comes a point when you must decide to release an imperfect creation into the world — or not.

And this is where so many people stop, which is sad. Because by now, you’re closer now than you think. In some cases, it’s only a matter of inches or hours between you and a breakthrough.

If you’ve done the work, this is the easy part. Because chances are, after all this editing and critiquing, you’ve got something good. The question is, will we get to see it?

Lesson: Your work is never complete. But at some point you must decide to finish, anyway.

24.3 Book Formatting

24.3.1 Automatic Hyphenation

you can do hyphenation by choosing a paragraph or many, and do click menu Format > Paragraph > Text Flow > enable Hyphenation: Automatically. Its default configuration is basically safe.

24.3.2 Page styles

To edit pages/styles:

  • Press Alt+F11 to open dialog
  • Double click on the page desired

To make new page a new style:

  • Enter manual break with next desired page style

24.4 Good Writing   Notes

  1. Good writing is clear
  2. Good writing is cohesive
  3. Good writing has emphasis
  4. Good writing is concise
    • Compress what you mean into the fewest words
    • Don’t state what your reader can easily refer

24.5 How to set up your text structure for blogging

  1. Step 1: Create a list of topics
  2. Step 2: Bundle topics together
  3. Step 3: Order your topics
  4. Creating paragraphs
    1. A paragraph should form a thematic unit.
    2. A paragraph contains one core sentence and an elaboration of this core sentence.
    3. Info should be made more visible by using whitespace.
  5. Using transition words
    • enumerate - and, first of all, also, another, furthermore, finally, in addition
    • cause - because, so, due to, while, since, therefore
    • compare/contrast - same, less, rather, while, yet, opposite, much as, either
    • conclude - as a result, hence, consequently, therefore, in conclusion
    • ambiguity - seems like, maybe, probably, almost
    • emphasise - most of all, most noteworthy, especially relevant
  6. Use headings to help your reader - and Google


24.6 Publish Order

  1. [X] Remove hyperlinks in paperback
  2. [X] Register ISBN for both books - get publisher straight
  3. [X] Convert to ebook - use Calibre
    • [X] Finalize as much as possible in LibreOffice
    • [X] Use Calibre to inport odt file and convert to ebook
    • [X] Use Calibre to edit file combining every chapter
    • [X] Edit ebook to add chapter numbers
    • [X] Fix Table of Contents
    • [X] Double check everything
  4. [X] Upload Paperback to Ingram Spark and KDP - DO NOT PUBLISH
  5. [-] Upload ebooks
    • [X] KDP
    • [X] Barnes and Noble
    • [ ] Kobo
    • [ ] Smashwords (for libraries and Apple)
  6. [X] Order paperback proof from KDP
  7. [ ] Go live KDP
  8. [ ] After 24-48 hours and listed on Amazon, go live Ingram Spark

24.6.1 ISBN

  • Title:

Lose Weight and Keep it Off!

  • Subtitle:

A Clinical Evidence Based Approach for Successful Weight Management

  • Main description

In Lose Weight and Keep it Off! Dr. Matthew Rensberry walks through why certain aspects of our lives affect our weight and how we can modify behaviors to achieve healthy weight goals. Over one-third of all Americans meet the diagnostic criteria for obesity which affects all genders, ethnicities, and age groups. Excess weight is often a result of hormonal changes within the body, rather than simply poor self-control or a lack of motivation. In the same conversational tone used with his patients, Dr. Rensberry explains how the body physiology functions with weight and what practical tips can be employed to address them.


Do you struggle to lose weight? Have you lost weight, only to see it return? In Lose Weight and Keep it Off! Dr. Matthew Rensberry walks through why certain aspects of our lives affect our weight and how we can modify behaviors to achieve healthy weight goals.

Over one-third of all Americans meet the diagnostic criteria for obesity which affects all genders, ethnicities, and age groups. Excess weight is often a result of hormonal changes within the body, rather than simply poor self-control or a lack of motivation.

In the same conversational tone used with his patients, Dr. Rensberry explains how the body physiology functions with weight and what practical tips can be employed to address them.

In these pages you'll find:

  • A comprehensive overview of weight management and the medical basis behind it
  • Practical and actionable life adjustments to lose weight and keep it off
  • Strategies to partner with your doctor to optimize your weight loss

There is no one-size-fits all weight management program. This book gives you the tools to take control of your weight journey so you can lose weight and keep it off!

  • Health/Medicine
  • Published

Sep 13, 2019

  • Author

Matthew Rensberry, MD grew up in Central America where he translated for several medical mission teams and developed a love for medicine. He attended Olivet Nazarene University and then studied medicine at The Ohio State University College of Medicine. While there, Matthew signed up with the United States Army and joined the residency at Fort Hood in Texas. Following residency, he was assigned to the 1st Brigade in the 1st Cavalry Division as their Brigade Surgeon. He deployed for a year to Iraq and Kuwait. Following his time in the US Army, Dr. Rensberry moved to central Florida and became the medical director and faculty member for AdventHealth Family Medicine Program. In 2018, he resigned that position to open a private direct primary care practice called Anchor Direct Primary Care in Orlando, FL. One of Dr. Rensberry's passions is partnering with his patients to help them be successful in losing weight and maintaining their weight loss.

Matthew is married to Erica, has two children, and three dogs. He enjoys jogging, cycling, hiking, stand-up-paddleboarding, and many other excuses to spend time outdoors.

  • Prices

12.49 9.49

  • keywords:

weightloss, thin, skinny, obesity, overweight, beach, fitness, healthy

  • ISBN
    • ebook: 978-1-7334356-0-4
    • paperback: 978-1-7334356-1-1
  • Royalties
    • B&N: 6.17
    • Kobo:
    • KDP ebook:
    • KDP paperback:
    • Ingram paperback:

24.6.2 Book Things left to do

  • [ ] Add to website:
    • [ ] Portion size estimates
    • [ ] Sleep hygeine
  • [X] Finish Index
  • [X] Make 2 versions:
    • [X] Print
    • [X] Ebook
  • [X] Erica Review
  • [X] Make epub, mobi, and pdf for publishers
    • [X] pdf (book)
    • [X] pdf (cover)
    • [X] epub
  • [X] Set up publishing contracts
    • [X] Amazon,
    • [X] IngramSpark
  • [X] Buy ISBN (Bowker)
  • [X] Fix Book template file
  • [X] GET A TITLE!
  • [X] Calculators on website for links
    • [X] Make calculator html file for iframe
    • [X] Footnote #6
    • [X] Update website
  • [X] About the Author
  • [X] Internal links (Appendices)
  • [X] Go through Tips
  • [X] Grammar check
  • [X] Bibliography
  • [X] Appendices

24.6.3 Back Cover: About the book

Do you struggle to lose weight? Have you lost weight, only to see it return? In Lose Weight and Keep it Off! Dr. Matthew Rensberry walks through why certain aspects of our lives affect our weight and how we can modify behaviors to achieve healthy weight goals.

Over one-third of all Americans meet the diagnostic criteria for obesity which affects all genders, ethnicities, and age groups. Excess weight is often a result of hormonal changes within the body, rather than simply poor self-control or a lack of motivation.

In the same conversational tone used with his patients, Dr. Rensberry explains how the body physiology functions with weight and what practical tips can be employed to address them.

In these pages you'll find:

  • A comprehensive overview of weight management and the medical basis behind it
  • Practical and actionable life adjustments to lose weight and keep it off
  • Strategies to partner with your doctor to optimize your weight loss

There is no one-size-fits all weight management program. This book gives you the tools to take control of your weight journey so you can lose weight and keep it off!

24.6.4 Back Cover: About the Author

Matthew Rensberry, MD MBA, is a board certified physician in both family medicine and obesity medicine. He practices medicine with Anchor Direct Primary Care in Orlando, FL. One of Dr. Rensberry's passions is partnering with his patients to help them be successful in losing weight and maintaining their weight loss. Visit his author's website at or his practice's website at for more information.

24.7 Sensory words

Sensory words are descriptive:

  • Words related to sight indicate colors, shape, or appearance. For instance: gloomy, dazzling, bright, foggy, gigantic.
  • Words related to touch describe textures. You can use them to describe feelings and abstract concepts, too: gritty, creepy, slimy, fluff, sticky.
  • Words related to hearing describe sounds. For instance: crashing, thumping, piercing, tingling, squeaky. Often these words mimic sounds—that’s when they’re called onomatopoeic.
  • Taste and smell are closely related. Most taste and smell words are easy substitutes for bland words like good, nice, or bad. For instance: zesty, tantalizing, sweet, stinky, stale.
  • Motion is sensory, too. By using active words or describing movement, you help your readers experience your words. For instance: vibrating, soaring, mind-boggling, staggering, bumpy.

24.7.1 Sensory power words #1: Visual words

  • Gigantic
  • Teeny-tiny
  • Bulky
  • Glitter
  • Sparkling
  • Shimmering
  • Shiny
  • Glowing
  • Crooked
  • Hazy
  • Shadowy
  • Gloomy
  • Drab
  • Murky
  • Dull
  • Knotty
  • Vibrant

24.7.2 Sensory power words #2: Tactile words

  • Fluffy
  • Gritty
  • Rough
  • Smooth
  • Slimy
  • Sticky
  • Creepy
  • Crisp
  • Hairy
  • Chilled
  • To stifle
  • Woolly
  • Crisp

24.7.3 Sensory power words #3: Auditory words

  • Buzz
  • Hubbub
  • Humming
  • Faint
  • Deafening
  • Squeaky
  • Earsplitting
  • Serene
  • To sizzle
  • To hiss
  • To shriek
  • Snappy
  • Boom!
  • Roaring
  • Thundering
  • Crunchy

24.7.4 Sensory power words #4: Words related to taste and smell

  • Bland
  • Rotten
  • Fragrant
  • Stale
  • Juicy
  • Stinky
  • Gooey
  • Bitter
  • Yummy
  • Lipsmackingly
  • Pungent
  • Zesty
  • Sweet
  • Spice

24.7.5 Sensory power words #5: Motion words

  • Soaring
  • To resonate
  • To breeze through
  • Staggering
  • Blown away
  • Paralyzed
  • Eye-popping
  • Gobsmacked
  • Shocking
  • To grab
  • Jaw-droppingly good
  • Turbulent
  • Choppy
  • Swirling
  • To wriggle

25 Org

25.1 10 Ideas

  1. Reality is Malleable
    • Most of us will have far less impact than Jobs did. Yet in the smaller spheres of our own lives, there is impressive flexibility. Ideas can only change your life if you first accept the idea that life can be changed.
  2. Most Actions are Automatic
    • The vehicle for change is not ideas, but actions. Merely thinking up a new life for yourself does no good.
    • An important realization, then, is that much of our actions are performed without reflection. We repeat the same patterns endlessly, and in that repetition, create our lives. Real change rarely arrives from a single exertion, but from rewriting our scripts.
    • One of the first ideas I really ran with was the 30-Day Trial. The idea being that you commit yourself to a particular daily habit, for at least a month. Long enough to make the habit feel comfortable. Short enough that you can commit to ambitious efforts.
  3. Ambitious Goals Increase Effort Edwin Locke pioneered the experimental study of goal-setting. His rigorous research remains a pillar in our understanding of human motivation. Through these experiments he found two things:
    • Harder goals produce better results, provided they’re committed to.
    • Specific targets work better than vague suggestions to “do one’s best.”
    • Ambition itself has a high return. Economists Stacy Dale and Alan Kreuger sought to calculate the return to attending a selective school. They found that, when you control for the average SAT score of the school you applied to and the number of applications you submitted, the premium was negligible.
    • However, what this study also found was that applying to more difficult schools had an impressive return. Having the ambition to apply to lots of good schools, even if your own SAT score was mediocre, has a surprisingly high return.
    • All of this suggests that setting difficult, ambitious goals and committing to them has a bigger impact than many people realize.
  4. Some Progress Slows, Others Accelerate
    • A naive view of progress is to extrapolate in a straight-line. Yet our efforts tend to be dominated by two different trends: diminishing returns and compounding growth.
    • Diminishing returns happen when efforts crowd each other out. The first hour of studying is your most energetic. The fifteenth is exhausting. As efforts become increasingly unproductive, a key realization is often to know how good is good enough.
    • Compound growth occurs when each past improvement helps further growth. What initially looks like a trickle will end in a torrent. The problem is often one of patience. Since the beginning efforts seem unrewarded, they’re often abandoned before they can really start to work.1
    • Understanding what kind of growth you’re facing prepares you for progress. In general, we underinvest in compound growth because it looks like a waste of time. We overinvest in diminishing returns, trying to renew past accomplishments.
    • It should be noted that not all accelerating growth is exponential. Super-linear growth can occur when past items help, but the help itself crowds itself out. Learning, for instance, helps future learning. But it’s not exponential as that would require that every piece of knowledge help every future piece of knowledge. Instead, only a small fraction likely helps in each instance.
  5. Life is Largely Positive-Sum
    • For most of recorded history life has been overwhelmingly zero-sum. Living standards were stagnant, innovation was invisible and the only way to improve your life was to make someone else’s worse.
    • Injunctions against striving and wealth were common in many ancient philosophies. Jesus argued that the rich man could not get into heaven. Laozi preached non-doing as the supreme virtue. Some of this is a counterweight to our normal human egoism. But it partly reflected the situation of the time—most of the roads to worldly success came at the expense of other people.
    • In modern times, however, the major way that we have become rich isn’t through plunder, but through invention and service. Our lives are dominated by positive-sum activities—we improve our lots largely by making life better for others.
  6. Fear is Overcome Through Exposure
    • Exposure therapy is one of the most successful psychiatric therapies we have. It works to reduce an irrational fear by exposing you to the object of your fear combined with safety. Research suggests up to 70% of people may be helped.
    • Public speaking, talking to strangers or taking tests can all create a paralyzing anxiety. Knowing how to dial them down, even if it takes more work than flipping a switch, can make a big difference.
  7. Success is Stamina
    • A finite game, like chess, is one which you play for awhile and then you either win or lose. An infinite game, in contrast, never ends. To win means to keep playing.
    • Most of the activities we care about in life are infinite games. Businesses don’t “win” the market and quit. Health isn’t over once you’ve reached your weight-loss goal. Even knowledge decays and renews as you learn more things.
    • Conversely, if you can keep going you haven’t lost. Apple was on the brink of disaster just over two decades ago. Yet the game kept playing and they wound up as the most valuable company in the world. At least for now.
    • Stamina is the central virtue in a world full of infinite games.
  8. Attention Determines Your Direction
    • The quality of your life is, to a large extent, determined by what you pay attention to. Yet most of what grasps at our attention isn’t very high-quality.
    • Like weeds overrunning a garden, much of our minds’ space gets filled up with things that neither improve our lives nor prepare us for danger. Often it isn’t even pleasant, which could be an excuse for useless thoughts. Anxiety and anger about things we cannot control.
    • But like a prudent gardener, you can choose what you let grow in your mind. The conversations you have, books you read and news you follow are all seeds you can choose to water.
  9. We're Fundamentally Free
    • In my favorite novel, The Count of Monte Cristo, the protagonist, Edmond Dantes, is unfairly imprisoned for fourteen years in Chateau d’If. He spends most of the time brooding, raging and eventually attempting suicide. He is stopped from finally following through by the digging of his prison neighbor, the Abbe Faria who accidentally reaches his cell rather than escape.
    • Faria, who has been imprisoned longer than Dantes, has instead spent his captivity improving his mind—practicing languages, developing tools and reconstructing manuscripts from memory.
    • Freedom, in the sense of being able to do whatever you want is possessed by varying degrees by different people. Perhaps the situation of your life is quite constrained, or you’re confronted only by choices you don’t like very much. Increasing our options (and the options of other people) is part of what makes the good life.
    • Yet there’s a more basic sense of freedom, one understood by Alexandre Dumas as he wrote about the character of Abbe Faria. This freedom isn’t always pleasant to contemplate. Jean-Paul Sartre even described it as nauseating. As such, we often try to rid ourselves of it. Yet, if we accept it and make our choice there’s joy on the other side.
  10. Happiness is in the Pursuit, Not the Possession
    • It’s obviously true that life is better when you have friends, money and status. But it’s not that much better. Most often the absence of problems simply feels like nothing. Even when you achieve your dreams, your mind creates problems to fill the gaps. New pangs of hunger that you never felt before.
    • This can be a depressing realization or a liberating one. Depressing, because it means that many of the things you think should provide enduring happiness often fail to do so. Life has no happily ever after, simply more life.
    • But it’s also liberating because it suggests that we are what we do, much more than what we have. Engaging in meaningful pursuits, that help yourself and others, is a more satisfying way to live.
    • Seeing this, you can adapt your posture even if you feel like there are still many goals you have yet to reach. Instead of striving to attain some ideal of life, you can organize energy around pursuits that matter. In doing so, you can realize that ideal right now.

25.2 101 tactics for revolutionaries

  1. if you’re in charge, do it yourself
  2. if you’re not in charge, do it yourself
  3. become known as “the guy who…” so when the time is right, everyone knows there’s a guy who…
  4. learn to be nice, so people like you
  5. realise there are no rules, you can do what you like
  6. know that you are as right as you can be for now given what you’ve learnt so far
  7. know that this is the same for everybody else
  8. stay on the inside of the wrong thing so you can speak with authority on why and how it is wrong
  9. know it’s not a race. That you can divide the world into those ahead of you and those behind, and to all those ahead of you, you’re the one behind.
  10. be an entrepreneur not a crusader
  11. realise that when it works, it might not look like how you imagined it would
  12. wear sunscreen
  13. try new things, make sure other people can see they’re new so they change their mind about what works
  14. try old things, make sure other people can see they’re old so they change their minds about what works
  15. don’t try and do it unless you’d do it for free. They couldn’t pay you enough.
  16. realise it might take years
  17. realise it might never happen
  18. realise it might already have happened and you haven’t noticed as it isn’t called what you call it
  19. realise it might already have happened in the organisation you should be working for
  20. realise it doesn’t matter as you can never know in advance the answer to the above 4 points
  21. read books and blogs, it’s all been done before so take advantage of others experience and learning
  22. write it up as you’re going along, so others can take advantage of your experience and learning
  23. read Deming. Apply.
  24. realise that some people, some times, in some places, just aren’t interested. Pass them over.
  25. learn about psychology. People are your raw materials, know how they work
  26. be comfortable with being thought a deviant
  27. read the Tao Te Ching. Apply.
  28. learn to sell people the problem, not the solution. People buy because they have a problem.
  29. learn to listen. Not a platitude, an actual skill. Listen to people by not looking at them, being distracted by moving faces, look at the ground, or your hands, just listen to their voices like they are speaking on the radio, not the telly. I’ve just started this, and it’s amazing how much I must have been missing.
  30. don’t bother trying to change Corporate. They are Corporate for a reason. Corporate is never at the vanguard of real change.
  31. frontline is where it’s at, they get all the grief from customers, they are most grounded in how things really work and least convinced by the status quo.
  32. don’t call it anything. If it has a name, people, including you, will waste time arguing what it is and isn’t.
  33. call it something. Otherwise nobody can ever talk about it
  34. stories and data. In that order.
  35. read Made To Stick. Apply.
  36. know that nothing big or sustainable will happen unless the top management do it too.
  37. people don’t change their mind because they are persuaded to by others. They persuade themselves.
  38. you might have been persuaded by reading a book, most will not be, but you won’t know who will. Annoying isn’t it?
  39. “If you want to teach people a new way of thinking, don’t teach. Give them a tool, the use of which will lead to it” -Buckminster Fuller
  40. get managers to the work, listening to actual customers. No substitute!
  41. exploit dissatisfaction with current methods work and repeated cycles of behaviour
  42. encourage curiosity in new different ways of work (see point 34)
  43. retain good humour and a sense of irony. You want to be miserable for unknown numbers of years?
  44. assiduously collect data that shows anomalies in the official data. Store it all neatly, ready for when it might be best deployed, which could be years.
  45. nobody easily changes their fundamental beliefs. But you will repeatedly forget this and it will surprise you every time.
  46. successfully arguing the rational reasons for change relies on a shared mental model. This why it is useless as a tactic to change minds. Rational arguments are for tools and details.
  47. Experiment. That’s all you can ever do, so best make it explicit to yourself that’s what you are doing so you can get the most learning regardless of the result.
  48. conversations not presentations, chat in corridors or at people’s desks, not across acres of boardroom table.
  49. people don’t buy change. They buy solutions to their current problems. Focus on that.
  50. “You have enemies? Good. That means you’ve stood up for something, sometime in your life.”-Winston Churchill
  51. You will find people who sympathise in the oddest of unexpected places.
  52. get really good at communicating, in print, person and any other form you could develop a talent in. The vast majority of corporate communication is terrible. Stand out by being interesting and you’ve got a head start. (see point 35)
  53. be curious. There’s useful stuff everywhere. Lessons, metaphors, you’re knee-deep in them if you keep your eyes and mind open.
  54. learn patience.
  55. become an expert at the basics. 90% of everything is the basics. The basics can always be written on 1 side of an index card.
  56. make it funny. Nobody can hate funny.
  57. keep it serious. Don’t repel people by looking flippant.
  58. if you’re a junior back-office keyboard-rattling desk-jockey, your first milestone is to get someone credible as the public face. Yours shouldn’t be it.
  59. be authentic. The worst that can happen is people wont like it.
  60. it’s not about you.
  61. don’t argue.
  62. create pull, it is the lubricant of change.
  63. don’t push, people push right back. You do.
  64. think on this: Daniel Kahneman: … there is actually enormous resistance, I think, within organizations to implementing programs that would improve the rationality of their decisions. Charlie Rose: Why? Daniel Kahneman: Well because it creates difficulty for the leadership. The moment you have a system that is a more structured system – then that system can be used to second guess the decisions of people. And people don’t like to be second guessed. So there is a lot of interest in ways to improve rationality but … when it comes to implementation enthusiasm wanes distinctly. … because you are naked and this is a real problem.
  65. be the guy that fails the most.
  66. don’t debate theory. Demonstrate reality.
  67. no really, debating theory unmoored from the actual reality of ‘what works’ can go nowhere and it’s really irritating as people come up with such crap at times. Don’t let it be you!
  69. 100% of change initiatives fail. This is evidenced fact. Only learning initiatives really succeed.
  70. “We’re hoping to succeed; we’re okay with failure. We just don’t want to land in between.” – David Chang. (see point 47)
  71. it depends. All rules and truths are to be read in this light.
  72. always remember people can only speak from within a mental model. Revise and remember the command and control models, as you WILL find them. Theory X above all. The ghost at the feast.
  73. look carefully. Opportunities are often hidden
  74. develop huge self-assurance. Everyone else thinks you’re wrong, don’t join them.
  75. study theory of science. Apply the best bits..
  76. witty goes down better than earnest. keep it wafer light.
  77. talk and walk as if it’s already happened. “Dress for the job you want.” careerists say, revolutionaries say “Be the change you want to see in the world“
  78. lob hand grenades of fabulousness into every meeting you are in. Eventually when you lob grenades of data and truth, people are primed to be receptive.
  79. learn to be fabulous in general. People are more receptive to style than vile, learn and adapt to your raw materials. Humans.
  80. it’s amazing what you can accomplish when you don’t care who gets credit. Don’t care.
  81. be inclusive. don’t be exclusive.
  82. make everyone happy. No, this is not possible, forget it, nothing you can do about it so don’t worry yourself.
  83. it will be the best of times, it will be the worst of times. Better than being the dullest of times.
  84. everyone was young once, this is your youth right now, regardless of how old you are.
  85. mistakes are part of the fun. It’s called learning.
  86. there’s no end, no triumphal parade. You won’t know you’re done til afterwards.
  87. when you’re older, you won’t care. So don’t waste time right now worrying. Enjoy and learn.
  88. go to bed at night glad you might be able to make a difference whilst still having clean running water and free healthcare. It’s not a real gamble, whatever the pay-off
  89. laugh. It’s better than not.
  90. be good at maths. It’s better than not.
  91. realise you might be in the wrong place at the wrong time. In which case, it doesn’t matter if it never works. Not your fault, the only fault is not trying. “You miss 100% of the shots you don’t take”
  92. imagine it all does work. Perhaps you might not recognise it? Would that be so bad? If you need to see it happen and have everyone know it was down to you, should you be doing it at all? There are other easier things that people will thank you for.
  93. act like it doesn’t matter if you succeed, as you probably won’t. The odds are against you.
  94. boil it all down into small quotable sentences. Say them out-loud, do they sound silly? Make them not silly, when you’re done, repeat them out-loud. Eventually everything sounds silly when they are repeated often enough, this is what other people hear, so don’t say small quotable sentences. Just think them, then speak like you normally do.
  95. learn improvisation. People are cheered off stage after inventing stuff they’ve never said before in public. Imagine how good it would be to be properly in the moment and listening to somebody, so you can speak to them truly? You’re half way there, chatting is never scripted, just learn a bit more than chatting. Chatting is seeing with one eye closed. Instead, listen then speak with both eyes open.
  96. “If you make people think they’re thinking, they’ll love you; but if you really make them think, they’ll hate you”–Don Marquis
  97. think not what your organisation can do for you, think not what you can do for your organisation, think purpose. These are 3 different things. It would be great if all 3 overlapped though.
  98. there are 4 more bullet points left, and I don’t think I should try and fill, just to make the numbers.
  99. this is my third last bullet point. It’s not about me saying and typing, as I know very little. I keep meaning to type “the idiot’s clause” to be appended beneath everything I type, a warning that I just have a blog, anyone can, but Idon’t necessarily know anything at all. I could be completely wrong.
  100. second last. You could be wrong too.
  101. last. But you could be right.


25.3 4 Types of decisions

  1. Neither urgent, nor important
    • Consider taking no action. If a decision is neither urgent nor important, you may not need to make it at all.
    • Delegate to others. Such decisions provide an opportunity for a manager to coach subordinates on how to think about decision-making.
    • Delay to less hectic times. Resist the temptation to focus on items that you can check off your “to-do” list quickly when there are other more important and urgent decisions that need attention.
    • Beware of morphing. Don’t delay the decision until it becomes urgent.
  2. Urgent, but not important
    • Don’t overanalyze. Because these decisions are not important, going through a lengthy process to make the decision simply doesn’t make any sense. In some outrageous cases the cost of the time spent analyzing a decision can exceed the cost of making a wrong decision.
    • Use principles. Rules of thumb, guidelines and principles can provide a great way to make decisions quickly and efficiently. This will also ensure that decisions align with the values of the organization.
    • Listen to your gut. As an experienced businessperson, you have good judgment – don’t be afraid to use it.
  3. Both urgent and important
    • Prevent morphing. Left unaddressed, many decisions will morph into this category. Don’t let it happen.
    • Beware of false urgency. Many decisions that are portrayed as urgent, aren’t. Don’t be pressed into making an important decision without careful consideration when you don’t have to.
    • Reduce urgency. Consider whether you can take steps to buy yourself time to make this important decision.
    • Keep options open. Consider options that will allow you the most flexibility later. If you can avoid it, don’t get locked in.
    • Consult experts. These are the people that are the most likely to have immediate insight into the right direction to proceed.
  4. Important but not urgent
    • Identify and address the right problem. Solving complex problems requires asking a series of questions that are relatively easy to answer. The answers to these more straightforward questions then lead you to the solution of the more complicated issue.
    • Have the right mindset. When you face a big decision, don’t be overcome by emotions. Ask two questions: What do I want to happen next? What do I have to do to maximize the probability that that occurs?
    • Utilize appropriate analytical tools. For decisions that are important but not urgent, it is sometimes helpful to use decision-making tools. There is time to apply the tools and the cost of doing so is justified by the magnitude of the decision.
    • Seek the counsel of experts. Any time you face an important decision, seeking help from experts is a good idea.
    • Live with your decision before executing. Make a decision and sleep on it before implementing.

25.4 50 ideas that changed my life   edit


These are my guiding principles and the light of my intellectual life. All of them will help you think better, and I hope they inspire curiosity.

  1. Inversion: Avoiding stupidity is easier than trying to be brilliant. Instead of asking, “How can I help my company?” you should ask, “What’s hurting my company the most and how can I avoid it?” Identify obvious failure points, and steer clear of them.
  2. Doublespeak: People often say the opposite of what they mean, especially in political language. It allows people to lie while looking like they’re telling the truth. As George Orwell famously wrote in 1984, “War is peace. Freedom is slavery. Ignorance is strength.”
  3. Theory of Constraints: A system is only as strong as its weakest point. Focus on the bottleneck. Counterintuitively, if you break down the entire system and optimize each component individually, you’ll lower the effectiveness of the system. Optimize the entire system instead.
  4. Preference Falsification: People lie about their true opinions and conform to socially acceptable preferences instead. In private they’ll say one thing. In public, they’ll say another.
  5. Faustian Bargain: A man once sold his soul to a demon in exchange for knowledge. At first, it seemed like a smart trade. But the man lost in the long-run. Tragically, what the man lost was more valuable than what he earned. In short, he won the battle but lost the war.
  6. Mimetic Theory of Desire: Humans are like sheep. We don’t know what we want, so we imitate each other. Instead of creating our own desires, we desire the same things as other people. The entire advertising industry is built on this idea.
  7. Mimetic Theory of Conflict: People who are similar are more likely to fight than people who are different. That’s why Civil Wars and family feuds create the worst conflicts. The closer two people are and the more equality between them, the greater the potential for conflict.
  8. Talent vs. Genius: Society is good at training talent but terrible at cultivating genius. Talented people are good at hitting targets others can’t hit, but geniuses find targets others can’t see. They are opposite modes of excellence. Talent is predictable, genius is unpredictable.
  9. Competition is for Losers: Avoid competition. Stop copying what everybody else is doing. If you work at a for-profit company, work on problems that would not otherwise be solved. If you’re at a non-profit, fix unpopular problems. Life is easier when you don’t compete. (Hint: don’t start another bottled water company).
  10. Secrets are Hidden in Plain Sight: Most people think of secrets as Easter eggs. They assume that if a secret is important, it’s necessarily going to be hard to find. The best ideas can come from things that are so well-known that they aren’t well-seen.
  11. The Never-Ending Now: The structure of our social media feeds blinds us to history, as it causes us to live in an endless cycle of ephemeral content consumption. The structure of the Internet pulls people away from age-old wisdom.
  12. Demand Curves Slope Down: The harder something is to do, the fewer people will do it. For example, raise the price of a product and fewer people will buy it. Lower the price and more people will buy it. Economics 101.
  13. Look for Things That Don’t Make Sense: The world always makes sense. But it can be confusing. When it is, your model of the world is wrong. So, things that don’t make sense are a learning opportunity. Big opportunities won’t make sense until it’s too late to profit from them.
  14. The Wisdom of Paradox: Logic is the key to scientific truths, but paradoxes are the key to psychological ones. When it comes to the human condition, the deepest truths are often counter-intuitive. When you find two opposites that are both true, start exploring.
  15. Law of Shitty Click-Through Rates: Most marketing strategies have a short window of success, as click-through rates decrease as tactics mature. For example, the first banner-ad has a click-through rate of more than 70%. Now we avoid them with ad-blockers.
  16. Russell Conjugation: Journalists often change the meaning of a sentence by replacing one word with a synonym that implies a different meaning. For example, the same person can support an estate tax but oppose a death tax — even though they are the same thing.
  17. Opportunity Cost: By reading this tweet, you are choosing not to read something else. Everything we do is like this. Doing one thing requires giving up another. Whenever you explicitly choose to do one thing, you implicitly choose not to do another thing.
  18. Overton Window: You can control thought without limiting speech. You can do it by defining the limits of acceptable thought while allowing for lively debate within these barriers. For example, Fox News and MSNBC set limits on what political thoughts they consider acceptable, but in the grand scheme of things, they’re both fairly conventional. The political spectrum stretches far beyond the ideas they entertain, but ideas outside their limits are shunned.
  19. Planck’s Principle: Science doesn’t progress because people change their views. Rather, each new generation of scientists has different views. As old generations pass away, new ideas are accepted and the scientific consensus changes.
  20. Bike-Shed Effect: A group of people working on a project will fight over the most trivial ideas. They’ll ignore what’s complicated. They’ll focus too much on easy-to-understand ideas at the expense of important, but hard to talk about ideas. For example, instead of approving plans for a complicated spaceship, the team would argue over the color of the astronaut’s uniforms.
  21. Table Selection: This idea comes from poker, where you’re advised to choose your opponents carefully. That means you shouldn’t compete against the best people. You don’t need to get good at doing difficult things if you get good at avoiding difficult things. If you want to win, pick an easy table and nail your execution.
  22. Goodhart’s Law: When a measure becomes a target, it ceases to be a good measure. One hospital took too long to admit patients so a penalty was given for 4+ hour wait times. In response, ambulance drivers were asked to slow down so they could shorten wait times.
  23. Gall’s Law: A complex system that works is invariably found to have evolved from a simple system that worked. A complex system designed from scratch never works and cannot be patched up to make it work. You have to start over with a working simple system.
  24. Hock Principle: Simple, clear purpose and principles give rise to complex and intelligent behavior. Complex rules and regulations give rise to simple and stupid behavior.
  25. Parkinson’s Law: Work expands to fill the time available. People don’t want to look like they’re lazy, so they find extra tasks to tackle, even if they’re trivial. If you have six months to complete a project, it will take six months to complete. Set deadlines accordingly.
  26. The Second Law of Thermodynamics: The world tends towards disorder. That’s why your room becomes messier and messier over time. It’s also why an engine converts only ~35% of its energy into useful work. Time moves towards increasing one direction: increasing entropy.
  27. The Paradox of Specificity: Focus isn’t as constraining as it seems. In the age of the Internet, when everybody has Google search and personalized social media feeds, differentiation is free marketing. The more specific your goal, the more opportunities you’ll create for yourself. Narrowing your aperture can expand your horizons.
  28. Emergence: When things interact, they often birth new, unpredictable forms. Therefore, the sum total of a system is more than its component parts. As a system evolves, its structure can transform — just like how water becomes cold water until it turns into ice.
  29. Occam’s Razor: If there are multiple explanations for why something happened and they are equally persuasive, assume the simplest one is true. In the search for truth, remove unnecessary assumptions. Trust the lowest-complexity answer.
  30. Hickam’s Dictum: The opposite of Occam’s Razor. In a complex system, problems usually have more than one cause. For example, in medicine, people can have many diseases at the same time.
  31. Hormesis: A low dose of something can have the opposite effect of a high dose. A little bit of stress wakes you up, but a lot of stress is bad for you. Lifting weights for 30 minutes per day is good for you, but lifting weights for 6 hours per day will destroy your muscles. Stress yourself, but not too much.
  32. Robustness Principle: Be conservative in what you do, be liberal in what you accept from others. It’s a design guideline for software and a good rule for life: Hold yourself to a higher standard than you hold others to.
  33. Legibility: We are blind to what we cannot measure. Not everything that counts can be measured, and not everything that can be measured counts. But people manage what they can measure, so society repeats the same mistakes.
  34. Horseshoe Theory: Extreme opposites tend to look the same. For example, a far-right movement and a far-left movement can be equally violent or desire a similar outcome. People on both sides are more similar to each other than they are to people in the center.
  35. Availability Cascade: A self-reinforcing cycle that creates collective beliefs. An idea will gain traction once it enters the mainstream, which triggers a chain reaction, which causes lots of people to adopt it not because it’s true but because it’s popular.
  36. Creativity Begins at the Edge: Change starts away from the spotlight. Then, it moves towards the center. That’s why the most interesting ideas at a conference never come from the main stage. They come from the hallways and the bar after sunset
  37. The Copernican Principle: The more we learn about astronomy, the less it seems that earth is special. It’s a small part of the universe, and each human is a small part of the earth. We are all spinning through the solar system — nowhere near the beginning or end of time.
  38. Personal Monopoly: Corporations reward conformity, but the Internet rewards people who are unique. If you work in a creative field, strive to be the only person who does what you do. Find your own style, then run with it. Create intellectual real estate for yourself.
  39. The Paradox of Consensus: Under ancient Jewish law, if a suspect was found guilty by every judge, they were deemed innocent. Too much agreement implied a systemic error in the judicial process. Unanimous agreement sometimes leads to bad decisions.
  40. Penny Problem Gap: Economists assume demand is linear, but people’s behavior totally changes once an action costs money. If the inventors of the Internet had known about it, spam wouldn’t be such a problem. If sending an email cost you $0.001, there’d be way less spam.
  41. The Invisible Hand: Markets aggregate knowledge. Rising prices signal falling supply or increased demand, which incentivizes an increase in production. The opposite is true for falling prices. Prices are a signal wrapped in an incentive.
  42. Base Rate: The average outcome for an event over time. They’re like batting averages for life, and they work best with big sample sizes. For example, if you’re starting a business, avoid the restaurant business where margins are low and competition is high.
  43. Circle of Competence: Define the limits of your knowledge. Hint: the limits are smaller than you think. That’s because being an expert in one area doesn’t make you an expert in anything else. Be clear about what you know and don’t know.
  44. Convexity: If you want to be lucky, look for opportunities with big upsides and low downsides. In addition to increased optionality, your errors will benefit you more than they harm you. Convex payoffs let you tinker your way to success and innovation.
  45. The Go-For-It Window: Large gaps between accelerating technologies and stagnating social norms create lucrative new business opportunities. But they are only available for a short time when people can capitalize on the difference between the real and perceived state of the world. For example, 2007 was the perfect time to launch the iPhone, but Google Glasses launched too early.
  46. Via Negativa: When we have a problem, our natural instinct is to add a new habit or purchase a fix. But sometimes, you can improve your life by taking things away. For example, the foods you avoid are more important than the foods you eat.
  47. The Medium Is the Message: We pay too much attention to what is being said. But the medium of communication is more impactful. For example, the Internet’s impact on humanity has a bigger influence than anything that’s said on the Internet.
  48. Resource Curse: Countries with an abundance of natural resources such as diamonds and fossil fuels tend to have less economic growth and worse development than countries with fewer natural resources.
  49. The Paradox of Abundance: The average quality of information is getting worse and worse. But the best stuff is getting better and better. Markets of abundance are simultaneously bad for the median consumer but good for conscious consumers.
  50. The Map Is Not the Territory: Reality will never match the elegance of theory. All models have inconsistencies, but some are still useful. Some maps are useful because they’re inaccurate. If you want to find an edge, look for what the map leaves out.
  51. Baker’s Dozen: The key to good hospitality is to delight your guests with an unexpected gift. If you run a hotel, leave a chocolate on the bed. If you run a bakery, give your customers one extra bagel. If you write a tweetstorm, share an extra idea.

25.5 Choose Enjoyment, not Pleasure

Enjoyment and pleasure are terms often used interchangeably, but they are not the same thing. Pleasure happens to you; enjoyment is something that you create through your own effort. Pleasure is the lightheadedness you get from a bit of grain alcohol; enjoyment is the satisfaction of a good wine, properly understood. Pleasure is addictive and animal; enjoyment is elective and human.

25.6 Conversations

  • Don’t ask yes/no questions.
    • Open-ended questions generate more interesting responses because they unlock more information from people.
    • Example: Don’t ask, “Do you like movies?” You’ll get a more interesting answer if you ask, “Why do you like movies?”
  • Ask “why” three times.
    • This is the easiest way to deepen the level of a conversation.
    • Example: If you ask a person why they like movies and they answer because it’s a good escape, you can follow up with, “Why do you feel like you need an escape?” If they answer because their job is stressful, you can follow up with “Why is your job stressful?” Repeated “Why” questions can turn a simple question about movies into a much deeper conversation.
  • Ask about specifics, not generalizations.
    • Questions about specifics lead people to give you answers that are not generic.
    • Example: Don’t ask, “What was fun about your trip?” Instead, drill down and ask, “What was the single most fun moment of the trip?”
  • Ask about reactions.
    • Frame questions around a person’s reactions to experiences in their life — what surprised them, challenged them, or changed their viewpoint.
    • Example: Don’t ask, “What’s it like to be a doctor?” Instead, ask “What’s the most surprising thing you’ve discovered about being a doctor?”
  • Ask follow-up questions.
    • When you ask a question, pay attention to the answer and ask a follow-up question about it to dig deeper.
    • Example: If a person says the most surprising thing about being a doctor is how uncomfortable people get in hospitals, follow up with a question like, “What do you do to help make them more comfortable?”
  • Ask about lessons.
    • If your goal is to learn from somebody, the easiest shortcut to do that is to ask them what they’ve learned.
    • Example: Ask questions like, “What did you learn from working with that client?,” “What do you wish you knew before you started working with them?,” and “What advice would you have for others who want to get into your field?”
  • Ask for a story.
    • The most interesting information is found in stories, so ask people to tell you one.
    • Example: Don’t ask, “What’s it like to be a teacher?” Instead, ask “What’s the craziest thing that’s ever happened to you in a class?”
  • Ask like a kid.
    • If you don’t fully understand something and want more clarity, ask a person how they would explain it to a kid or somebody with no experience on the subject.
    • Example: Instead of asking, “Can you explain that product feature again?,” ask “How would you explain that feature to somebody who’s never seen our product before?”
  • Ask what else you should ask.
    • When you wrap up your questions, give the other person an opportunity to tell you what you should have asked. They will likely suggest a question that provides valuable information.
    • Example: Ask, “Am I missing anything? What’s the question nobody ever asks you but you wish they would?”


25.7 Cooking - The tricks that anyone should know when they buy food.


  • Buy these dried as often as possible. Keep a stock of beans, lentils, and dried chickpeas around if you can. They’re cheap, almost always available, and virtually imperishable. As such, assuming you don’t throw them out and keep them properly stored, buying these is a 100% return on your investment.
  • Legumes are one of the most versatile options in your kitchen. As long as you soak them and put them in the fridge before you go to bed they’ll be available the next day to cook quickly. These are the best thing to have if you’re looking to stretch a meal because of their nutrient density and the fact that they’re just damn delicious on their own.
  • Look into middle-eastern and African cuisine for creative ways to use these ingredients. Some really common examples are lentil curry, hummus, falafels, and putting chickpeas in a shakshuka. This isn’t a recipe post, so look up how to make them yourself - some grandma has a better (and probably even cheaper) recipe than I do.


  • Like legumes, these are very versatile. However, I find most people know very little about them outside of wheat and maybe oats. I highly recommend learning what the most commonly eaten grans and cereals in your locality are, and then finding the affordable ones. There will be at least one. I guarantee it.
  • FLOUR is an essential staple, unless you’re celiac or gluten free - a topic on which I won’t speak because I’m confident anyone who has to deal with those issues knows more than I do. I recommend grabbing all-purpose flour due to its gluten content being a middle ground between low-gluten pastry flour and high-gluten bread flour. You can still use it to make bread, and it has a myriad other uses as a binder or thickener for sauces.
  • RICE is amazing, as most know already, but seriously - it’s one of the most important crops in the world. It’s kept civilizations alive on its back for all of recorded history, and it’ll keep you alive, too. There is no better “fill me up” food I can think of. Wait for those huge sacks of rice to go on sale (it happens pretty frequently), then buy 2. They last forever. Ideally grab long-grain rice if you’re just looking for a side-dish or fried rice base, but in a pinch short grain’ll do; it’s just less forgiving and the starches don’t retrograde as fully so when you cool it it doesn’t keep as nicely.
  • KEEP IN MIND that rice is pure carbs. It’s a good base, but you need other stuff to go with it or else you’ll be deficient in nutrients and feel awful all the time. Trust me from experience - college me went through a raw-egg-on-rice phase, and it wasn’t pretty.
  • BARLEY, also, is amazing, but for other reasons. It’s high in protein and iron, and can help dramatically improve your nutrient intake for very little cost. In soups, roasted in tea (thanks Korea), and used in tandem with rice, it can go a very, very long way in making your diet a more sustainable one in times of austerity and plenty, alike.
  • AVOID “SUPERFOODS”. Not because they’re bad for you - just because of their jacked prices. Not to mention oftentimes the industries surrounding them are ethical nightmares. Don’t get me started on avocado cartels and the impact of quinoa farming on low-income South American communities. In reality, most grains and cereals have a lot of nutrients and minerals, and they’re often overlooked. Learn the nutrition facts, and make decisions accordingly. Google and online databases are your friends, here.


  • ONIONS: buy them fresh and store them in dry, enclosed spaces, and buy tomatoes canned and without salt added. Use onions in almost everything, they’re delicious, cheap, and nutritious.
  • TOMATOES: Good fresh and better canned. Use fresh tomatoes raw for whatever you want and use canned tomatoes for sauces. Buy canned tomatoes with as little added salt and sugar as possible.
  • POTATOES: Treat these as a starch option similar to grains or cereals. Buy them unprocessed, in a sack. Store them in dry, enclosed spaces.
  • BASICALLY EVERY FRUIT: go for it, these things are nutrient bombs and they’re delicious. Buy them seasonally for the best value and if you have a day to do so, preserve them if you ever see a huge sale. I’m still enjoying lacto-fermented blueberries from last year’s insane blueberry harvest where I could buy a pint for a dollar.
  • FOR SHOPPING: Generally when you buy produce you should go, in order, to the discount rack, then the sales, and then everything else. Someone out there has a recipe for literally everything, and some of them are even good. A pepper with a blemish or tiny spot of mold is still fine, assuming you cut away the blemish or tiny spot of mold.
  • I CANNOT STRESS THIS ENOUGH; FIND THE UNDER-APPRECIATED AND OVER-SUPPLIED PRODUCE. There’s always a bin of some forgotten veggie no-one eats for some reason. In the west, at least, it seems to often be rutabagas/turnips. I’ve also seen apples in the fall, corn, and cabbages fall into this category. This is because of a good harvest, or because of a lack of consumer interest - any time this happens, capitalize on it. Everything is delicious if you cook it properly. Buy seasonally, and learn how to use the things you buy. You’ll eat like a king and pay like a pauper.
  • CANNED STUFF - I generally have a personal aversion to all canned veggies and fruits except tomatoes, but that’s just my privilege speaking. If you want to buy them or if fresh produce is hard to come by, avoid getting anything with added salt or sugar. Cross-reference the nutrient info on the can with info from a fresh counterpart to avoid buying filler garbage, and try to find somewhere to live with better food accessibility. Alternatively, save up and make a killing by opening a fruit and vegetable market to remove the need to read this very ling post any further. (This is a joke and I recognize the struggle of those in impoverished communities with awful food accessibility.)
  • FROZEN STUFF - frozen fruit and veg is great, mostly. Maybe dodge the chopped carrots and corn a lot of us ate growing up or find in bad takeout Chinese food, but hey - grab that bag of frozen berries or peas and throw ‘em in anything that warrants it. Technology for frozen produce has improved dramatically in the last few decades, and we should capitalize on that.


  • IF YOU EAT MEAT, buy the least processed cuts you can. Whole chickens, meat on the bone, and ground meats are your best friends. Go to butcher shops, if you can. Freezing meat is fine, but try to avoid buying pre-made frozen protein options. Get raw product and do the work yourself to save a LOT of cash and get better food out of it.
  • MEAT IS A LUXURY, NOT AN ESSENTIAL. I say this because in modern western culture eating meat everyday is seen as normal. This is an oddity when we examine all of human history, and this notion should be abandoned if we’re trying to live more affordably. Meat is grossly overrepresented in most diets, and you should always ask if you could cut your portion of meat down in exchange for more vegetables and grains.
  • LEARN HOW TO BREAK DOWN YOUR PROTEINS. A chicken isn’t just 8 portions of meat - it’s also bones and carcass for a stock or soup, fat to be rendered out and used as a cooking oil (thanks, jewish folks!), and skin to be cooked down into delicious little chips. This same list can be used for pork, beef, and any other mammal you eat.
  • FISH IS IFFY. Like, as an industry. Not many people know their fish, and fish processing companies know that and capitalize on it. I always tell people who like fish to buy fresh and whole, and to learn how to pick good fish. Buying cheap processed fish products is akin to asking to be ripped off, to harm the environment, and to accumulate toxins in your body, all at the same time. To not get completely F-ed over by what is maybe the worst food industry in the world you need to know your fish, know the company you’re buying from, and know who’s doing the fishing. Good luck, and please try not to contribute to the death of our water ecosystems. (A good trick is that if you can afford fish when you’re poor and you don’t live beside a large body of water, you almost certainly DON’T WANT IT.)
  • IF YOU DO BUY FISH OR SEAFOOD, all the rules for proteins apply. Fish bones and crustacean shells for stock, fat deposits on the occasional salmonid for whatever you want, and fish skin, if it’s your cup of tea, for a lovely snack. Hell, fish organs and salt make up the base for a fermented fish sauce, if you really want to go the extra mile. Rome survived off of fish sauce and bread for longer than our society has been around. The one big difference between fish and meat is that frozen fish tends to suck relative to fresh in a much bigger way - both in terms of quality and retained nutrients. Put frozen fish in soups or curries, to avoid nutrient drain from the water that inevitably will leak out of your fish.
  • FOR VEGETARIANS AND VEGANS: You know more about your protein options than I do, and honestly they would require a lot of research I haven’t done to fully discuss. Clearly I have more to learn on the subject, and intend to do so. I only encourage you all to do the same ✌️


  • STAY AWAY FROM THE INSTANT RAMEN. I know it’s cheap. I KNOW you like how easy it is. I don’t give one flying fuck. It’s awful for you, it isn’t cheaper than a bowl of rice with soy sauce, a fried egg, and some frozen peas, and it’ll kill you slowly. Just don’t, and ignore anyone’s advice about how it got them through college. Hell, if anyone’s advice involves doing what they did in college, take it with a grain of salt. There’s good advice sometimes, and a LOT of bad.
  • AVOID THE JUNK FOOD AISLES. Chips, sugar cereals, premade salad dressings, sweet juice/pop, and processed foods like KD or tv dinners are not the way to go if you’re looking to get the most out of your dollar at the grocery store. They’re bad for you, they’re expensive relative to the cost of production, and they put a burden on your body that you’ll pay for down the line. Exceptions to this are staple sauces like a good soy sauce and fish sauce, grains and legumes, and canned veggies.
  • CHEESE IS A LUXURY, SO TREAT IT LIKE ONE. If you’re gonna buy it I recommend buying less of it less often, and buying the good stuff when you do. Kraft block cheese only costs as little as it does because it’s the by-product of the real money-maker: whey protein production. If you’re gonna buy cheese, please support a real cheesemaker. The cheese lover in you will be happier for it.
  • ALCOHOL IS ALSO A LUXURY. If you want a drink, I recommend doing it less often and drinking the good stuff. If you like the cheap stuff that’s fine, “good stuff” is all relative anyway. Just drink less and focus on quality over quantity, whatever your preferences are.
  • MAKE YOUR OWN COFFEE, AND BUY A THERMOS. I know Starbucks is delicious. Guess what? You can find a recipe for every drink they make online, and then make it better. Some restaurants literally survive because they can sell coffee at a nearly 2000% markup. Truck stop diners and high-end coffee shops do this. I recommend making cold brew the night before, since you literally just have to strain it in the morning rather than brewing a pot.
  • FINALLY, LEARN TO COOK. All of this information is fundamentally more useful if you know how to cook. Not knowing how to cook is a luxury afforded to those with the means to afford living in ignorance of this most basic human skill. You are living outside your means if you live in a well-off country, don’t make a least $60k a year, and can’t cook.

25.8 Dog Boarding   edit

By Priority:

  1. Downtown Pet Hospital
    • 407-872-2228
  2. 24/7 Emergency Vet
    • 407-298-3807
  3. Noah’s Ark Boarding Kennel
    • 3725 Marsh Road, DeLand, FL 32724
    • (386) 736-9848
  4. Underhill Animal Hospital
    • 407-277-0927
  5. SODO Veterinary Hospital
    • 407-841-3407
  6. Rocking Z Kennel
    • 328 Marsh Road, Deland, FL 32724, US
    • (386) 736-2831
    • Large Dog 40 lbs and up $15.00 per day
    • medium dog 20-40 lbs. $14.00

25.9 Economic Indicators   edit


  • Consumer Price Index (CPI): Measure of the average change over time in the prices paid by urban consumers for a market basket of consumer goods and services
  • FAO Food Price Index (FFPI): Measure of the monthly change in international prices of a basket of food commodities


  • Current Employment Statistics (CES): Industry estimates of nonfarm employment, hours, and earnings of workers on payrolls
  • Current Population Survey (CPS): Monthly survey of households conducted by the Bureau of Census for the Bureau of Labor Statistics. It provides a comprehensive body of data on the
    • labor force
    • employment
    • unemployment
    • persons not in the labor force
    • hours of work
    • earnings
    • other demographic and labor force characteristics
  • Labor productivity: Measure of economic performance that compares the amount of goods and services produced (output) with the number of hours worked to produce those goods and services
  • Personal Income: Income that people get from wages and salaries, Social Security and other government benefits, dividends and interest, business ownership, and other sources


25.10 Economic notes

25.11 Email

Remember this:

  • Break down the problem.
    • Time spent on email (T) is a function of the number of messages received (n) multiplied by the average time (t) spent per message:
      • T = n × t.
  • Reduce the number of messages received.
    • Schedule office hours, delay when messages are sent, and reduce time-wasting messages from reaching your inbox.
  • Spend less time on each message.
    • Label emails by when each message needs a response. Reply to emails during a scheduled time on your calendar.

25.12 Email idea

  1. Inbox This is where all emails sent by humans end up. That’s it.
  2. Papertrail Notifications, invoices, everything that you don’t want to delete but are not really interested in. This folder has about 1.6k unread emails right now. They’re not meant to be read, but if I need to look something up, I know where to look.
  3. Newsfeed I’m subscribed to over 20 newsletters and all of them end up in here. If I have time, I’ll read the newsletters and add the articles I want to read to Instapaper.

This is not Fastmail specific, you can do the same with most providers. For example, if you have, you could set a rule for and one for and use those email addresses when signing up


25.13 Facebook Ads - Sizes and Specs

  • Facebook Feed ads:
    • Minimum image size: 600 x 600
    • Recommended image size: 1200 x 628
    • Image ratio: 9:16 to 16:9 (no link involved), 1.91:1 (if there is a link)
    • Images no more than 20% text
    • Image file types: .jpg or .png
    • Text: 125 characters (if there is no link)
    • Headline: 25 characters (any more will appear truncated)
    • Link Description: 30 characters
  • Facebook Marketplace image ads:
    • Minimum image size: 600 x 600
    • Recommended image size: 1200 x 628
    • Image ratio: 9:16 to 16:9 (no link involved), 1.91:1 (if there is a link)
    • Images no more than 20% text
    • Image file types: .jpg or .png
    • Text: 125 characters (if there is no link)
    • Headline: 25 characters (any more will appear truncated)
    • Link Description: 30 characters

25.14 Financial Independence


  1. Find your expected annual spending going forward.
    • As a reminder, for middle income in the U.S. this is about $50,000 a year and for the top 20% of income earners this is $120,000 a year. I’m assuming you will be in this range.
  2. Reduce your spending by any guaranteed income you have coming in.
    • If you can make $10,000 a year without issue or you have Social Security income of $24,000 a year, then subtract this from your expected future annual spending. We will call this your Annual Excess Spending.
  3. Divide your Annual Excess Spending by a reasonable rate of return.
    • If you can earn 5% a year without issue, divide by 0.05, however, I would recommend a more conservative estimate like 4% or even less (given where bond yields are today).

What you get from dividing the number in (2) by (3) is your crossover point and should be close to the amount of money you need to have invested for financial independence.

An example for 3 spending levels ($10k, $50k, $100k):

  • At $10,000 in annual excess spending, you will need $200k – $500k
  • At $50,000 in annual excess spending, you will need $1M – $2.5M
  • At $100,000 in annual excess spending, you will need $2M – $5M

The most important factor for reaching financial independence isn’t your rate of return, but your spending.

  • Technically, every person could be financially independent tomorrow if they lowered their spending enough (and had no outstanding debt).

Spending determines everything when it comes to reaching financial independence.

  • Therefore, if you can find ways to be happy while spending less, you already own one of the most valuable assets in the world.


25.15 Global Warming Stats'n'Stuff

25.15.1 Sea Level rise

Now, we know that the South Pole is gaining more ice than it’s losing.

Also a great amount of the losing is due to underground heat.

As for Greenland, its melting cycle doesn’t seem to have changed much. In fact, it seems to be quite regular.

And sea level has been increasing… at a steady level since we started recording them.

25.15.2 CO2

  1. CO2 regulates temp

    The Sun, on the other hand, might have a much larger role in the Earth’s climate. So much that some scientists are talking about a significant cooling because the Sun is "quieter."

    climate models have miserably failed even compared to the (very probably) tampered NASA data.

    • models-vs-reality-nov-2015.png
  2. CO2 Is Pollution

    But as shown above, more CO2 is desirable. In fact, agriculture seems to profit greatly from increased carbon “pollution” as shown by yields. But if CO2 does need to be controlled, then liberals might think twice about organic farming. But as shown above, more CO2 is desirable. In fact, agriculture seems to profit greatly from increased carbon “pollution” as shown by yields.

    • crop-yield.jpg

    But if CO2 does need to be controlled, then liberals might think twice about organic farming.

25.15.3 Severe Tornadoes Are Increasing

However it’s not blowing very strong. F3+ tornadoes have been declining for over 60 years.

  • fig31_tornadoes-600x3611.jpg

Also, the overall number of tornadoes has been unusually low in the past three years. It does have an upwards trend, but that's because we have better tools to detect them.

  • tornado-counts-0112-2014.png

25.15.4 The Arctic Is Melting

Now that we know it’s not true, here is one more inconvenient truth about the North Pole. It’s gaining ice, and 2015 saw the largest refreezing in over a decade.

There are more polar bears now than when Al Gore was born. The government of Nunavut, along with Inuit hunters, have also noticed that the polar bear is doing quite well

25.15.5 The Sahel Is Drying Up

The region south of the Sahara desert is one of the poorest places on the planet. And because of global warming, it’s getting drier and drier according to the Goreacle.

This is not true. As shown by satellite images, the Sahel is in fact one of the regions that gained the most flora density since satellites exist. All of that is due to the reviled CO2, which acts as a fertilizer.

  • co2_growth.jpg

25.16 Grammar Rule

From Mark Forsyth's book The Elements of Eloquence

There are eight types of adjectives, which should be used in this order:

  1. Opinion
  2. Size
  3. Age
  4. Shape
  5. Color
  6. Origin
  7. Material
  8. Purpose


  • “lovely little old rectangular green French silver whittling knife.”

25.17 Money Rules   notes

  • The $1 rule: "If an item comes out to one dollar or less per use, I give myself the green light to buy it," says Joy.
  • The 80/20 rule: If the purchase will be used 80 percent of the time, it's worth it, says Joy. You'll end up with better quality and sustainable products.
  • Focus on what you "really love": Don't curb your enthusiasm, says Joy. "Constantly tracking every penny and slapping myself on the wrist didn't make me want to spend less."

25.18 Personal Finance   edit

The personal finance experts all say that in order to get rich you need to:

  • Create a budget
  • Open a retirement account (401(k), IRA, etc.)
  • Have 6 months in emergency savings
  • Invest in index funds
  • Buy a house (since it’s your best investment)
  • Save 10% of your income
  • Eliminate all debt
  • Minimize your expenses
  • Spend less than you earn and invest the difference.

You’ll do slightly better than average if you follow this advice, but in personal finance, average really sucks. The average person:

  • Has a salary of $49k a year.
  • Doesn’t have enough in emergency savings — 19% of Americans have $0 and 31% have less than $500 saved
  • Spends 56% on their food budget
  • Has over $5,700 in credit card debt with a 17.89% interest rate
  • Has only $150k in savings by retirement
  • Relies on Social Security to fund most of their retirement

In reality, they used these techniques to get rich:

  • Generate income not based on hours worked
  • Minimize taxes
  • Leverage time and debt

The average person does not understand basic business concepts, taxes, and finance. They don’t understand as a business owner you have much more control over your income and the taxes you pay. Business owners have the capability to delay taxes (in some cases indefinitely).

However, a wage earner is pretty much screwed. Your options to reduce your taxes are pretty much limited to an employee-sponsored retirement plan and having children. Therefore, as an employee, you effectively pay more taxes.

It’s not how much you make, but how much you keep.

Follow what the personal finance experts do, not what they say — start a business.

Create at least a side hustle. You’ll learn much more about finance, taxes, entrepreneurship, and marketing than in any classroom or what the media thinks it knows about owning a business.

You’ll NEVER get rich by working for someone else. That’s something you’ll never hear from any personal finance expert. But being a business owner is how they got rich themselves.

25.19 Plants   edit

From Dana:

Here's a link to the Florida Association of Native Nurseries. This is a great place to start looking for retail nurseries.

I also recommend Green Isle Gardens in Groveland. It's a nice, relaxing drive. It's also the best maintained native plant nursery in Florida according to Robert Bowden, Director of Leu Gardens - and I agree.

Florida Wildflower Association is also lots of fun. Lots of info and one of my favorite websites.

And Florida Native Plant Society. Tarflower is the Orange County branch of FNPS.

25.20 Presidential Claims of Accomplishments   notes

25.20.1 Trump Administration Accomplishments

  1. Unprecedented Economic Boom
    • Before the China Virus invaded our shores, we built the world’s most prosperous economy.
      • America gained 7 million new jobs – more than three times government experts’ projections.
      • Middle-Class family income increased nearly $6,000 – more than five times the gains during the entire previous administration.
      • The unemployment rate reached 3.5 percent, the lowest in a half-century.
      • Achieved 40 months in a row with more job openings than job-hirings.
      • More Americans reported being employed than ever before – nearly 160 million.
      • Jobless claims hit a nearly 50-year low.
      • The number of people claiming unemployment insurance as a share of the population hit its lowest on record.
      • Incomes rose in every single metro area in the United States for the first time in nearly 3 decades.
    • Delivered a future of greater promise and opportunity for citizens of all backgrounds.
      • Unemployment rates for African Americans, Hispanic Americans, Asian Americans, Native Americans, veterans, individuals with disabilities, and those without a high school diploma all reached record lows.
      • Unemployment for women hit its lowest rate in nearly 70 years.
      • Lifted nearly 7 million people off of food stamps.
      • Poverty rates for African Americans and Hispanic Americans reached record lows.
      • Income inequality fell for two straight years, and by the largest amount in over a decade.
      • The bottom 50 percent of American households saw a 40 percent increase in net worth.
      • Wages rose fastest for low-income and blue collar workers – a 16 percent pay increase.
      • African American homeownership increased from 41.7 percent to 46.4 percent.
    • Brought jobs, factories, and industries back to the USA.
      • Created more than 1.2 million manufacturing and construction jobs.
      • Put in place policies to bring back supply chains from overseas.
      • Small business optimism broke a 35-year old record in 2018.
    • Hit record stock market numbers and record 401ks.
      • The DOW closed above 20,000 for the first time in 2017 and topped 30,000 in 2020.
      • The S&P 500 and NASDAQ have repeatedly notched record highs.
    • Rebuilding and investing in rural America.
      • Signed an Executive Order on Modernizing the Regulatory Framework for Agricultural Biotechnology Products, which is bringing innovative new technologies to market in American farming and agriculture.
      • Strengthened America’s rural economy by investing over $1.3 billion through the Agriculture Department’s ReConnect Program to bring high-speed broadband infrastructure to rural America.
    • Achieved a record-setting economic comeback by rejecting blanket lockdowns.
      • An October 2020 Gallup survey found 56 percent of Americans said they were better off during a pandemic than four years prior.
      • During the third quarter of 2020, the economy grew at a rate of 33.1 percent – the most rapid GDP growth ever recorded.
      • Since coronavirus lockdowns ended, the economy has added back over 12 million jobs, more than half the jobs lost.
      • Jobs have been recovered 23 times faster than the previous administration’s recovery.
      • Unemployment fell to 6.7 percent in December, from a pandemic peak of 14.7 percent in April – beating expectations of well over 10 percent unemployment through the end of 2020.
      • Under the previous administration, it took 49 months for the unemployment rate to fall from 10 percent to under 7 percent compared to just 3 months for the Trump Administration.
      • Since April, the Hispanic unemployment rate has fallen by 9.6 percent, Asian-American unemployment by 8.6 percent, and Black American unemployment by 6.8 percent.
      • 80 percent of small businesses are now open, up from just 53 percent in April.
      • Small business confidence hit a new high.
      • Homebuilder confidence reached an all-time high, and home sales hit their highest reading since December 2006.
      • Manufacturing optimism nearly doubled.
      • Household net worth rose $7.4 trillion in Q2 2020 to $112 trillion, an all-time high.
      • Home prices hit an all-time record high.
      • The United States rejected crippling lockdowns that crush the economy and inflict countless public health harms and instead safely reopened its economy.
      • Business confidence is higher in America than in any other G7 or European Union country.
      • Stabilized America’s financial markets with the establishment of a number of Treasury Department supported facilities at the Federal Reserve.
  2. Tax Relief for the Middle Class
    • Passed $3.2 trillion in historic tax relief and reformed the tax code.
      • Signed the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act – the largest tax reform package in history.
      • More than 6 million American workers received wage increases, bonuses, and increased benefits thanks to the tax cuts.
      • A typical family of four earning $75,000 received an income tax cut of more than $2,000 – slashing their tax bill in half.
      • Doubled the standard deduction – making the first $24,000 earned by a married couple completely tax-free.
      • Doubled the child tax credit.
      • Virtually eliminated the unfair Estate Tax, or Death Tax.
      • Cut the business tax rate from 35 percent – the highest in the developed world – all the way down to 21 percent.
      • Small businesses can now deduct 20 percent of their business income.
      • Businesses can now deduct 100 percent of the cost of their capital investments in the year the investment is made.
      • Since the passage of tax cuts, the share of total wealth held by the bottom half of households has increased, while the share held by the top 1 percent has decreased.
      • Over 400 companies have announced bonuses, wage increases, new hires, or new investments in the United States.
      • Over $1.5 trillion was repatriated into the United States from overseas.
      • Lower investment cost and higher capital returns led to faster growth in the middle class, real wages, and international competitiveness.
    • Jobs and investments are pouring into Opportunity Zones.
      • Created nearly 9,000 Opportunity Zones where capital gains on long-term investments are taxed at zero.
      • Opportunity Zone designations have increased property values within them by 1.1 percent, creating an estimated $11 billion in wealth for the nearly half of Opportunity Zone residents who own their own home.
      • Opportunity Zones have attracted $75 billion in funds and driven $52 billion of new investment in economically distressed communities, creating at least 500,000 new jobs.
      • Approximately 1 million Americans will be lifted from poverty as a result of these new investments.
      • Private equity investments into businesses in Opportunity Zones were nearly 30 percent higher than investments into businesses in similar areas that were not designated Opportunity Zones.
  3. Massive Deregulation
    • Ended the regulatory assault on American Businesses and Workers.
      • Instead of 2-for-1, we eliminated 8 old regulations for every 1 new regulation adopted.
      • Provided the average American household an extra $3,100 every year.
      • Reduced the direct cost of regulatory compliance by $50 billion, and will reduce costs by an additional $50 billion in FY 2020 alone.
      • Removed nearly 25,000 pages from the Federal Register – more than any other president. The previous administration added over 16,000 pages.
      • Established the Governors’ Initiative on Regulatory Innovation to reduce outdated regulations at the state, local, and tribal levels.
      • Signed an executive order to make it easier for businesses to offer retirement plans.
      • Signed two executive orders to increase transparency in Federal agencies and protect Americans and their small businesses from administrative abuse.
      • Modernized the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) for the first time in over 40 years.
      • Reduced approval times for major infrastructure projects from 10 or more years down to 2 years or less.
      • Helped community banks by signing legislation that rolled back costly provisions of Dodd-Frank.
      • Established the White House Council on Eliminating Regulatory Barriers to Affordable Housing to bring down housing costs.
      • Removed regulations that threatened the development of a strong and stable internet.
      • Eased and simplified restrictions on rocket launches, helping to spur commercial investment in space projects.
      • Published a whole-of-government strategy focused on ensuring American leadership in automated vehicle technology.
      • Streamlined energy efficiency regulations for American families and businesses, including preserving affordable lightbulbs, enhancing the utility of showerheads, and enabling greater time savings with dishwashers.
      • Removed unnecessary regulations that restrict the seafood industry and impede job creation.
      • Modernized the Department of Agriculture’s biotechnology regulations to put America in the lead to develop new technologies.
      • Took action to suspend regulations that would have slowed our response to COVID-19, including lifting restrictions on manufacturers to more quickly produce ventilators.
    • Successfully rolled back burdensome regulatory overreach.
      • Rescinded the previous administration’s Affirmatively Furthering Fair Housing (AFFH) rule, which would have abolished zoning for single-family housing to build low-income, federally subsidized apartments.
      • Issued a final rule on the Fair Housing Act’s disparate impact standard.
      • Eliminated the Waters of the United States Rule and replaced it with the Navigable Waters Protection Rule, providing relief and certainty for farmers and property owners.
      • Repealed the previous administration’s costly fuel economy regulations by finalizing the Safer Affordable Fuel Efficient (SAFE) Vehicles rule, which will make cars more affordable, and lower the price of new vehicles by an estimated $2,200.
    • Americans now have more money in their pockets.
      • Deregulation had an especially beneficial impact on low-income Americans who pay a much higher share of their incomes for overregulation.
      • Cut red tape in the healthcare industry, providing Americans with more affordable healthcare and saving Americans nearly 10 percent on prescription drugs.
      • Deregulatory efforts yielded savings to the medical community an estimated $6.6 billion – with a reduction of 42 million hours of regulatory compliance work through 2021.
      • Removed government barriers to personal freedom and consumer choice in healthcare.
      • Once fully in effect, 20 major deregulatory actions undertaken by the Trump Administration are expected to save American consumers and businesses over $220 billion per year.
      • Signed 16 pieces of deregulatory legislation that will result in a $40 billion increase in annual real incomes.
  4. Fair and Reciprocal Trade
    • Secured historic trade deals to defend American workers.
      • Immediately withdrew from the job-killing Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP).
      • Ended the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), and replaced it with the brand new United States-Mexico-Canada Agreement (USMCA).
      • The USMCA contains powerful new protections for American manufacturers, auto-makers, farmers, dairy producers, and workers.
      • The USMCA is expected to generate over $68 billion in economic activity and potentially create over 550,000 new jobs over ten years.
      • Signed an executive order making it government policy to Buy American and Hire American, and took action to stop the outsourcing of jobs overseas.
      • Negotiated with Japan to slash tariffs and open its market to $7 billion in American agricultural products and ended its ban on potatoes and lamb.
      • Over 90 percent of American agricultural exports to Japan now receive preferential treatment, and most are duty-free.
      • Negotiated another deal with Japan to boost $40 billion worth of digital trade.
      • Renegotiated the United States-Korea Free Trade Agreement, doubling the cap on imports of American vehicles and extending the American light truck tariff.
      • Reached a written, fully-enforceable Phase One trade agreement with China on confronting pirated and counterfeit goods, and the protection of American ideas, trade secrets, patents, and trademarks.
      • China agreed to purchase an additional $200 billion worth of United States exports and opened market access for over 4,000 American facilities to exports while all tariffs remained in effect.
      • Achieved a mutual agreement with the European Union (EU) that addresses unfair trade practices and increases duty-free exports by 180 percent to $420 million.
      • Secured a pledge from the EU to eliminate tariffs on American lobster – the first United States-European Union negotiated tariff reduction in over 20 years.
      • Scored a historic victory by overhauling the Universal Postal Union, whose outdated policies were undermining American workers and interests.
      • Engaged extensively with trade partners like the EU and Japan to advance reforms to the World Trade Organization (WTO).
      • Issued a first-ever comprehensive report on the WTO Appellate Body’s failures to comply with WTO rules and interpret WTO agreements as written.
      • Blocked nominees to the WTO’s Appellate Body until WTO Members recognize and address longstanding issues with Appellate Body activism.
      • Submitted 5 papers to the WTO Committee on Agriculture to improve Members’ understanding of how trade policies are implemented, highlight areas for improved transparency, and encourage members to maintain up-to-date notifications on market access and domestic support.
    • Took strong actions to confront unfair trade practices and put America First.
      • Imposed tariffs on hundreds of billions worth of Chinese goods to protect American jobs and stop China’s abuses under Section 232 of the Trade Expansion Act of 1962 and Section 301 of the Trade Act of 1974.
      • Directed an all-of-government effort to halt and punish efforts by the Communist Party of China to steal and profit from American innovations and intellectual property.
      • Imposed tariffs on foreign aluminum and foreign steel to protect our vital industries and support our national security.
      • Approved tariffs on $1.8 billion in imports of washing machines and $8.5 billion in imports of solar panels.
      • Blocked illegal timber imports from Peru.
      • Took action against France for its digital services tax that unfairly targets American technology companies.
      • Launched investigations into digital services taxes that have been proposed or adopted by 10 other countries.
    • Historic support for American farmers.
      • Successfully negotiated more than 50 agreements with countries around the world to increase foreign market access and boost exports of American agriculture products, supporting more than 1 million American jobs.
      • Authorized $28 billion in aid for farmers who have been subjected to unfair trade practices – fully funded by the tariffs paid by China.
      • China lifted its ban on poultry, opened its market to beef, and agreed to purchase at least $80 billion of American agricultural products in the next two years.
      • The European Union agreed to increase beef imports by 180 percent and opened up its market to more imports of soybeans.
      • South Korea lifted its ban on American poultry and eggs, and agreed to provide market access for record exports of American rice.
      • Argentina lifted its ban on American pork.
      • Brazil agreed to increase wheat imports by $180 million a year and raised its quotas for purchases of United States ethanol.
      • Guatemala and Tunisia opened up their markets to American eggs.
      • Won tariff exemptions in Ecuador for wheat and soybeans.
      • Suspended $817 million in trade preferences for Thailand under the Generalized System of Preferences (GSP) program due to its failure to adequately provide reasonable market access for American pork products.
      • The amount of food stamps redeemed at farmers markets increased from $1.4 million in May 2020 to $1.75 million in September 2020 – a 50 percent increase over last year.
      • Rapidly deployed the Coronavirus Food Assistance Program, which provided $30 billion in support to farmers and ranchers facing decreased prices and market disruption when COVID-19 impacted the food supply chain.
      • Authorized more than $6 billion for the Farmers to Families Food Box program, which delivered over 128 million boxes of locally sourced, produce, meat, and dairy products to charity and faith-based organizations nationwide.
      • Delegated authorities via the Defense Production Act to protect breaks in the American food supply chain as a result of COVID-19.
  5. American Energy Independence
    • Unleashed America’s oil and natural gas potential.
      • For the first time in nearly 70 years, the United States has become a net energy exporter.
      • The United States is now the number one producer of oil and natural gas in the world.
      • Natural gas production reached a record-high of 34.9 quads in 2019, following record high production in 2018 and in 2017.
      • The United States has been a net natural gas exporter for three consecutive years and has an export capacity of nearly 10 billion cubic feet per day.
      • Withdrew from the unfair, one-sided Paris Climate Agreement.
      • Canceled the previous administration’s Clean Power Plan, and replaced it with the new Affordable Clean Energy rule.
      • Approved the Keystone XL and Dakota Access pipelines.
      • Opened up the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR) in Alaska to oil and gas leasing.
      • Repealed the last administration’s Federal Coal Leasing Moratorium, which prohibited coal leasing on Federal lands.
      • Reformed permitting rules to eliminate unnecessary bureaucracy and speed approval for mines.
      • Fixed the New Source Review permitting program, which punished companies for upgrading or repairing coal power plants.
      • Fixed the Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) steam electric and coal ash rules.
      • The average American family saved $2,500 a year in lower electric bills and lower prices at the gas pump.
      • Signed legislation repealing the harmful Stream Protection Rule.
      • Reduced the time to approve drilling permits on public lands by half, increasing permit applications to drill on public lands by 300 percent.
      • Expedited approval of the NuStar’s New Burgos pipeline to export American gasoline to Mexico.
      • Streamlined Liquefied natural gas (LNG) terminal permitting and allowed long-term LNG export authorizations to be extended through 2050.
      • The United States is now among the top three LNG exporters in the world.
      • Increased LNG exports five-fold since January 2017, reaching an all-time high in January 2020.
      • LNG exports are expected to reduce the American trade deficit by over $10 billion.
      • Granted more than 20 new long-term approvals for LNG exports to non-free trade agreement countries.
      • The development of natural gas and LNG infrastructure in the United States is providing tens of thousands of jobs, and has led to the investment of tens of billions of dollars in infrastructure.
      • There are now 6 LNG export facilities operating in the United States, with 2 additional export projects under construction.
      • The amount of nuclear energy production in 2019 was the highest on record, through a combination of increased capacity from power plant upgrades and shorter refueling and maintenance cycles.
      • Prevented Russian energy coercion across Europe through various lines of effort, including the Partnership for Transatlantic Energy Cooperation, civil nuclear deals with Romania and Poland, and opposition to Nord Stream 2 pipeline.
      • Issued the Presidential Permit for the A2A railroad between Canada and Alaska, providing energy resources to emerging markets.
    • Increased access to our country’s abundant natural resources in order to achieve energy independence.
      • Renewable energy production and consumption both reached record highs in 2019.
      • Enacted policies that helped double the amount of electricity generated by solar and helped increase the amount of wind generation by 32 percent from 2016 through 2019.
      • Accelerated construction of energy infrastructure to ensure American energy producers can deliver their products to the market.
      • Cut red tape holding back the construction of new energy infrastructure.
      • Authorized ethanol producers to sell E15 year-round and allowed higher-ethanol gasoline to be distributed from existing pumps at filling stations.
      • Ensured greater transparency and certainty in the Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) program.
      • Negotiated leasing capacity in the Strategic Petroleum Reserve to Australia, providing American taxpayers a return on this infrastructure investment.
      • Signed an executive order directing Federal agencies to work together to diminish the capability of foreign adversaries to target our critical electric infrastructure.
      • Reformed Section 401 of the Clean Water Act regulation to allow for the curation of interstate infrastructure.
      • Resolved the OPEC (Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries) oil crisis during COVID-19 by getting OPEC, Russia, and others to cut nearly 10 million barrels of production a day, stabilizing world oil prices.
      • Directed the Department of Energy to use the Strategic Petroleum Reserve to mitigate market volatility caused by COVID-19.
  6. Investing in America’s Workers and Families
    • Affordable and high-quality Child Care for American workers and their families.
      • Doubled the Child Tax Credit from $1,000 to $2,000 per child and expanded the eligibility for receiving the credit.
      • Nearly 40 million families benefitted from the child tax credit (CTC), receiving an average benefit of $2,200 – totaling credits of approximately $88 billion.
      • Signed the largest-ever increase in Child Care and Development Block Grants – expanding access to quality, affordable child care for more than 800,000 low-income families.
      • Secured an additional $3.5 billion in the Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security (CARES) Act to help families and first responders with child care needs.
      • Created the first-ever paid family leave tax credit for employees earning $72,000 or less.
      • Signed into law 12-weeks of paid parental leave for Federal workers.
      • Signed into law a provision that enables new parents to withdraw up to $5,000 from their retirement accounts without penalty when they give birth to or adopt a child.
    • Advanced apprenticeship career pathways to good-paying jobs.
      • Expanded apprenticeships to more than 850,000 and established the new Industry-Recognized Apprenticeship programs in new and emerging fields.
      • Established the National Council for the American Worker and the American Workforce Policy Advisory Board.
      • Over 460 companies have signed the Pledge to America’s Workers, committing to provide more than 16 million job and training opportunities.
      • Signed an executive order that directs the Federal government to replace outdated degree-based hiring with skills-based hiring.
    • Advanced women’s economic empowerment.
      • Included women’s empowerment for the first time in the President’s 2017 National Security Strategy.
      • Signed into law key pieces of legislation, including the Women, Peace, and Security Act and the Women Entrepreneurship and Economic Empowerment Act.
      • Launched the Women’s Global Development and Prosperity (W-GDP) Initiative – the first-ever whole-of-government approach to women’s economic empowerment that has reached 24 million women worldwide.
      • Established an innovative new W-GDP Fund at USAID.
      • Launched the Women Entrepreneurs Finance Initiative (We-Fi) with 13 other nations.
      • Announced a $50 million donation on behalf of the United States to We-Fi providing more capital to women-owned businesses around the world.
      • Released the first-ever Strategy on Women, Peace, and Security, which focused on increasing women’s participation to prevent and resolve conflicts.
      • Launched the W-GDP 2x Global Women’s Initiative with the Development Finance Corporation, which has mobilized more than $3 billion in private sector investments over three years.
    • Ensured American leadership in technology and innovation.
      • First administration to name artificial intelligence, quantum information science, and 5G communications as national research and development priorities.
      • Launched the American Broadband Initiative to promote the rapid deployment of broadband internet across rural America.
      • Made 100 megahertz of crucial mid-band spectrum available for commercial operations, a key factor to driving widespread 5G access across rural America.
      • Launched the American AI Initiative to ensure American leadership in artificial intelligence (AI), and established the National AI Initiative Office at the White House.
      • Established the first-ever principles for Federal agency adoption of AI to improve services for the American people.
      • Signed the National Quantum Initiative Act establishing the National Quantum Coordination Office at the White House to drive breakthroughs in quantum information science.
      • Signed the Secure 5G and Beyond Act to ensure America leads the world in 5G.
      • Launched a groundbreaking program to test safe and innovative commercial drone operations nationwide.
      • Issued new rulemaking to accelerate the return of American civil supersonic aviation.
      • Committed to doubling investments in AI and quantum information science (QIS) research and development.
      • Announced the establishment of $1 billion AI and quantum research institutes across America.
      • Established the largest dual-use 5G test sites in the world to advance 5G commercial and military innovation.
      • Signed landmark Prague Principles with America’s allies to advance the deployment of secure 5G telecommunications networks.
      • Signed first-ever bilateral AI cooperation agreement with the United Kingdom.
      • Built collation among allies to ban Chinese Telecom Company Huawei from their 5G infrastructure.
    • Preserved American jobs for American workers and rejected the importation of cheap foreign labor.
      • Pressured the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) to reverse their decision to lay off over 200 American workers and replace them with cheaper foreign workers.
      • Removed the TVA Chairman of the Board and a TVA Board Member.
  7. Life-Saving Response to the China Virus
    • Restricted travel to the United States from infected regions of the world.
      • Suspended all travel from China, saving thousands of lives.
      • Required all American citizens returning home from designated outbreak countries to return through designated airports with enhanced screening measures, and to undergo a self-quarantine.
      • Announced further travel restrictions on Iran, the Schengen Area of Europe, the United Kingdom, Ireland, and Brazil.
      • Issued travel advisory warnings recommending that American citizens avoid all international travel.
      • Reached bilateral agreements with Mexico and Canada to suspend non-essential travel and expeditiously return illegal aliens.
      • Repatriated over 100,000 American citizens stranded abroad on more than 1,140 flights from 136 countries and territories.
      • Safely transported, evacuated, treated, and returned home trapped passengers on cruise ships.
      • Took action to authorize visa sanctions on foreign governments who impede our efforts to protect American citizens by refusing or unreasonably delaying the return of their own citizens, subjects, or residents from the United States.
    • Acted early to combat the China Virus in the United States.
      • Established the White House Coronavirus Task Force, with leading experts on infectious diseases, to manage the Administration’s efforts to mitigate the spread of COVID-19 and to keep workplaces safe.
      • Pledged in the State of the Union address to “take all necessary steps to safeguard our citizens from the Virus,” while the Democrats’ response made not a single mention of COVID-19 or even the threat of China.
      • Declared COVID-19 a National Emergency under the Stafford Act.
      • Established the 24/7 FEMA National Response Coordination Center.
      • Released guidance recommending containment measures critical to slowing the spread of the Virus, decompressing peak burden on hospitals and infrastructure, and diminishing health impacts.
      • Implemented strong community mitigation strategies to sharply reduce the number of lives lost in the United States down from experts’ projection of up to 2.2 million deaths in the United States without mitigation.
      • Halted American funding to the World Health Organization to counter its egregious bias towards China that jeopardized the safety of Americans.
      • Announced plans for withdrawal from the World Health Organization and redirected contribution funds to help meet global public health needs.
      • Called on the United Nations to hold China accountable for their handling of the virus, including refusing to be transparent and failing to contain the virus before it spread.
    • Re-purposed domestic manufacturing facilities to ensure frontline workers had critical supplies.
      • Distributed billions of pieces of Personal Protective Equipment, including gloves, masks, gowns, and face shields.
      • Invoked the Defense Production Act over 100 times to accelerate the development and manufacturing of essential material in the USA.
      • Made historic investments of more than $3 billion into the industrial base.
      • Contracted with companies such as Ford, General Motors, Philips, and General Electric to produce ventilators.
      • Contracted with Honeywell, 3M, O&M Halyard, Moldex, and Lydall to increase our Nation’s production of N-95 masks.
      • The Army Corps of Engineers built 11,000 beds, distributed 10,000 ventilators, and surged personnel to hospitals.
      • Converted the Javits Center in New York into a 3,000-bed hospital, and opened medical facilities in Seattle and New Orleans.
      • Dispatched the USNS Comfort to New York City, and the USNS Mercy to Los Angeles.
      • Deployed thousands of FEMA employees, National Guard members, and military forces to help in the response.
      • Provided support to states facing new emergences of the virus, including surging testing sites, deploying medical personnel, and advising on mitigation strategies.
      • Announced Federal support to governors for use of the National Guard with 100 percent cost-share.
      • Established the Supply Chain Task Force as a “control tower” to strategically allocate high-demand medical supplies and PPE to areas of greatest need.
      • Requested critical data elements from states about the status of hospital capacity, ventilators, and PPE.
      • Executed nearly 250 flights through Project Air Bridge to transport hundreds of millions of surgical masks, N95 respirators, gloves, and gowns from around the world to hospitals and facilities throughout the United States.
      • Signed an executive order invoking the Defense Production Act to ensure that Americans have a reliable supply of products like beef, pork, and poultry.
      • Stabilized the food supply chain restoring the Nation’s protein processing capacity through a collaborative approach with Federal, state, and local officials and industry partners.
      • The continued movement of food and other critical items of daily life distributed to stores and to American homes went unaffected.
    • Replenished the depleted Strategic National Stockpile.
      • Increased the number of ventilators nearly ten-fold to more than 153,000.
      • Despite the grim projections from the media and governors, no American who has needed a ventilator has been denied a ventilator.
      • Increased the number of N95 masks fourteen-fold to more than 176 million.
      • Issued an executive order ensuring critical medical supplies are produced in the United States.
    • Created the largest, most advanced, and most innovative testing system in the world.
      • Built the world’s leading testing system from scratch, conducting over 200 million tests – more than all of the European Union combined.
      • Engaged more than 400 test developers to increase testing capacity from less than 100 tests per day to more than 2 million tests per day.
      • Slashed red tape and approved Emergency Use Authorizations for more than 300 different tests, including 235 molecular tests, 63 antibody tests, and 11 antigen tests.
      • Delivered state-of-the-art testing devices and millions of tests to every certified nursing home in the country.
      • Announced more flexibility to Medicare Advantage and Part D plans to waive cost-sharing for tests.
      • Over 2,000 retail pharmacy stores, including CVS, Walmart, and Walgreens, are providing testing using new regulatory and reimbursement options.
      • Deployed tens of millions of tests to nursing homes, assisted living facilities, historically black colleges and universities (HBCUs), tribes, disaster relief operations, Home Health/Hospice organizations, and the Veterans Health Administration.
      • Began shipping 150 million BinaxNOW rapid tests to states, long-term care facilities, the IHS, HBCUs, and other key partners.
    • Pioneered groundbreaking treatments and therapies that reduced the mortality rate by 85 percent, saving over 2 million lives.
      • The United States has among the lowest case fatality rates in the entire world.
      • The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) launched the Coronavirus Treatment Acceleration Program to expedite the regulatory review process for therapeutics in clinical trials, accelerate the development and publication of industry guidance on developing treatments, and utilize regulatory flexibility to help facilitate the scaling-up of manufacturing capacity.
      • More than 370 therapies are in clinical trials and another 560 are in the planning stages.
      • Announced $450 million in available funds to support the manufacturing of Regeneron’s antibody cocktail.
      • Shipped tens of thousands of doses of the Regeneron drug.
      • Authorized an Emergency Use Authorization (EUA) for convalescent plasma.
      • Treated around 100,000 patients with convalescent plasma, which may reduce mortality by 50 percent.
      • Provided $48 million to fund the Mayo Clinic study that tested the efficacy of convalescent plasma for patients with COVID-19.
      • Made an agreement to support the large-scale manufacturing of AstraZeneca’s cocktail of two monoclonal antibodies.
      • Approved Remdesivir as the first COVID-19 treatment, which could reduce hospitalization time by nearly a third.
      • Secured more than 90 percent of the world’s supply of Remdesivir, enough to treat over 850,000 high-risk patients.
      • Granted an EUA to Eli Lilly for its anti-body treatments.
      • Finalized an agreement with Eli Lilly to purchase the first doses of the company’s investigational antibody therapeutic.
      • Provided up to $270 million to the American Red Cross and America’s Blood Centers to support the collection of up to 360,000 units of plasma.
      • Launched a nationwide campaign to ask patients who have recovered from COVID-19 to donate plasma.
      • Announced Phase 3 clinical trials for varying types of blood thinners to treat adults diagnosed with COVID-19.
      • Issued an EUA for the monoclonal antibody therapy bamlanivimab.
      • FDA issued an EUA for casirivimab and imdevimab to be administered together.
      • Launched the COVID-19 High Performance Computing Consortium with private sector and academic leaders unleashing America’s supercomputers to accelerate coronavirus research.
    • Brought the full power of American medicine and government to produce a safe and effective vaccine in record time.
      • Launched Operation Warp Speed to initiate an unprecedented drive to develop and make available an effective vaccine by January 2021.
      • Pfizer and Moderna developed two vaccines in just nine months, five times faster than the fastest prior vaccine development in American history.
      • Pfizer and Moderna’s vaccines are approximately 95 effective – far exceeding all expectations.
      • AstraZeneca and Johnson & Johnson also both have promising candidates in the final stage of clinical trials.
      • The vaccines will be administered within 24 hours of FDA-approval.
      • Made millions of vaccine doses available before the end of 2020, with hundreds of millions more to quickly follow.
      • FedEx and UPS will ship doses from warehouses directly to local pharmacies, hospitals, and healthcare providers.
      • Finalized a partnership with CVS and Walgreens to deliver vaccines directly to residents of nursing homes and long-term care facilities as soon as a state requests it, at no cost to America’s seniors.
      • Signed an executive order to ensure that the United States government prioritizes getting the vaccine to American citizens before sending it to other nations.
      • Provided approximately $13 billion to accelerate vaccine development and to manufacture all of the top candidates in advance.
      • Provided critical investments of $4.1 billion to Moderna to support the development, manufacturing, and distribution of their vaccines.
      • Moderna announced its vaccine is 95 percent effective and is pending FDA approval.
      • Provided Pfizer up to $1.95 billion to support the mass-manufacturing and nationwide distribution of their vaccine candidate.
      • Pfizer announced its vaccine is 95 percent effective and is pending FDA approval.
      • Provided approximately $1 billion to support the manufacturing and distribution of Johnson & Johnson’s vaccine candidate.
      • Johnson & Johnson’s vaccine candidate reached the final stage of clinical trials.
      • Made up to $1.2 billion available to support AstraZeneca’s vaccine candidate.
      • AstraZeneca’s vaccine candidate reached the final stage of clinical trials.
      • Made an agreement to support the large-scale manufacturing of Novavax’s vaccine candidate with 100 million doses expected.
      • Partnered with Sanofi and GSK to support large-scale manufacturing of a COVID-19 investigational vaccine.
      • Awarded $200 million in funding to support vaccine preparedness and plans for the immediate distribution and administration of vaccines.
      • Provided $31 million to Cytvia for vaccine-related consumable products.
      • Under the PREP Act, issued guidance authorizing qualified pharmacy technicians to administer vaccines.
      • Announced that McKesson Corporation will produce store, and distribute vaccine ancillary supply kits on behalf of the Strategic National Stockpile to help healthcare workers who will administer vaccines.
      • Announced partnership with large-chain, independent, and regional pharmacies to deliver vaccines.
    • Prioritized resources for the most vulnerable Americans, including nursing home residents.
      • Quickly established guidelines for nursing homes and expanded telehealth opportunities to protect vulnerable seniors.
      • Increased surveillance, oversight, and transparency of all 15,417 Medicare and Medicaid nursing homes by requiring them to report cases of COVID-19 to all residents, their families, and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).
      • Required that all nursing homes test staff regularly.
      • Launched an unprecedented national nursing home training curriculum to equip nursing home staff with the knowledge they need to stop the spread of COVID-19.
      • Delivered $81 million for increased inspections and funded 35,000 members of the Nation Guard to deliver critical supplies to every Medicare-certified nursing homes.
      • Deployed Federal Task Force Strike Teams to provide onsite technical assistance and education to nursing homes experiencing outbreaks.
      • Distributed tens of billions of dollars in Provider Relief Funds to protect nursing homes, long-term care facilities, safety-net hospitals, rural hospitals, and communities hardest hit by the virus.
      • Released 1.5 million N95 respirators from the Strategic National Stockpile for distribution to over 3,000 nursing home facilities.
      • Directed the White House Opportunity and Revitalization Council to refocus on underserved communities impacted by the coronavirus.
      • Required that testing results reported include data on race, gender, ethnicity, and ZIP code, to ensure that resources were directed to communities disproportionately harmed by the virus.
      • Ensured testing was offered at 95 percent of Federally Qualified Health Centers (FQHC), which serve over 29 million patients in 12,000 communities across the Nation.
      • Invested an unprecedented $8 billion in tribal communities.
      • Maintained safe access for Veterans to VA healthcare throughout the COVID-19 Pandemic and supported non-VA hospital systems and private and state-run nursing homes with VA clinical teams.
      • Signed legislation ensuring no reduction of VA education benefits under the GI Bill for online distance learning.
    • Supported Americans as they safely return to school and work.
      • Issued the Guidelines for Opening Up America Again, a detailed blueprint to help governors as they began reopening the country. Focused on protecting the most vulnerable and mitigating the risk of any resurgence, while restarting the economy and allowing Americans to safely return to their jobs.
      • Helped Americans return to work by providing extensive guidance on workplace-safety measures to protect against COVID-19, and investigating over 10,000 coronavirus-related complaints and referrals.
      • Provided over $31 billion to support elementary and secondary schools.
      • Distributed 125 million face masks to school districts.
      • Provided comprehensive guidelines to schools on how to protect and identify high-risk individuals, prevent the spread of COVID-19, and conduct safe in-person teaching.
      • Brought back the safe return of college athletics, including Big Ten and Pac-12 football.
    • Rescued the American economy with nearly $3.4 trillion in relief, the largest financial aid package in history.
      • Secured an initial $8.3 billion Coronavirus Preparedness and Response Act, supporting the development of treatments and vaccines, and to procure critical medical supplies and equipment.
      • Signed the $100 billion Families First Coronavirus Relief Act, guaranteeing free coronavirus testing, emergency paid sick leave and family leave, Medicaid funding, and food assistance.
      • Signed the $2.3 trillion Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security (CARES) Act, providing unprecedented and immediate relief to American families, workers, and businesses.
      • Signed additional legislation providing nearly $900 billion in support for coronavirus emergency response and relief, including critically needed funds to continue the Paycheck Protection Program.
      • Signed the Paycheck Protection Program and Healthcare Enhancement Act, adding an additional $310 billion to replenish the program.
      • Delivered approximately 160 million relief payments to hardworking Americans.
      • Through the Paycheck Protection Program, approved over $525 billion in forgivable loans to more than 5.2 million small businesses, supporting more than 51 million American jobs.
      • The Treasury Department approved the establishment of the Money Market Mutual Fund Liquidity Facility to provide liquidity to the financial system.
      • The Treasury Department, working with the Federal Reserve, was able to leverage approximately $4 trillion in emergency lending facilities.
      • Signed an executive order extending expanded unemployment benefits.
      • Signed an executive order to temporarily suspend student loan payments, evictions, and collection of payroll taxes.
      • Small Business Administration expanded access to emergency economic assistance for small businesses, faith-based, and religious entities.
      • Protected jobs for American workers impacted by COVID-19 by temporarily suspending several job-related nonimmigrant visas, including H-1B’s, H-2B’s without a nexus to the food-supply chain, certain H-4’s, as well as L’s and certain J’s.
  8. Great Healthcare for Americans
    • Empowered American patients by greatly expanding healthcare choice, transparency, and affordability.
      • Eliminated the Obamacare individual mandate – a financial relief to low and middle-income households that made up nearly 80 percent of the families who paid the penalty for not wanting to purchase health insurance.
      • Increased choice for consumers by promoting competition in the individual health insurance market leading to lower premiums for three years in a row.
      • Under the Trump Administration, more than 90 percent of the counties have multiple options on the individual insurance market to choose from.
      • Offered Association Health Plans, which allow employers to pool together and offer more affordable, quality health coverage to their employees at up to 30 percent lower cost.
      • Increased availability of short-term, limited-duration health plans, which can cost up to 60 percent less than traditional plans, giving Americans more flexibility to choose plans that suit their needs.
      • Expanded Health Reimbursement Arrangements, allowing millions of Americans to be able to shop for a plan of their choice on the individual market, and then have their employer cover the cost.
      • Added 2,100 new Medicare Advantage plan options since 2017, a 76 percent increase.
      • Lowered Medicare Advantage premiums by 34 percent nationwide to the lowest level in 14 years. Medicare health plan premium savings for beneficiaries have totaled $nearly 1.5 billion since 2017.
      • Improved access to tax-free health savings accounts for individuals with chronic conditions.
      • Eliminated costly Obamacare taxes, including the health insurance tax, the medical device tax, and the “Cadillac tax.”
      • Worked with states to create more flexibility and relief from oppressive Obamacare regulations, including reinsurance waivers to help lower premiums.
      • Released legislative principles to end surprise medical billing.
      • Finalized requirements for unprecedented price transparency from hospitals and insurance companies so patients know what the cost is before they receive care.
      • Took action to require that hospitals make the prices they negotiate with insurers publicly available and easily accessible online.
      • Improved patients access to their health data by penalizing hospitals and causing clinicians to lose their incentive payments if they do not comply.
      • Expanded access to telehealth, especially in rural and underserved communities.
      • Increased Medicare payments to rural hospitals to stem a decade of rising closures and deliver enhanced access to care in rural areas.
    • Issued unprecedented reforms that dramatically lowered the price of prescription drugs.
      • Lowered drug prices for the first time in 51 years.
      • Launched an initiative to stop global freeloading in the drug market.
      • Finalized a rule to allow the importation of prescription drugs from Canada.
      • Finalized the Most Favored Nation Rule to ensure that pharmaceutical companies offer the same discounts to the United States as they do to other nations, resulting in an estimated $85 billion in savings over seven years and $30 billion in out-of-pocket costs alone.
      • Proposed a rule requiring federally funded health centers to pass drug company discounts on insulin and Epi-Pens directly to patients.
      • Ended the gag clauses that prevented pharmacists from informing patients about the best prices for the medications they need.
      • Ended the costly kickbacks to middlemen and ensured that patients directly benefit from available discounts at the pharmacy counter, saving Americans up to 30 percent on brand name pharmaceuticals.
      • Enhanced Part D plans to provide many seniors with Medicare access to a broad set of insulins at a maximum $35 copay for a month’s supply of each type of insulin.
      • Reduced Medicare Part D prescription drug premiums, saving beneficiaries nearly $2 billion in premium costs since 2017.
      • Ended the Unapproved Drugs Initiative, which provided market exclusivity to generic drugs.
    • Promoted research and innovation in healthcare to ensure that American patients have access to the best treatment in the world.
      • Signed first-ever executive order to affirm that it is the official policy of the United States Government to protect patients with pre-existing conditions.
      • Passed Right To Try to give terminally ill patients access to lifesaving cures.
      • Signed an executive order to fight kidney disease with more transplants and better treatment.
      • Signed into law a $1 billion increase in funding for critical Alzheimer’s research.
      • Accelerated medical breakthroughs in genetic treatments for Sickle Cell disease.
      • Finalized the interoperability rules that will give American patients access to their electronic health records on their phones.
      • Initiated an effort to provide $500 million over the next decade to improve pediatric cancer research.
      • Launched a campaign to end the HIV/AIDS epidemic in America in the next decade.
      • Started a program to provide the HIV prevention drug PrEP to uninsured patients for free.
      • Signed an executive order and awarded new development contracts to modernize the influenza vaccine.
    • Protected our Nation’s seniors by safeguarding and strengthening Medicare.
      • Updated the way Medicare pays for innovative medical products to ensure beneficiaries have access to the latest innovation and treatment.
      • Reduced improper payments for Medicare an estimated $15 billion since 2016 protecting taxpayer dollars and leading to less fraud, waste, and abuse.
      • Took rapid action to combat antimicrobial resistance and secure access to life-saving new antibiotic drugs for American seniors, by removing several financial disincentives and setting policies to reduce inappropriate use.
      • Launched new online tools, including eMedicare, Blue Button 2.0, and Care Compare, to help seniors see what is covered, compare costs, streamline data, and compare tools available on
      • Provided new Medicare Advantage supplemental benefits, including modifications to help keep seniors safe in their homes, respite care for caregivers, non-opioid pain management alternatives like therapeutic massages, transportation, and more in-home support services and assistance.
      • Protected Medicare beneficiaries by removing Social Security numbers from all Medicare cards, a project completed ahead of schedule.
      • Unleashed unprecedented transparency in Medicare and Medicaid data to spur research and innovation.
  9. Remaking the Federal Judiciary
    • Appointed a historic number of Federal judges who will interpret the Constitution as written.
      • Nominated and confirmed over 230 Federal judges.
      • Confirmed 54 judges to the United States Courts of Appeals, making up nearly a third of the entire appellate bench.
      • Filled all Court of Appeals vacancies for the first time in four decades.
      • Flipped the Second, Third, and Eleventh Circuits from Democrat-appointed majorities to Republican-appointed majorities. And dramatically reshaped the long-liberal Ninth Circuit.
    • Appointed three Supreme Court justices, expanding its conservative-appointed majority to 6-3.
      • Appointed Justice Neil Gorsuch to replace Justice Antonin Scalia.
      • Appointed Justice Brett Kavanaugh to replace Justice Anthony Kennedy.
      • Appointed Justice Amy Coney Barrett to replace Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg.
  10. Achieving a Secure Border
    • Secured the Southern Border of the United States.
      • Built over 400 miles of the world’s most robust and advanced border wall.
      • Illegal crossings have plummeted over 87 percent where the wall has been constructed.
      • Deployed nearly 5,000 troops to the Southern border. In addition, Mexico deployed tens of thousands of their own soldiers and national guardsmen to secure their side of the US-Mexico border.
      • Ended the dangerous practice of Catch-and-Release, which means that instead of aliens getting released into the United States pending future hearings never to be seen again, they are detained pending removal, and then ultimately returned to their home countries.
      • Entered into three historic asylum cooperation agreements with Honduras, El Salvador, and Guatemala to stop asylum fraud and resettle illegal migrants in third-party nations pending their asylum applications.
      • Entered into a historic partnership with Mexico, referred to as the “Migrant Protection Protocols,” to safely return asylum-seekers to Mexico while awaiting hearings in the United States.
    • Fully enforced the immigration laws of the United States.
      • Signed an executive order to strip discretionary Federal grant funding from deadly sanctuary cities.
      • Fully enforced and implemented statutorily authorized “expedited removal” of illegal aliens.
      • The Department of Justice prosecuted a record-breaking number of immigration-related crimes.
      • Used Section 243(d) of the Immigration and Nationality Act (INA) to reduce the number of aliens coming from countries whose governments refuse to accept their nationals who were ordered removed from the United States.
    • Ended asylum fraud, shut down human smuggling traffickers, and solved the humanitarian crisis across the Western Hemisphere.
      • Suspended, via regulation, asylum for aliens who had skipped previous countries where they were eligible for asylum but opted to “forum shop” and continue to the United States.
      • Safeguarded migrant families, and protected migrant safety, by promulgating new regulations under the Flores Settlement Agreement.
      • Proposed regulations to end the practice of giving free work permits to illegal aliens lodging meritless asylum claims.
      • Issued “internal relocation” guidance.
      • Cross-trained United States Border Patrol agents to conduct credible fear screenings alongside USCIS (United States Citizenship and Immigration Services) adjudication personnel to reduce massive backlogs.
      • Streamlined and expedited the asylum hearing process through both the Prompt Asylum Claim Review (PACR) and the Humanitarian Asylum Review Process (HARP).
      • Launched the Family Fraud Initiative to identify hundreds of individuals who were fraudulently presenting themselves as family units at the border, oftentimes with trafficking children, in order to ensure child welfare.
      • Improved screening in countries with high overstay rates and reduced visa overstay rates in many of these countries.
      • Removed bureaucratic constraints on United States consular officers that reduced their ability to appropriately vet visa applicants.
      • Worked with Mexico and other regional partners to dismantle the human smuggling networks in our hemisphere that profit from human misery and fuel the border crisis by exploiting vulnerable populations.
    • Secured our Nation’s immigration system against criminals and terrorists.
      • Instituted national security travel bans to keep out terrorists, jihadists, and violent extremists, and implemented a uniform security and information-sharing baseline all nations must meet in order for their nationals to be able to travel to, and emigrate to, the United States.
      • Suspended refugee resettlement from the world’s most dangerous and terror-afflicted regions.
      • Rebalanced refugee assistance to focus on overseas resettlement and burden-sharing.
      • 85 percent reduction in refugee resettlement.
      • Overhauled badly-broken refugee security screening process.
      • Required the Department of State to consult with states and localities as part of the Federal government’s refugee resettlement process.
      • Issued strict sanctions on countries that have failed to take back their own nationals.
      • Established the National Vetting Center, which is the most advanced and comprehensive visa screening system anywhere in the world.
    • Protected American workers and taxpayers.
      • Issued a comprehensive “public charge” regulation to ensure newcomers to the United States are financially self-sufficient and not reliant on welfare.
      • Created an enforcement mechanism for sponsor repayment and deeming, to ensure that people who are presenting themselves as sponsors are actually responsible for sponsor obligations.
      • Issued regulations to combat the horrendous practice of “birth tourism.”
      • Issued a rule with the Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) to make illegal aliens ineligible for public housing.
      • Issued directives requiring Federal agencies to hire United States workers first and prioritizing the hiring of United States workers wherever possible.
      • Suspended the entry of low-wage workers that threaten American jobs.
      • Finalized new H-1B regulations to permanently end the displacement of United States workers and modify the administrative tools that are required for H-1B visa issuance.
      • Defended United States sovereignty by withdrawing from the United Nations’ Global Compact on Migration.
      • Suspended Employment Authorization Documents for aliens who arrive illegally between ports of entry and are ordered removed from the United States.
      • Restored integrity to the use of Temporary Protected Status (TPS) by strictly adhering to the statutory conditions required for TPS.
  11. Restoring American Leadership Abroad
    • Restored America’s leadership in the world and successfully negotiated to ensure our allies pay their fair share for our military protection.
      • Secured a $400 billion increase in defense spending from NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization) allies by 2024, and the number of members meeting their minimum obligations more than doubled.
      • Credited by Secretary General Jens Stoltenberg for strengthening NATO.
      • Worked to reform and streamline the United Nations (UN) and reduced spending by $1.3 billion.
      • Allies, including Japan and the Republic of Korea, committed to increase burden-sharing.
      • Protected our Second Amendment rights by announcing the United States will never ratify the UN Arms Trade Treaty.
      • Returned 56 hostages and detainees from more than 24 countries.
      • Worked to advance a free and open Indo-Pacific region, promoting new investments and expanding American partnerships.
    • Advanced peace through strength.
      • Withdrew from the horrible, one-sided Iran Nuclear Deal and imposed crippling sanctions on the Iranian Regime.
      • Conducted vigorous enforcement on all sanctions to bring Iran’s oil exports to zero and deny the regime its principal source of revenue.
      • First president to meet with a leader of North Korea and the first sitting president to cross the demilitarized zone into North Korea.
      • Maintained a maximum pressure campaign and enforced tough sanctions on North Korea while negotiating de-nuclearization, the release of American hostages, and the return of the remains of American heroes.
      • Brokered economic normalization between Serbia and Kosovo, bolstering peace in the Balkans.
      • Signed the Honk Kong Autonomy Act and ended the United States’ preferential treatment with Hong Kong to hold China accountable for its infringement on the autonomy of Hong Kong.
      • Led allied efforts to defeat the Chinese Communist Party’s efforts to control the international telecommunications system.
    • Renewed our cherished friendship and alliance with Israel and took historic action to promote peace in the Middle East.
      • Recognized Jerusalem as the true capital of Israel and quickly moved the American Embassy in Israel to Jerusalem.
      • Acknowledged Israel’s sovereignty over the Golan Heights and declared that Israeli settlements in the West Bank are not inconsistent with international law.
      • Removed the United States from the United Nations Human Rights Council due to the group’s blatant anti-Israel bias.
      • Brokered historic peace agreements between Israel and Arab-Muslim countries, including the United Arab Emirates, the Kingdom of Bahrain, and Sudan.
      • In addition, the United States negotiated a normalization agreement between Israel and Morocco, and recognized Moroccan Sovereignty over the entire Western Sahara, a position with long standing bipartisan support.
      • Brokered a deal for Kosovo to normalize ties and establish diplomatic relations with Israel.
      • Announced that Serbia would move its embassy in Israel to Jerusalem.
      • First American president to address an assembly of leaders from more than 50 Muslim nations, and reach an agreement to fight terrorism in all its forms.
      • Established the Etidal Center to combat terrorism in the Middle East in conjunction with the Saudi Arabian Government.
      • Announced the Vision for Peace Political Plan – a two-state solution that resolves the risks of Palestinian statehood to Israel’s security, and the first time Israel has agreed to a map and a Palestinian state.
      • Released an economic plan to empower the Palestinian people and enhance Palestinian governance through historic private investment.
    • Stood up against Communism and Socialism in the Western Hemisphere.
      • Reversed the previous Administration’s disastrous Cuba policy, canceling the sellout deal with the Communist Castro dictatorship.
      • Pledged not to lift sanctions until all political prisoners are freed; freedoms of assembly and expression are respected; all political parties are legalized; and free elections are scheduled.
      • Enacted a new policy aimed at preventing American dollars from funding the Cuban regime, including stricter travel restrictions and restrictions on the importation of Cuban alcohol and tobacco.
      • Implemented a cap on remittances to Cuba.
      • Enabled Americans to file lawsuits against persons and entities that traffic in property confiscated by the Cuban regime.
      • First world leader to recognize Juan Guaido as the Interim President of Venezuela and led a diplomatic coalition against the Socialist Dictator of Venezuela, Nicolas Maduro.
      • Blocked all property of the Venezuelan Government in the jurisdiction of the United States.
      • Cut off the financial resources of the Maduro regime and sanctioned key sectors of the Venezuelan economy exploited by the regime.
      • Brought criminal charges against Nicolas Maduro for his narco-terrorism.
      • Imposed stiff sanctions on the Ortega regime in Nicaragua.
      • Joined together with Mexico and Canada in a successful bid to host the 2026 FIFA World Cup, with 60 matches to be held in the United States.
      • Won bid to host the 2028 Summer Olympics in Los Angeles, California.
  12. Colossal Rebuilding of the Military
    • Rebuilt the military and created the Sixth Branch, the United States Space Force.
      • Completely rebuilt the United States military with over $2.2 trillion in defense spending, including $738 billion for 2020.
      • Secured three pay raises for our service members and their families, including the largest raise in a decade.
      • Established the Space Force, the first new branch of the United States Armed Forces since 1947.
      • Modernized and recapitalized our nuclear forces and missile defenses to ensure they continue to serve as a strong deterrent.
      • Upgraded our cyber defenses by elevating the Cyber Command into a major warfighting command and by reducing burdensome procedural restrictions on cyber operations.
      • Vetoed the FY21 National Defense Authorization Act, which failed to protect our national security, disrespected the history of our veterans and military, and contradicted our efforts to put America first.
    • Defeated terrorists, held leaders accountable for malign actions, and bolstered peace around the world.
      • Defeated 100 percent of ISIS’ territorial caliphate in Iraq and Syria.
      • Freed nearly 8 million civilians from ISIS’ bloodthirsty control, and liberated Mosul, Raqqa, and the final ISIS foothold of Baghuz.
      • Killed the leader of ISIS, Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi, and eliminated the world’s top terrorist, Qasem Soleimani.
      • Created the Terrorist Financing Targeting Center (TFTC) in partnership between the United States and its Gulf partners to combat extremist ideology and threats, and target terrorist financial networks, including over 60 terrorist individuals and entities spanning the globe.
      • Twice took decisive military action against the Assad regime in Syria for the barbaric use of chemical weapons against innocent civilians, including a successful 59 Tomahawk cruise missiles strike.
      • Authorized sanctions against bad actors tied to Syria’s chemical weapons program.
      • Negotiated an extended ceasefire with Turkey in northeast Syria.
    • Addressed gaps in American’s defense-industrial base, providing much-needed updates to improve the safety of our country.
      • Protected America’s defense-industrial base, directing the first whole-of-government assessment of our manufacturing and defense supply chains since the 1950s.
      • Took decisive steps to secure our information and communications technology and services supply chain, including unsafe mobile applications.
      • Completed several multi-year nuclear material removal campaigns, securing over 1,000 kilograms of highly enriched uranium and significantly reducing global nuclear threats.
      • Signed an executive order directing Federal agencies to work together to diminish the capability of foreign adversaries to target our critical electric infrastructure.
      • Established a whole-of-government strategy addressing the threat posed by China’s malign efforts targeting the United States taxpayer-funded research and development ecosystem.
      • Advanced missile defense capabilities and regional alliances.
      • Bolstered the ability of our allies and partners to defend themselves through the sale of aid and military equipment.
      • Signed the largest arms deal ever, worth nearly $110 billion, with Saudi Arabia.
  13. Serving and Protecting Our Veterans
    • Reformed the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) to improve care, choice, and employee accountability.
      • Signed and implemented the VA Mission Act, which made permanent Veterans CHOICE, revolutionized the VA community care system, and delivered quality care closer to home for Veterans.
      • The number of Veterans who say they trust VA services has increased 19 percent to a record 91 percent, an all-time high.
      • Offered same-day emergency mental health care at every VA medical facility, and secured $9.5 billion for mental health services in 2020.
      • Signed the VA Choice and Quality Employment Act of 2017, which ensured that veterans could continue to see the doctor of their choice and wouldn’t have to wait for care.
      • During the Trump Administration, millions of veterans have been able to choose a private doctor in their communities.
      • Expanded Veterans’ ability to access telehealth services, including through the “Anywhere to Anywhere” VA healthcare initiative leading to a 1000 percent increase in usage during COVID-19.
      • Signed the Veterans Affairs Accountability and Whistleblower Protection Act and removed thousands of VA workers who failed to give our Vets the care they have so richly deserve.
      • Signed the Veterans Appeals Improvement and Modernization Act of 2017 and improved the efficiency of the VA, setting record numbers of appeals decisions.
      • Modernized medical records to begin a seamless transition from the Department of Defense to the VA.
      • Launched a new tool that provides Veterans with online access to average wait times and quality-of-care data.
      • The promised White House VA Hotline has fielded hundreds of thousands of calls.
      • Formed the PREVENTS Task Force to fight the tragedy of Veteran suicide.
    • Decreased veteran homelessness, improved education benefits, and achieved record-low veteran unemployment.
      • Signed and implemented the Forever GI Bill, allowing Veterans to use their benefits to get an education at any point in their lives.
      • Eliminated every penny of Federal student loan debt owed by American veterans who are completely and permanently disabled.
      • Compared to 2009, 49 percent fewer veterans experienced homelessness nationwide during 2019.
      • Signed and implemented the HAVEN Act to ensure that Veterans who’ve declared bankruptcy don’t lose their disability payments.
      • Helped hundreds of thousands of military service members make the transition from the military to the civilian workforce, and developed programs to support the employment of military spouses.
      • Placed nearly 40,000 homeless veterans into employment through the Homeless Veterans Reintegration Program.
      • Placed over 600,000 veterans into employment through American Job Center services.
      • Enrolled over 500,000 transitioning service members in over 20,000 Department of Labor employment workshops.
      • Signed an executive order to help Veterans transition seamlessly into the United States Merchant Marine.
  14. Making Communities Safer
    • Signed into law landmark criminal justice reform.
      • Signed the bipartisan First Step Act into law, the first landmark criminal justice reform legislation ever passed to reduce recidivism and help former inmates successfully rejoin society.
      • Promoted second chance hiring to give former inmates the opportunity to live crime-free lives and find meaningful employment.
      • Launched a new “Ready to Work” initiative to help connect employers directly with former prisoners.
      • Awarded $2.2 million to states to expand the use of fidelity bonds, which underwrite companies that hire former prisoners.
      • Reversed decades-old ban on Second Chance Pell programs to provide postsecondary education to individuals who are incarcerated expand their skills and better succeed in the workforce upon re-entry.
      • Awarded over $333 million in Department of Labor grants to nonprofits and local and state governments for reentry projects focused on career development services for justice-involved youth and adults who were formerly incarcerated.
    • Unprecedented support for law-enforcement.
      • In 2019, violent crime fell for the third consecutive year.
      • Since 2016, the violent crime rate has declined over 5 percent and the murder rate has decreased by over 7 percent.
      • Launched Operation Legend to combat a surge of violent crime in cities, resulting in more than 5,500 arrests.
      • Deployed the National Guard and Federal law enforcement to Kenosha to stop violence and restore public safety.
      • Provided $1 million to Kenosha law enforcement, nearly $4 million to support small businesses in Kenosha, and provided over $41 million to support law enforcement to the state of Wisconsin.
      • Deployed Federal agents to save the courthouse in Portland from rioters.
      • Signed an executive order outlining ten-year prison sentences for destroying Federal property and monuments.
      • Directed the Department of Justice (DOJ) to investigate and prosecute Federal offenses related to ongoing violence.
      • DOJ provided nearly $400 million for new law enforcement hiring.
      • Endorsed by the 355,000 members of the Fraternal Order of Police.
      • Revitalized Project Safe Neighborhoods, which brings together Federal, state, local, and tribal law enforcement officials to develop solutions to violent crime.
      • Improved first-responder communications by deploying the FirstNet National Public Safety Broadband Network, which serves more than 12,000 public safety agencies across the Nation.
      • Established a new commission to evaluate best practices for recruiting, training, and supporting law enforcement officers.
      • Signed the Safe Policing for Safe Communities executive order to incentive local police department reforms in line with law and order.
      • Made hundreds of millions of dollars’ worth of surplus military equipment available to local law enforcement.
      • Signed an executive order to help prevent violence against law enforcement officers.
      • Secured permanent funding for the 9/11 Victim Compensation Fund for first responders.
    • Implemented strong measures to stem hate crimes, gun violence, and human trafficking.
      • Signed an executive order making clear that Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 applies to discrimination rooted in anti-Semitism.
      • Launched a centralized website to educate the public about hate crimes and encourage reporting.
      • Signed the Fix NICS Act to keep guns out of the hands of dangerous criminals.
      • Signed the STOP School Violence Act and created a Commission on School Safety to examine ways to make our schools safer.
      • Launched the Foster Youth to Independence initiative to prevent and end homelessness among young adults under the age of 25 who are in, or have recently left, the foster care system.
      • Signed the Trafficking Victims Protection Reauthorization Act, which tightened criteria for whether countries are meeting standards for eliminating trafficking.
      • Established a task force to help combat the tragedy of missing or murdered Native American women and girls.
      • Prioritized fighting for the voiceless and ending the scourge of human trafficking across the Nation, through a whole of government back by legislation, executive action, and engagement with key industries.
      • Created the first-ever White House position focused solely on combating human trafficking.
  15. Cherishing Life and Religious Liberty
    • Steadfastly supported the sanctity of every human life and worked tirelessly to prevent government funding of abortion.
      • Reinstated and expanded the Mexico City Policy, ensuring that taxpayer money is not used to fund abortion globally.
      • Issued a rule preventing Title X taxpayer funding from subsiding the abortion industry.
      • Supported legislation to end late-term abortions.
      • Cut all funding to the United Nations population fund due to the fund’s support for coercive abortion and forced sterilization.
      • Signed legislation overturning the previous administration’s regulation that prohibited states from defunding abortion facilities as part of their family planning programs.
      • Fully enforced the requirement that taxpayer dollars do not support abortion coverage in Obamacare exchange plans.
      • Stopped the Federal funding of fetal tissue research.
      • Worked to protect healthcare entities and individuals’ conscience rights – ensuring that no medical professional is forced to participate in an abortion in violation of their beliefs.
      • Issued an executive order reinforcing requirement that all hospitals in the United States provide medical treatment or an emergency transfer for infants who are in need of emergency medical care—regardless of prematurity or disability.
      • Led a coalition of countries to sign the Geneva Consensus Declaration, declaring that there is no international right to abortion and committing to protecting women’s health.
      • First president in history to attend the March for Life.
    • Stood up for religious liberty in the United States and around the world.
      • Protected the conscience rights of doctors, nurses, teachers, and groups like the Little Sisters of the Poor.
      • First president to convene a meeting at the United Nations to end religious persecution.
      • Established the White House Faith and Opportunity Initiative.
      • Stopped the Johnson Amendment from interfering with pastors’ right to speak their minds.
      • Reversed the previous administration’s policy that prevented the government from providing disaster relief to religious organizations.
      • Protected faith-based adoption and foster care providers, ensuring they can continue to serve their communities while following the teachings of their faith.
      • Reduced burdensome barriers to ensure Native Americans are free to keep spiritually and culturally significant eagle feathers found on their tribal lands.
      • Took action to ensure Federal employees can take paid time off work to observe religious holy days.
      • Signed legislation to assist religious and ethnic groups targeted by ISIS for mass murder and genocide in Syria and Iraq.
      • Directed American assistance toward persecuted communities, including through faith-based programs.
      • Launched the International Religious Freedom Alliance – the first-ever alliance devoted to confronting religious persecution around the world.
      • Appointed a Special Envoy to monitor and combat anti-Semitism.
      • Imposed restrictions on certain Chinese officials, internal security units, and companies for their complicity in the persecution of Uighur Muslims in Xinjiang.
      • Issued an executive order to protect and promote religious freedom around the world.
  16. Safeguarding the Environment
    • Took strong action to protect the environment and ensure clean air and clean water.
      • Took action to protect vulnerable Americans from being exposed to lead and copper in drinking water and finalized a rule protecting children from lead-based paint hazards.
      • Invested over $38 billion in clean water infrastructure.
      • In 2019, America achieved the largest decline in carbon emissions of any country on earth. Since withdrawing from the Paris Climate Accord, the United States has reduced carbon emissions more than any nation.
      • American levels of particulate matter – one of the main measures of air pollution – are approximately five times lower than the global average.
      • Between 2017 and 2019, the air became 7 percent cleaner – indicated by a steep drop in the combined emissions of criteria pollutants.
      • Led the world in greenhouse gas emissions reductions, having cut energy-related CO2 emissions by 12 percent from 2005 to 2018 while the rest of the world increased emissions by 24 percent.
      • In FY 2019 the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) cleaned up more major pollution sites than any year in nearly two decades.
      • The EPA delivered $300 million in Brownfields grants directly to communities most in need including investment in 118 Opportunity Zones.
      • Placed a moratorium on offshore drilling off the coasts of Georgia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Florida.
      • Restored public access to Federal land at Bears Ears National Monument and Grand Staircase-Escalante National Monument.
      • Recovered more endangered or threatened species than any other administration in its first term.
    • Secured agreements and signed legislation to protect the environment and preserve our Nation’s abundant national resources.
      • The USMCA guarantees the strongest environmental protections of any trade agreement in history.
      • Signed the Save Our Seas Act to protect our environment from foreign nations that litter our oceans with debris and developed the first-ever Federal strategic plan to address marine litter.
      • Signed the Great American Outdoors Act, securing the single largest investment in America’s National Parks and public lands in history.
      • Signed the largest public lands legislation in a decade, designating 1.3 million new acres of wilderness.
      • Signed a historic executive order promoting much more active forest management to prevent catastrophic wildfires.
      • Opened and expanded access to over 4 million acres of public lands for hunting and fishing.
      • Joined the One Trillion Trees Initiative to plant, conserve, and restore trees in America and around the world.
      • Delivered infrastructure upgrades and investments for numerous projects, including over half a billion dollars to fix the Herbert Hoover Dike and expanding funding for Everglades restoration by 55 percent.
  17. Expanding Educational Opportunity
    • Fought tirelessly to give every American access to the best possible education.
      • The Tax Cuts and Jobs Act expanded School Choice, allowing parents to use up to $10,000 from a 529 education savings account to cover K-12 tuition costs at the public, private, or religious school of their choice.
      • Launched a new pro-American lesson plan for students called the 1776 Commission to promote patriotic education.
      • Prohibited the teaching of Critical Race Theory in the Federal government.
      • Established the National Garden of American Heroes, a vast outdoor park that will feature the statues of the greatest Americans to ever live.
      • Called on Congress to pass the Education Freedom Scholarships and Opportunity Act to expand education options for 1 million students of all economic backgrounds.
      • Signed legislation reauthorizing the D.C. Opportunity Scholarship program.
      • Issued updated guidance making clear that the First Amendment right to Free Exercise of Religion does not end at the door to a public school.
    • Took action to promote technical education.
      • Signed into law the Strengthening Career and Technical Education for the 21st Century Act, which provides over 13 million students with high-quality vocational education and extends more than $1.3 billion each year to states for critical workforce development programs.
      • Signed the INSPIRE Act which encouraged NASA to have more women and girls participate in STEM and seek careers in aerospace.
      • Allocated no less than $200 million each year in grants to prioritize women and minorities in STEM and computer science education.
    • Drastically reformed and modernized our educational system to restore local control and promote fairness.
      • Restored state and local control of education by faithfully implementing the Every Student Succeeds Act.
      • Signed an executive order that ensures public universities protect First Amendment rights or they will risk losing funding, addresses student debt by requiring colleges to share a portion of the financial risk, and increases transparency by requiring universities to disclose information about the value of potential educational programs.
      • Issued a rule strengthening Title IX protections for survivors of sexual misconduct in schools, and that – for the first time in history – codifies that sexual harassment is prohibited under Title IX.
      • Negotiated historic bipartisan agreement on new higher education rules to increase innovation and lower costs by reforming accreditation, state authorization, distance education, competency-based education, credit hour, religious liberty, and TEACH Grants.
    • Prioritized support for Historically Black Colleges and Universities.
      • Moved the Federal Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCU) Initiative back to the White House.
      • Signed into law the FUTURE Act, making permanent $255 million in annual funding for HBCUs and increasing funding for the Federal Pell Grant program.
      • Signed legislation that included more than $100 million for scholarships, research, and centers of excellence at HBCU land-grant institutions.
      • Fully forgave $322 million in disaster loans to four HBCUs in 2018, so they could fully focus on educating their students.
      • Enabled faith-based HBCUs to enjoy equal access to Federal support.
  18. Combatting the Opioid Crisis
    • Brought unprecedented attention and support to combat the opioid crisis.
      • Declared the opioid crisis a nationwide public health emergency.
      • Secured a record $6 billion in new funding to combat the opioid epidemic.
      • Signed the SUPPORT for Patients and Communities Act, the largest-ever legislative effort to address a drug crisis in our Nation’s history.
      • Launched the Initiative to Stop Opioid Abuse and Reduce Drug Supply and Demand in order to confront the many causes fueling the drug crisis.
      • The Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) awarded a record $9 billion in grants to expand access to prevention, treatment, and recovery services to States and local communities.
      • Passed the CRIB Act, allowing Medicaid to help mothers and their babies who are born physically dependent on opioids by covering their care in residential pediatric recovery facilities.
      • Distributed $1 billion in grants for addiction prevention and treatment.
      • Announced a Safer Prescriber Plan that seeks to decrease the amount of opioids prescriptions filled in America by one third within three years.
      • Reduced the total amount of opioids prescriptions filled in America.
      • Expanded access to medication-assisted treatment and life-saving Naloxone.
      • Launched, a tool to find help for substance abuse.
      • Drug overdose deaths fell nationwide in 2018 for the first time in nearly three decades.
      • Launched the Drug-Impaired Driving Initiative to work with local law enforcement and the driving public at large to increase awareness.
      • Launched a nationwide public ad campaign on youth opioid abuse that reached 58 percent of young adults in America.
      • Since 2016, there has been a nearly 40 percent increase in the number of Americans receiving medication-assisted treatment.
      • Approved 29 state Medicaid demonstrations to improve access to opioid use disorder treatment, including new flexibility to cover inpatient and residential treatment.
      • Approved nearly $200 million in grants to address the opioid crisis in severely affected communities and to reintegrate workers in recovery back into the workforce.
    • Took action to seize illegal drugs and punish those preying on innocent Americans.
      • In FY 2019, ICE HSI seized 12,466 pounds of opioids including 3,688 pounds of fentanyl, an increase of 35 percent from FY 2018.
      • Seized tens of thousands of kilograms of heroin and thousands of kilograms of fentanyl since 2017.
      • The Department of Justice (DOJ) prosecuted more fentanyl traffickers than ever before, dismantled 3,000 drug trafficking organizations, and seized enough fentanyl to kill 105,000 Americans.
      • DOJ charged more than 65 defendants collectively responsible for distributing over 45 million opioid pills.
      • Brought kingpin designations against traffickers operating in China, India, Mexico, and more who have played a role in the epidemic in America.
      • Indicted major Chinese drug traffickers for distributing fentanyl in the U.S for the first time ever, and convinced China to enact strict regulations to control the production and sale of fentanyl.

From: (1/18/2021)

25.20.2 Obama

  1. Senior ISIS information minister Wael Adel Salman killed in Syria after U.S. drone strike
    • Islamic State (ISIS)
    • Sep 16 2016
  2. Marine national monument that will permanently protect nearly 5,000 square miles of underwater canyons and mountains off the coast of New England designated by President Obama
    • Environment
    • Sep 15 2016
  3. Median household income up 5.2% for the first time in over seven years due to economic policies put in to place that benefit lower and middle income Americans
    • Business & Economy
    • Sep 13 2016
  4. Poverty rate at its lowest level since 1999 due to economic policies put in to place that benefit lower and middle income Americans
    • Business & Economy
    • Sep 13 2016
  5. Senior ISIS leader Abu Muhammad al-Adnani killed in Syria after U.S. airstrike
    • Islamic State (ISIS)
    • Aug 30 2016
  6. Marine national monument that will permanently protect 582,578 square miles of land and sea in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands designated by President Obama
    • Environment
    • Aug 26 2016
  7. 87,500 acres of wildlife, forests, rivers and mountains in Maine’s North Woods designated as a national monument that will be protected by the National Park Service
    • Endangered Species
    • Aug 24 2016
  8. Scientists researching the potential benefits of medical marijuana can apply to grow their own marijuana after the DEA lifted the ban limiting the number of institutions allowed grow the plant
    • Medical Marijuana
    • Aug 11 2016
  9. 214 prisoners serving excessive and unfair prison sentences for nonviolent crimes have sentences commuted
    • Pardons
    • Aug 03 2016
  10. Transgender Americans able to serve openly in the military after the Department of Defense lifted a ban prohibiting them from serving
    • Civil & Human Rights
    • Jul 01 2016
  11. All Freedom of Information request responses to be posted online after a successful pilot program was permanately expanded and signed into law
    • Freedom of Press
    • Jun 30 2016
  12. Students who were defrauded or had their contract breached by a college or university can more easily petition to have their student loans forgiven under new rules by the Department of Education
    • Higher Education
    • Jun 13 2016
  13. 42 prisoners serving excessive and unfair prison sentences for nonviolent crimes have sentences commuted
    • Sentencing
    • Jun 03 2016
  14. President Obama becomes the first President to visit Hiroshima laying a wreath at Peace Memorial Park
    • International Relations
    • May 27 2016
  15. Senior Taliban leader Mullah Akhtar Mansour killed in Pakistan after U.S. drone strike
    • Taliban
    • May 22 2016
  16. Nutritional labels updated and modernized to better inform consumers of what they are purchasing under new labeling rules by the Food and Drug Administration
    • Health & Welfare
    • May 20 2016
  17. Suggested maximum daily sugar amount added to nutritional labels for the first time under new labeling rules by the Food and Drug Administration
    • Health & Welfare
    • May 20 2016
  18. First openly gay Secretary of the Army confirmed unanimously by the Senate
    • Civil & Human Rights
    • May 18 2016
  19. Over four million Americans to qualify for overtime pay if they work more than 40 hours a week under new rule by the Labor Department that raised the salary threshold from $23,660 to $47,476 per year
    • Labor
    • May 17 2016
  20. Environmentally dangerous methane emissions from the oil and gas sector regulated for the first time under new rule by the Environmental Protection Agency
    • Fossil Fuels
    • May 12 2016
  21. Transgender students in public schools must be allowed to use the bathrooms of their gender identity under new rule by the Obama Administration
    • Discrimination
    • May 12 2016
  22. American bison named as the first national mammal after the National Bison Legacy Act was signed into law
    • Government
    • May 09 2016
  23. Senior ISIS leader Abu Sa'ad al-Sudani killed in Syria after U.S. airstrike
    • Islamic State (ISIS)
    • May 05 2016
  24. Stonewall Inn named the first national monument honoring the history of gays and lesbians in the United States
    • Civil & Human Rights
    • May 04 2016
  25. 40 ISIS operatives responsible for multiple attacks in Europe and the Middle East killed by Delta Force and Navy SEAL commandos during various raids
    • Islamic State (ISIS)
    • Apr 27 2016
  26. First woman on American currency in more than 100 years will be Harriet Tubman after the Treasury Department announced she will replace Andrew Jackson on the $20 bill
    • Women's Rights
    • Apr 20 2016
  27. Individuals investing in retirement accounts protected under new rule requiring financial advisers to provide investment advice that puts their client's best interests above all else
    • Financial Regulation
    • Apr 15 2016
  28. 387,000 Americans unable to to work due to a permanent disability have their student loan debts forgiven by the Department of Education
    • Education
    • Apr 12 2016
  29. Homeowners taken advantage of by deceptive mortgage practices from Goldman Sachs to receive monetary relief after agreement between the bank and the Justice Department
    • Laws & Crime
    • Apr 11 2016
  30. American banks must identify the owners of shell companies they do business with under a new rule by the Treasury Department
    • Monetary Policy
    • Apr 10 2016
  31. Gender neutral restrooms available for White House staff and visitors so individuals can use the bathroom that conforms to their gender identity
    • Discrimination
    • Apr 07 2016
  32. Senior Al-Qaeda leader Abu Firas al-Suri killed in Syria after U.S. air strike
    • Al-Qaeda
    • Apr 04 2016
  33. Sentences reduced and adapted for 61 people serving excessive and unfair punishment in federal prison for nonviolent crimes
    • Sentencing
    • Mar 30 2016
  34. ISIS Finance Minister Haji Iman killed during U.S. operation
    • Islamic State (ISIS)
    • Mar 25 2016
  35. Hazardous industrial material crystalline silica which is known to pose serious risks of incurable lung disease and lung cancer regulated to lower the allowable exposure limit
    • Health & Welfare
    • Mar 23 2016
  36. Workers must be informed of their employers and its contractors direct or indirect persuading against forming a union under a new rule by the Labor Department
    • Union Workers
    • Mar 23 2016
  37. Cuban citizens witnessed Cuban President Raul Castro take questions from the media for the first time during press conference with President Obama
    • International Relations
    • Mar 22 2016
  38. Public Wi-Fi areas in Cuba greatly expanded since American telecommunication companies were allowed to do business in the country
    • International Relations
    • Mar 20 2016
  39. President Obama becomes the first U.S. President to visit Cuba since 1928 after successful diplomatic negotiations
    • International Relations
    • Mar 20 2016
  40. General Lori Robinson becomes first woman nominated to lead a combatant command in the United States military
    • Women's Rights
    • Mar 18 2016
  41. Senior ISIS leader Omar al-Shishani and 12 additional ISIS fighters killed in Syria after a series of U.S. drone and manned aircraft strikes
    • Islamic State (ISIS)
    • Mar 15 2016
  42. Offshore drilling off the Atlantic Coast prohibited after local communities voiced strong opposition
    • Offshore Drilling
    • Mar 15 2016
  43. Cubans may open U.S. bank accounts under new rule by the Treasury and Commerce Departments
    • International Relations
    • Mar 15 2016
  44. U.S. citizens may travel to Cuba for people-to-people educational reasons under new rule by the Treasury and Commerce Departments
    • International Relations
    • Mar 15 2016
  45. 150 Al-Shabaab fighters killed at Somalia training camp after U.S. air strike
    • Terrorism
    • Mar 08 2016
  46. Senior Al-Shabaab leader Yusuf Ali Ugas killed in Somalia after U.S. air strike
    • Terrorism
    • Mar 05 2016
  47. Senior Al-Shabaab leader Mohamed Mire killed in Somalia after U.S. air strike
    • Terrorism
    • Mar 05 2016
  48. Senior unnamed ISIS operative captured and detained during U.S. led raid in Iraq
    • Islamic State (ISIS)
    • Mar 03 2016
  49. Moderates winning a majority in Iran's parliament and Assembly of Experts partially attributed to improved diplomacy and landmark nuclear deal with major world powers
    • International Relations
    • Feb 29 2016
  50. Senior ISIS leader Noureddine Chouchane and over thirty ISIS militants killed in Libya after U.S. airstrikes
    • Islamic State (ISIS)
    • Feb 19 2016
  51. American citizens may fly to Cuba for the first time in 50 years after the two countries sign an agreement restoring commercial air travel
    • International Relations
    • Feb 16 2016
  52. All active duty service members eligible for 12 weeks of fully paid maternity leave through new rule by the Department of Defense
    • Military & Defense
    • Jan 28 2016
  53. Juveniles in federal prisons can no longer be placed in solitary confinement after executive order by President Obama
    • Prisons
    • Jan 25 2016
  54. Consumers who reduce their electricity use during peak hours receive a discount through new rule by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission
    • Energy
    • Jan 25 2016
  55. Four United States citizens imprisoned in Iran released after a prisoner swap between the United States and Iran
    • International Relations
    • Jan 16 2016
  56. Ten Yemeni detainees held at Guantanamo Bay for fourteen years transferred to Oman
    • Guantanamo Bay
    • Jan 14 2016
  57. New coal mining leases on public lands halted under new rule by the Department of Interior
    • Fossil Fuels
    • Jan 14 2016
  58. Ten Navy sailors detained by Iran after accidentally sailing into their waters freed within 24 hours through diplomatic negotiatio